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977.501  M*l-,. 






3  1833  01052  8054 



♦ ^m^ 



Including  an  account  of  the  Cities,  Towns  and 
Villages  of  the  County 





C.  F.  COOPER  &  CO. 




After  more  thau  half  a  century  of  growth  since  its  organiza- 
tion as  a  county,  it  seemed  fitting  that  an  historical  account  of 
its  settlement,  development,  its  people  and  institutions,  should  be 
made  at  this  time  and  preserved;  its  primary  importance  is  the 
placing  in  book  form  and  for  all  time  the  earlier  historical  inci- 
dents surrounding  the  settlements  of  the  various  towns,  cities  and 
villages,  and  that  the  time  was  almost  too  late,  and  the  work  too 
long  neglected,  became  very  apparent  to  the  editors  when  the 
search  for  material  began,  for  with  the  passing  of  the  early  set- 
tlers, comparatively  few  of  them  still  live  in  different  parts  of 
the  county,  have  gone  forever  the  opportunity  to  get  early  facts 
in  some  instances. 

To  properly  and  adequately  write  the  history  of  Eau  Claire 
county  has  been  a  task  encompassed  with  tremendous  difficulties ; 
it  has  been  accomplished  after  laborious  research,  and  the  co-op- 
eration of  many  of  its  oldest  citizens,  whose  aid  the  editors  ac- 
knowledge most  gratefully,  for,  without  it,  some  parts  of  this 
work  Avould  have  been  impossible. 

Eau  Claire  county,  from  its  humble  beginning,  having  been, 
through  the  untiring  energy  and  perseverance  of  its  pioneers, 
brought  to  be  one  of  the  finest  counties  in  the  state  of  Wisconsin, 
holds  indeed  a  wonderful  .story  of  progress.  Its  cities  built  to 
stay,  whose  schools,  churches  and  institutions  are  equal  to  any 
in  the  state,  whose  people  are  progressive  and  possess  a  fine  sense 
of  civic  pride,  are  alone  worthy  of  the  efforts  of  the  historian: 
in  addition  to  that,  its  beautiful  little  villages,  its  rich  agricultural 
resources  and  dairying  interests,  place  it  in  the  front  rank  in 
many  respects. 

It  has  been  the  intention  of  the  publishers  from  the  start  to 
publish  a  complete  and  comprehensive  history  of  the  county.  They 
have  endeavored  to  cover  every  representative  subject  and  relate 
the  stoi-y  of  all  the  various  interests  impartially,  as  was  within 
the  power  of  the  editors  to  obtain.  That  there  are  some  omissions 
on  some  subjects  there  can  be  no  doubt,  but  the  instances  of  this 
are  almost  wholly  brought  about  by  parties  called  upon  and  in 
whose  possession  facts  alone  Avere.  have  caused  such  omissions. 


The  publishers  of  the  history  desire  to  acknowledge  the  cor- 
dial and  valuable  assistance  which  has  been  accorded  them  in  its 
compilation  by  many  citizens  of  Eau  Claire  county.  It  has  been 
a  help  deeply  appreciated  and  deserves  due  recognition.  Among 
those  to  whom  special  thanks  are  due  is  Hon.  "William  P.  Bailey, 
James  H.  Waggoner,  Percy  C.  Atkinson,  ]\Iarshall  Cousins,  Walde- 
mar  Ager,  Reinhold  Liebau,  Miss  A.  E.  Kidder.  W.  H.  Schulz, 
W.  W.  Bartlett,  L.  A.  Brace,  J.  P.  Welsh.  Frank  L.  Clark,  C.  W. 
Lockwood,  G.  F.  Caldwell,  W.  A.  Clark. 


All  the  biographical  sketches  published  in  this  history  were 
submitted  to  their  respective  subjects,  or  to  the  subscribers  from 
whom  the  facts  were  primarilj'  obtained,  for  their  approval  or 
correction  before  going  to  press,  and  a  reasonable  time  was  al- 
lowed in  each  case  for  the  return  of  the  typewritten  copy.  Most 
of  them  were  returned  to  us  within  the  time  allotted,  or  before  the 
work  was  printed,  after  being  corrected  or  revised,  and  these, 
therefore,  may  be  regarded  as  reasonably  accurate. 

A  few,  however,  were  not  returned  to  us,  and  as  we  have  no 
means  of  knowing  whether  they  contain  errors  or  not,  we  cannot 
vouch  for  their  accuracy.  In  justice  to  our  readers,  and  to  ren- 
der this  work  valuable  for  reference  purposes,  we  have  indicated 
these  uncorrected  sketches  by  a  small  asterisk  (*)  placed  imme- 
diately after  the  name  of  the  subject. 





1.     Islaud  of  AViseoiisin 9 

II.     Coming  of  the  Whites 11 

III.  Carver 's  Cave  Found 18 

IV.  Indian  Treaties 20 

V.     The  Red  Men 23 

VI.     IIow  Eau  Claire  County  Was  Made 29 

VII.     Townships 33 

VIII.     Fruits  and  Berries 43 

IX.     Agriculture  and  Dairying 49 

X.     Eau  Claire  Count}'  Training  School 54 

XI.     Eau  Claire  County  in  the  Civil  War 56 

XII.     Grand  Army  of  the  Republic 193 

XIII.  Organized  Militia 199 

XIV.  Griffin  Rifles    206 

XV.     Spanish-American  War 218 

XVI.     Courts  and  Legal  Profession 262 

XVII.     Medical  Fraternity 304 

XVIII.     Old  Settlers'  Association 345 

XIX.     Asylum  and  Home  for  the  Poor 347 

XX.  Eau  Claire  Prior  to  Its  Incorporation  as  a  City. .  349 

XXI.     Lumber  Interests 373 

XXII.     Reign  of  Terror  in  Eau  Claire 379 

XXIII.  The  City  of  Eau  Claire 381 

XXIV.  Eau  Claire  Fire  Department 387 

XXV.     Public  Schools  of  Eau  Claire 407 

XXVI.     Floods   436 

XXVII.     City  Parks 438 

XXVTII.     The  Children's  Home 441 

XXIX.     Eau  Claire  Public  Library 443 

XXX.     Post  Office 445 

XXXT.     Societies  and  Clubs 448 

XXXII.     Young  Men's  Christian  Association 456 

XXXIIL     Eau  Claire  Business  Houses 461 

XXXIV.     Eau  Claire  Industries 474 

XXXV.     The  Railroads 489 

XXXVI.  Eau  Claire  Street  Railway  and  Interurban  Lines  497 



XXXVII.     Newspapers  of  the  County 499 

XXXVIII.     Eau  Claire  Churches 511 

XXXIX.     Banks  of  Eau  Claire  County 536 

XL.     Hotels 540 

XLI.     Germanism   553 

XLII.     Norwegians  574 

XLIII.     City  of  Augusta 582 

XLIV.     Augusta  Churches 598 

XLV.     Village  of  Fairehild 615 

XLVI.     Pall  Creek 619 

XL VII.     Biography   .  . . 623 




'■Geologists  assert  with  positiveness  that  ages  ago  the  area 
tliat  is  now  the  north  central  portion  of  Wisconsin  and  the  upper 
peninsula  of  Michigan  was  an  island  of  great  altitude.  They 
trace  the  physical  history  of  Wisconsin  back  even  to  a  state  of 
complete  submergence  beneath  the  waters  of  the  ancient  ocean." 
"Let  an  extensive  but  shallow  sea  covering  tlie  whole  of  the 
present  territory  of  the  state  be  pictured  to  the  mind,"  suggests 
the  eminent  geologist,  T.  C  Chamberlin,  "and  let  it  be  imagined 
to  be  depositing  mud  and  sand  as  at  the  present  day.  The  thick- 
ness of  the  sediment  was  immense,  being  measured  by  thousands 
of  feet.  In  the  progress  of  time,  an  enormous  pressure  attended 
by  heat  was  brought  to  bear  upon  them  laterally  or  edgewise 
by  which  thej'  were  folded  and  crumpled,  and  forced  out  of  the 
water,  giving  rise  to  an  island,  the  nucleus  of  Wisconsin.  The 
force  producing  this  upheaval  is  believed  to  have  arisen  from 
the  cooling  and  contraction  of  the  globe.  The  foldings  may  be 
imaged  as  the  wrinkles  of  a  shrinking  earth."  The  climate 
was  tropical,  incessant  showers  crumbled  the  soil  on  top  and  the 
ocean  waves  crumbled  the  sides.  This  erosion  through  unnum- 
bered ages  began  to  level  the  mountainous  island  till  the  sediment 
washed  down  on  all  sides,  cut  down  the  height  and  added  to  the 
area.  Thus  as  the  altitude  was  cut  down,  the  area  expanded. 
Soon  little  outlying  islands  or  reefs  were  formed  that  in  time 
became  attached  to  the  parent  isle.  Ages  passed,  the  crust  of  the 
earth  yielding  to  the  tremendous  pressure  beneath,  opened  into 
fissures  which  were  pierced  by  masses  of  molten  rock  holding 
the  elements  which  later  chemical  processes  have  converted  into 
rich  mineral  ledges.  Thus  by  continued  upheavals  and  erosions, 
the  surface  and  the  length  and  breadth  of  this  ancient  island  of 
Wisconsin  was  subjected  to  constant  change.  After  the  upheav- 
als that  resulted  in  deposits  of  iron  and  copper,  and  accumula- 
tions of  sandstone  miles  in  thickness,  came  a  great  period  of  ero- 


sion.  To  the  disintegrations  thus  washed  into  the  water  were 
added  immense  accumulations  of  the  remains  of  marine  life.  The 
casts  of  numerous  trilobites  found  in  Wisconsin  are  relics  of  this 
age.  Immense  beds  of  sandstone  with  layers  of  limestone  and 
shale  were  formed.  The  waters  acting  on  the  copper  and  iron 
of  the  Lake  Supei'ior  region  gave  the  sandstone  deposit  there  its 
tint  of  red.  On  the  southern  end  of  the  island,  the  sandstones 
lack  this  element  and  they  are  to  this  day  light  colored. 

Next  came  the  great  ice  age.  One  monster  stream  of  ice 
plowed  along  the  eastern  edge  and  hollowed  the  bed  of  Lake 
Michigan ;  another  scooped  out  Lake  Superior  and  penetrated 
into  Minnesota,  Avhile  between  these  prodigious  prongs  of  ice 
one  of  lesser  size  bored  its  way  along  Green  Bay  and  do-mi  the 
valley  of  the  Fox.  When  warmer  days  came,  the  glaciers  melted 
and  the  water  filled  numerous  depressions  scooped  out  in  the 
early  irresistible  progress  of  the  vast  masses.  Thus  were  foi'med 
the  2,000  or  more  lakes  that  make  of  Wisconsin  a  summer  para- 
dise. The  warmth  that  melted  the  ice  to  water  also  brought  forth 
the  vegetation  to  cover  the  nakedness  of  the  land,  the  forests 
grew,  and  "man  came  upon  the  scene." 



In  1(518,  Jean  Nieolet,  son  of  a  Pari.sian  mail  carrier,  came 
from  Cherbourg,  Normandy,  to  Place  Royale,  now  Montreal, 
Canada.  He  possessed  sterling  character,  abounding  energy  and 
great  religious  enthusiasm.  Champlain,  the  restless  navigator, 
had  passed  fifteen  strenuous  years  in  exploring  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  Ottawa  rivers.  Lake  Huron  and  Hudson  Bay.  He  now  sent 
th(!  newcomer  to  stay  among  the  Algonquins  of  Isle  des  Allu- 
metles  on  the  Ottawa  river  to  learn  their  language  and  customs 
and  share  their  hardships,  aud  then  to  dwell  with  the  Nipissings 
until  1633.  Then  Champlain,  governor  of  Canada,  recalled  him 
and  made  him  commissary  and  Indian  interpreter  to  the  one  hun- 
dred associates,  with  Quebec  as  his  residence.  He  had  now  served 
his  apprenticeship  and  later  was  selected  by  Champlain  to  make 
a  journey  to  the  Winnebagoes  and  to  solve  the  problem  of  a  near 
I'oute  to  China.  The  tapper  Mississippi  had  not  been  discovered, 
nothing  was  known  of  a  vast  land  toward  the  west,  and  it  was 
believed  that  a  few  days'  journey  would  reach  China.  This  was 
in  July,  1634.  Seven  Hurons  accompanied  him,  and  in  a  birch- 
bark  canoe  they  passed  along  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Huron 
and  at  Sault  St!  Marie  set  foot  on  land  which  is  now  part  of 
Michigan,  and  discovered  the  lake  of  that  name.  Steering  his 
canoe  along  the  northern  shore  of  Green  Bay,  he  thought  he  had 
reached  China.  This  was  about  fourteen  years  later  than  the 
landing  of  the  Pilgrims  at  Plymouth  Rock.  Nieolet  had  met  sev- 
eral Indian  tribes,  and  now  the  Menomonies  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Menomonie  river.  He  was  now  on  Wisconsin  soil,  its  discoverer, 
and  the  first  white  man  there.  One  of  his  Hurons  had  been  sent 
forward  to  announce  his  coming  as  a  mission  of  peace  to  the  sup- 
posed celestials.  Arrayed  in  their  gorgeous  mandarin  robe,  he 
advanced  to  meet  the  crowd  with  a  pistol  in  each  hand  which  he 
fired  into  the  air  one  after  the  other.  The  chiefs  called  him 
"Thunder  Beaver."  Four  thousand  chiefs  of  different  tribes 


iu  council,  each  chief  giving  a  feast  at  which  Nicolet 
explained  the  benefits  to  be  gained  by  their  trading  with  the 
French  colony  at  Quebec.  After  a  rest,  he  journeyed  through 
regions  of  wild  rice  marshes  until  he  reached  the  Mascoutins. 
Had  he  but  known  it,  a  journey  of  three  days  would  have  taken 
him  to  the  Wisconsin  river  and  theuce  he  could  have  drifted 
down  to  the  "Great  Water."  But  he  proceeded  southward  to- 
wards the  Illinois  country  and  thus  missed  discovering  the  upper 
Mississippi,  which  Joliet  found  thirty-nine  years  later.  After 
a  visit  among  the  Illinois  and  kindred  tribes,  Nicolet  returned 
to  the  Green  Bay  country,  and  when  spring  made  canoeing  pos- 
sible, to  Montreal.  Six  months  later  the  great  Champlain  "Father 
of  New  France"  died.  Troubles  among  the  Indians  in  Canada 
kept  his  successors  from  following  up  these  researches  in  the 
West,  but  the  gallant  Nicolet  had  "blazed  the  path"  which  Kadis- 
son  was  to  follow  in  twenty-five  years. 

The  death  of  Nicolet  is  a  pathetic  story.  After  his  return  to 
Canada,  he  spent  much  of  his  time  in  ministering  to  the  sick  and 
in  official  duties  at  Three  Rivers  and  Quebec,  where  he  served  as 
commissary  and  interpreter,  being  greatly  beloved  by  Frenchmen 
and  Indians.  One  evening  word  was  brought  that  Algonquins 
were  torturing  an  Indian  prisoner.  To  prevent  this,  he  entered  a 
launch  to  go  to  the  place  with  several  companions.  A  tempest 
upset  the  frail  boat,  the  men  clung  to  it  till  one  by  one  they  were 
torn  from  it  by  the  waves.  As  Nicolet  was  about  to  be  swept 
away,  he  called  to  his  companion,  "I'm  going  to  God.  I  com- 
mend to  you  my  wife  and  daughter."  In  1660  two  explorers, 
Radisson  and  Grosseilliers,  returned  to  Montreal  with  the  tale  of 
their  journey  to  the  Lake  Superior  region.  They  had  also  visited 
the  head  waters  of  the  Black  river  in  Wisconsin,  and  the  Huron 
village  on  the  head  waters  of  what  apparently  was  the  Chippewa 
river.  In  their  second  voyage  on  the  shore  of  Chequamegon  Bay, 
they  constructed  the  first  habitation  ever  built  by  white  men  in 
Wisconsin.  A  little  fort  of  stakes  surrounded  by  a  cord  on  which 
were  "tyed  small  bells  (wch  weare  senteryes)."  It  is  believed 
that  the  two  Frenchmen  wintered  in  the  neighborhood  of  Mil- 
waukee and  possibly  Chicago  in  1658  and  '59.  After  many 
adventures  among  the  Sioux  and  at  Hudson's  bay,  they  returnea 
to  Montreal.  Wavering  in  allegiance  between  the  French  and 
English  as  best  suited  their  interests,  they  finally  made  England 
their  home  and  died  in  that  country.  The  account  of  the  perilous 
journeys  of  these  adventurous  men  has  been  gathered  from  a 
manuscript  written  by  Radisson  when  he  was  iu  England.     This 


Una  n  curious  liistoiy.  It  was  not  written  for  publication,  hut 
to  interest  King  Charles  in  the  schemes  of  these  renegade  Frencli- 
men  to  help  tlie  English  wrest  the  Hudson  Bay  country  from 
French  control.  They  did  interest  Clint  Rupert,  and  the  found- 
ing of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  was  the  result. 

This  journal  of  Radissou's  came  into  the  possession  of  Samuel 
Pepys,  author  of  the  well  known  "Pepys  Diary,"  who  was  sec- 
retary of  the  admiralty.  After  his  death  in  1703,  many  of  his 
valuable  collections  were  sadly  neglected.  Some  went  into  waste 
paper  baskets,  some  into  London  shops,  and  in  one  of  these  in 
1750  this  .journal  was  picked  up  by  a  man  who  recognized  its 
value  and  placed  it  in  a  British  libraiy.  There  it  slumbered  until 
1885  when  the  Prince  Society  of  Boston  published  it  in  a  limited 
edition.     Only  two  copies  are  owned  in  Wisconsin. 

Next  came  the  reign  of  the  forest  ranger,  the  "Coureur  de 
bois."  New  Prance  held  a  host  of  soldiers  of  fortune,  younger 
sons  of  the  nobility  and  disbanded  soldiers,  who,  with  no  ties 
to  bind  them  to  domestic  hearthstones,  turned  the  prows  of  their 
birchbark  canoes  westward,  and  with  utter  disregard  of  hazards 
that  threatened  and  hardships  that  must  be  endured,  penetrated 
to  the  most  remote  regions  of  the  lake  country.  For  a  century 
and  a  half  the  forest  ranger  and  the  fur  trader  were  the  most 
potent  factors  in  the  discoveries  that  preceded  settlement.  Unlike 
the  sturd}^  Saxon,  whose  meeting  witli  the  aborigines  meant  the 
survival  of  the  fittest,  the  easy-going  Frenchman  did  not  seek  to 
crowd  the  Indian  from  his  place.  Instead,  he  adapted  himself 
with  the  customs  and  habits  of  the  red  man,  and  became  half 
Indian  liimself,  danced  with  the  braves,  smoked  the  calumet  at 
the  councils  of  the  tribe,  or  wooed  and  won  the  dusky  maidens 
of  the  woods. 

After  a  time,  the  French  authorities  tried  to  suppress  these 
lawless  rangers  of  the  woods,  deeming  their  barter  for  furs  an 
infringement  on  the  rights  of  the  government.  Severe  repressive 
measures  did  not  deter  the  unlicensed  traffic,  and  then  the  author- 
ities tried  to  regulate  it  by  stipulating  how  many  canoes  would 
be  permitted  to  engage  in  it.  There  were  three  men  to  each 
canoe.  Despite  their  disregard  of  law,  the  rangers  proved  of 
great  service  to  the  government,  for  wherever  they  went,  they 
made  friends  of  the  Indian.  This  friendship  for  the  French 
remained  steadfast  in  the  case  of  every  Algonquin  tribe  but  one — 
the  Pox  Indians  of  "Wisconsin.  The  lawless  coureur  de  bois  thus 
became  the  advance  guard  who  spread  for  Prance  the  great 
arteries  of  trade  in  the  western  country.     Of  this  company  of 


eoureiu-s  de  bois  whose  favorite  abiding  place  was  Wisconsin, 
none  became  as  famous  as  Nicholas  Perrot.  The  oldest  memorial 
in  Wisconsin  today  of  the  white  man's  occupation  here  is  a 
soleil  wrought  in  silver  and  presented  by  Perrot  to  the  Jesuit 
mission  at  Green  Bay  in  1686.  This  ancient  relic  was  unearthed 
by  workmen  ninety-five  years  ago  while  digging  a  foundation, 
and  is  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society 
at  Madison.  Long  before  the  thought  of  giving  to  the  mission  on 
the  Fox  this  Catholic  emblem,  Perrot  had  become  familiar  with 
the  region  aroimd  Green  Bay.  In  his  earlier  years,  he  attached 
himself  to  the  wandering  missionaries  as  a  hunter  to  provide 
for  their  wants  while  they  were  threading  the  woods  in  search  of 
converts.  He  was  twenty-four  years  old  when  in  1665  he  made 
the  acquaintance  of  the  Wisconsin  Indians  and  obtained  an  ex- 
traordinary influence  over  them.  It  was  of  the  greatest  impor- 
tance to  French  interests  that  the  western  Indians  should  remain 
at  peace  Avith  each  other,  and  the  authorities  at  Montreal  in- 
trusted to  Perrot  the  delicate  role  of  peacemaker.  He  found  in 
what  is  now  northwestern  Wisconsin  "a  race  unsteady  as  aspens, 
and  fierce  as  wild-cats;  full  of  mutual  jealousies,  without  rulers 
and  without  laws."  Perrot  succeeded  well  in  pacifying  the 
unruly  nomads  of  forest  and  prairie.  He  built  a  number  of  rude 
stockades  or  forts  in  Wisconsin.  One  was  Fort  St.  Antoine  on 
the  Wisconsin  shore  of  Lake  Pepin,  traces  of  which  fort  werb 
visible  four  decades  ago;  another  was  near  the  present  site  of 
Trempeleau  where  but  a  few  years  since  was  discovered  the 
hearth  and  fireplace  that  he  had  built  two  hundred  years  before. 
He  also  built  a  fort  near  the  lead  mines  which  he  discovered 
while  traveling  among  the  tribes  to  prevent  an  alliance  with  the 
Iroquois  who  were  friendly  to  the  English.  When  in  1671  the 
French  commander  St.  Lusson  formally  took  possession  of  the 
entire  Avestern  country  in  the  name  of  "Louis  XIV,"  the  mag- 
nificent, fourteen  tribes  were  represented,  gathered  hither  bj^ 
Perrot  at  Sault  Ste  Marie.  The  ceremony  was  elaborate ;  a  huge 
wooden  cross  was  surrounded  by  the  splendidly  dressed  officers 
and  their  soldiers,  and  led  by  the  black-gowned  Jesuit  priests 
of  the  company,  the  uncovered  Frenchmen  chanted  the  Seventh 
Century  hymn,  beginning  thus:  "Vexilla  Regis  Proderunt  Fulget 
criicis  mystei'ium,"  etc.  As  the  sound  of  their  hoarse  voices 
died  away,  St.  Lusson  advanced  to  a  post  erected  near  the  cross 
and  as  the  royal  arms  of  France  engraved  on  a  tablet  of  lead 
were  nailed  thereon,  he  lifted  a  sod,  bared  his  SAVord  and  dramati- 
cally took  possession  of  the  soil  in  the  name  of  the  Grand  Mon- 


arque,  Louis  XIV,  styled  "The  Magnificent."  St.  Lusson,  in 
taking  possession,  claimed  for  the  king  of  France  "Lakes  Huron 
and  Superior,  the  Island  of  Manitoulin  and  all  countries,  rivers, 
lakes  and  streams  contiguous  and  ad.jacent  thereto;  both  those 
which  have  been  discovered  aud  those  which  may  be  discovered 
hereafter  in  all  their  length  and  breadth,  bounded  on  the  one  side 
by  the  seas  of  the  North  and  of  the  "West,  and  on  the  other  by  the 
South  sea."  "Long  live  the  king,"  came  from  the  brazen  throats 
of  the  soldiers  as  the  ceremony  Avas  concluded,  and  the  primitive 
savages  howled  in  sympathy.  Hardly  had  St.  Lusson 's  gorgeous 
pageant  come  to  a  conclusion,  when  the  Indians  celebrated  on 
their  own  aecouut  by  stealing  the  royal  arms.  When  Rene  Men- 
ard, a  Jesuit  missionary,  came  to  the  wilds  of  Wisconsin  in  1660, 
he  was  already  an  old  man,  and  his  life  was  soou  sacrificed  with 
hardships  and  the  brutalities  of  the  Indians.  A  band  of  Indians 
moi-e  compassionate  than  those  among  whom  he  had  first  jour- 
neyed took  him  to  their  wintering  station  at  Keweenaw  bay  on 
the  south  shore,  where  he  started  a  mission.  Later  he  heard  of 
distant  pagan  tribes  to  be  brought  to  Christianity,  and  under- 
took the  journey  to  find  them  in  July,  1661,  with  a  French  com- 
panion and  a  party  of  Indians.  Before  long,  the  latter  brutall.y 
abandoned  the  two  Frenchmen.  Father  Menard  became  lost  Avhile 
following  his  companions,  and  the  cause  of  his  death  remains  a 
mystery,  though  his  cassock  and  kettle  were  found  later  in  an  In- 
dian lodge.  In  1665,  Piere  Claude  Allouez  was  appointed  to  the 
Ottawa  mission  in  Menard's  place.  He  went  to  the  village  of  the 
Chippewas  at  Chequamigon,  selected  a  site  and  built  a  wigwam  of 
bark.  This  was  the  first  mission  established  in  Wisconsin  and 
was  also  a  trading  post.  Here  Allouez  remained  four  years.  In 
1670,  having  been  joined  by  two  other  priests,  they  visited  Green 
Bay  and  established  the  mission  of  St.  Xavier.  Father  IMarcpiette 
who  succeeded  Allouez  at  Chequamigon,  also  found  it  a  hard 
field.  The  Indians  were  a  hostile  tribe;  battles  were  frequent, 
and  when  defeated  tribes  sought  refuge  on  the  Island  of  Michili- 
mackinac,  Marcpiette  accompanied  them  and  founded  the  mission 
of  St.  Ignace  on  the  opposite  main  land.  Two  years  later  he 
went  with  Joliet  on  his  expedition  to  the  Mississippi. 

Louis  Hennepin  and  his  companions  appear  to  have  been  the 
first  white  men  to  traverse  the  Chippewa  river  from  its  mouth 
northward.  This  was  in  1680.  In  1767,  Jonathan  Carver  fol- 
lowed him.  Jonathan  Carver  was  a  Connecticut  soldier,  energetic 
and  enterprising,  who  purposed  to  journey  from  the  Atlantic  to 
the  Pacific,  making  a  correct  map  and  tell  the  truth  about  the 


great  interior  country.  He  -was  well  fitted  for  his  task  by  early 
training  along  the  Indian  frontier  of  New  England.  Fitting  him- 
self out  as  a  trader,  he  reached  Green  Bay  in  September,  1766. 
A  few  days  later,  ascending  the  Fox  river,  he  reached  the  great 
town  of  the  Winnebagoes.  An  Indian  queen  named  "Glory  of 
the  Jlorniug"  ruled  the  village,  and  Captain  Carver  enjoyed 
her  hospitality  for  several  days.  "She  was  an  ancient  woman, 
small  in  stature  and  not  much  distinguished  by  her  dress  from 
the  woman  who  attended  her,"  says  Captain  Carver.  In  depart- 
ing from  her  village,  he  made  the  queen  suitable  presents  and 
received  her  blessing  in  return.  He  then  proceeded  along  the 
Pox  to  the  portage,  and  thence  down  the  "Ouisconsin, "  as  he 
spelled  it.  The  great  fields  of  wild  rice  that  almost  choked  the 
former  stream,  and  the  myriads  of  wild  fowl  that  fed  on  the  suc- 
culent grain,  attracted  his  notice.  "This  river  is  the  greatest 
resort  of  wild  fowl  of  every  kind  that  I  ever  saw  in  the  whole 
course  of  my  travels,"  he  wrote.  "Frequently  the  sun  would  be 
obscured  by  them  for  some  minutes  together.  Deer  and  bear  are 
very  numerous."  Prom  the  time  he  left  Green  Bay  until  his 
canoe  was  beached  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  Captain  Carver  had  seen 
no  trace  of  white  men.  Well-built  Indian  towns  greeted  his  view 
as  he  floated  down  the  Wisconsin,  but  at  Prairie  du  Chien  he 
found  the  most  notable  town.  "It  is  a  large  town  and  contains 
about  300  families,"  he  wrote.  "The  houses  are  well  built  after 
the  Indian  manner  and  situated  on  a  rich  soil  from  which  they 
raise  every  necessary  of  life  in  abundance.  This  town  is  a  great 
mart  M'here  all  the  adjacent  tribes,  and  even  those  from  the  most 
remote  branches  of  the  Mississippi,  annually  assemble  about  the 
latter  end  of  May,  bringing  furs  to  dispose  of  to  the  traders,  but 
it  is  not  always  that  thej'  conclude  the  sale  here ;  this  is  deter- 
mined by  a  council  of  the  chiefs  who  consult  whether  it  would 
be  more  conducive  to  their  interests  to  sell  their  goods  at  this 
place  or  carry  them  on  to  Louisiana,  or  Michilimackinac."  It 
has  been  claimed  for  Carver  that  he  was  the  first  traveler  who 
made  known  to  the  people  of  Europe  the  existence  of  the  ancient 
mounds  found  in  the  Mississippi  valley,  and  long  believed  to  have 
been  the  work  of  an  extinct  people.  Carver  spent  the  winter 
among  the  Sioux  and  explored  Minnesota  to  a  considerable  ex- 
tent. They  told  him  much  about  the  country  to  the  west,  of  the 
great  river  that  emptied  into  the  Pacific,  of  the  "Shining  Moun- 
tain" within  whose  bowels  could  be  found  precious  metals,  and 
much  else  that  was  new  and  wonderful.  In  their  great  council 
cave,  they  gave  to  him  and  to  his  descendants  forever  a  great 


tract  of  land  about  fourteen  thousand  squai'e  miles  in  area,  em- 
bracing the  whole  of  the  northwestern  part  of  Wisconsin  and 
part  of  Minnesota.  At  least  this  gift  was  afterward  made  the 
basis  for  the  famous  Carver  claim.  The  United  States  Congress 
after  long  investigation  and  consideration  rejected  the  claim. 
Despite  this  action,  many  persons  were  duped  into  purchasing 
land  on  the  strength  of  Carver's  Indian  deeds.  After  spending 
some  time  in  the  Lake  Superior  region,  Carver  returned  to  Mich- 
ilimaekinac.  In  his  little  birchbark  canoe  he  had  made  a  journey 
of  nearly  twelve  hundred  miles.  He  returned  to  Boston  in  1768 
and  thence  to  England.  Ill  luck  pursued  him  there,  his  coloniz- 
ing schemes  collapsed,  and  in  the  great  city  of  London  this  noted 
traveler  died  of  starvation. 



Old  settlers  will  recall  the  facsimile  of  the  oM  deeds  given  by 
Indian  chiefs  to  the  early  white  men  which  spoke  of  a  great  piece 
of  land  running  from  St.  Anthony  Falls  and  mapped  out  so 
that  it  Avould  take  in  all  this  part  of  the  country.  The  copy  was 
framed  by  W.  K.  Coffin  for  the  Local  Historical  Society.  In  this 
connection  the  following  from  St.  Paul  may  be  of  interest: 

"David  C.  Shepard,  Sr.,  of  324  Dayton  avenue,  St.  Paul,  has 
discovered  that  he  is  the  possessor  of  a  deed  which  conveys  to 
his  father  and  the  latter 's  heirs  and  assigns  a  tract  of  land  includ- 
ing all  of  the  cities  of  Eau  Claire,  Chippewa  Falls  and  Altoona, 
to  say  nothing  of  all  of  the  city  of  St.  Paul,  a  portion  of  Minne- 
apolis, the  villages  of  Hudson,  Durand  and  many  other  Wisconsin 
hamlets.  Mr.  Shepard  will  not  try  to  take  possession  of  the 
property  called  for  by  this  interesting  document,  but  if.  the 
deed  was  worth  anything  he  might  become  one  of  the  greatest 
land-owners  in  the  world.  The  only  use  that  will  be  made  of 
the  deed  is  to  exhibit  it  among  the  documents  of  the  Minnesota 
Historical  Society,  to  which  organization  Mr.  Shepard  has  pre- 
sented the  old  conveyance.  The  deed  is  signed  by  Martin  King, 
the  great  grandson  of  Jonathan  Carver,  the  early  explorer  to 
whom  the  chiefs  of  the  Naudoessies  Indian  tribes  conveyed  a  tract 
of  land  east  of  the  Mississippi  river,  extending  along  the  river 
from  St.  Anthony  Falls,  in  Minneapolis,  south  to  the  junction  of 
the  Mississippi  and  Chippewa  rivers,  thence  east  one  hundred 
miles,  thence  north  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles,  thence  west 
in  a  straight  line  to  St.  Anthony  Falls.  These  boundaries  include 
Eau  Claire,  Chippewa  Falls,  Altoona  and  other  cities  and  villages 
named.  Martin  King,  as  heir  to  Jonathan  Carver,  came  into  pos- 
session of  the  property  named,  theoretically  at  least,  and  he 
deeded  it  to  Mr.  Shepard 's  father  and  others.  The  latter  deeds 
were  executed  at  Lima,  Livingston  county,  New  York,  April  20, 
1838,  and  were  recorded  by  Calvin  H.  Bryan,  commissioner  of 
the  Supreme  court  of  New  York.  Under  the  terms  of  the  deed, 
Mr.  Shepard 's  father  paid  only  five  hundred  dollars  for  the  land 
that  is  now  worth  millions. 



"The  original  deed,  the  terms  of  which  are  repeated  in  the 
deed  held  by  Mr.  Shepard,  was  executed  in  Carver's  cave,  St. 
Paul  (which  has  recently  been  re-located  by  the  officials  of  St. 
Paul).  On  May  1,  1767,  Carver,  in  his  Avriting,  said  this  cave  was 
often  used  for  councils  among  the  Indian  tribes.  The  chiefs  who 
signed  this  original  deed  conveying  this  vast  tract  of  land  to  Carver 
were  Haw-no-paw-gat-an  and  Otah-ton-goom-lish-eaw.  In  deed- 
ing the  land  to  Carver,  they  reserved  the  right  to  fish  and  hunt 
on  land  not  planted  or  improved.  The  original  deed  was  recorded 
in  the  plantation  office,  White  Hall,  London. 

"Mr.  Shepard  says  he  believes  the  deed  is  worthless,  save  as 
a  liistorical  document,  but  it  sheds  additional  light  on  the  famous 
original  deed  which  some  historians  have  intimated  never  ex- 
isted. It  is  of  special  interest  at  this  time  since  etforts  are  being 
made  to  raise  funds  to  preserve  Carver's  cave  as  one  of  the  his- 
torical spots  of  the  Northwest.  For  many  years  the  entrance  to 
this  cave  had  been  lost,  but  within  the  past  few  months  the  county 
surveyor  of  Ramsey  county,  Minnesota,  and  the  Dayton  Bluff 
Commercial  Club,  a  St.  Paul  organization,  have  located  the  cav- 
ern's entrance.  A  big  lake  has  been  discovered  in  the  cave,  and 
all  attempts  which  have  been  made  to  drain  the  cavern  have 
met  with  little  success. 



The  pine  lands  of  the  Chippewa  were  known  to  exist  150 
years  ago,  but  it  was  not  until  1822  that  the  first  sawmill  was 
constructed  to  convert  the  timber  into  lumber,  and  to  float  it 
down  the  Mississippi  to  the  markets  on  its  banks.  The  fame  of 
the  resources  of  the  valley  in  this  respect  spread  far  and  wide, 
even  to  New  England,  and  slowly  the  tide  of  emigration_setjEU 
Thus  this  noW'  famous  lumber  region  T5ecame  peopled  with  the 
general  exodus  from  the  eastern  states  whi,-3h  began  in  1835  and 
continued  for  many  years.  These  were  the  sturdy  pioneers  who 
have  made  the  valley  what  it  is  today.  The  men  and  women  who 
endured  hardships  and  privations  in  order  to  make  the  after 
years  of  their  lives  worth  living,  and  to  pave  the  way  for  others 
who  would  carry  on  the  enterprise.  The  emigrants  from  Europe, 
especially  from  Sweden,  came  later  until  the  population  became 
a  mixture  of  Americans,  English,  Scotch,  Scandinavians,  Ger- 
mans, etc.  The  delta  of  the  Chippewa  and  the  territory  lying 
between  the  Mississippi  and  the  Menomonie  (Red  Cedar)  rivers 
were  claimed  by  Wabashaw's  band  of  Sioux  Indians,  though  it 
was  in  truth  the  neutral  ground  between  the  Sioux  and  the  Chip- 
pewas,  among  whom  a  deadly  feud  existed.  The  whole  of  what 
is  now  Wisconsin  was  up  to  1825  held  by  various  tribes  of  In- 
dians, in  some  instances  by  force  of  arms.  Their  respective  rights 
in  the  land  became  so  complicated  and  were  the  cause  of  such 
frequent  bloodshed  among  them  that  the  government  determined 
to  change  this  condition  of  things  if  possible.  Under  its  direc- 
tion and  authority,  a  treaty  was  entered  into  at  Prairie  du  Chien 
in  1825  by  all  the  Indian  tribes  within  a  distance  of  500  miles 
each  way,  and  approved  by  General  William  Clark  and  Lewis 
Cass  on  behalf  of  the  government,  whereby  the  boundaries  of 
the  respective  territories  of  the  Indian  nations  represented  were 
definitely  fixed.  The  negotiation  was  continued  at  Fond  du  Lac 
in  1826  because  not  all  the  Chippewa  bands  had  been  represented 
at  Prairie  du  Chien,  notwithstanding  thirty-six  chiefs  and  heads- 
men had  signed.  At  this  time  everyone  was  satisfied,  and  not 
onlv  were  the  articles  of  Prairie  du  Chien  confirmed,  but  a  clause 


was  put  in  the  treaty  giving  the  United  States  the  right  to  take 
any  metals  or  minerals  from  the  country.  By  the  treaty  of  1837, 
all  the  lands  of  the  Sioux  nation  east  of  the  Mississippi,  and  all 
the  islands  belonging  to  them  in  that  river,  were,  for  the  consid- 
erations therein  mentioned,  ceded  to  the  United  States;  also  the 
lands  claimed  by  the  Chippewas  back  from  Lake  Superior  in 

In  October,  1812,  To-go-ne-ge-shik  with  eighty-five  chiefs  and 
braves  of  the  Chippewas  executed  a  treaty  at  La  Pointe  on  Lake 
Superior  whereby  all  the  Chippewa  lauds  in  Wisconsin  became 
listed  in  the  United  States.  For  this  kingdom  the  United  States 
paid  the  Chippewas  about  one  million  dollars.  The  treaty  granted 
in  general  terms  eighty  acres  to  each  head  of  a  family  or  single 
person  over  twenty-one  of  Chippewa  or  mixed  blood,  provided 
for  allotment  in  severalty  by  the  President  as  fast  as  the  occu- 
pants became  capable  of  transacting  their  own  affairs,  gave  the 
President  authority  to  assign  tracts  in  exchange  for  mineral 
lands,  and  allowed  right  of  way,  upon  compensation,  to  all  neces- 
sary roads,  highways  and  railroads.  The  Indians  were  to  receive 
$5,000  a  year  for  twenty  years  in  money,  $8,000  in  goods,  house- 
hold furniture  and  cooking  utensils,  $3,000  a  year  in  agricultural 
implements,  cattle,  carpenter  and  other  tools  and  building  mate- 
rial, and  $3,000  a  year  for  moral  and  c(lu<-ati(ui;il  ]>urposes,  of. 
which  the  Grand  Portage  baud,  having;-  a  special  tliiisi  lor  learn- 
ing, was  to  receive  $3,000.  To  paj^  all  ddits  $!)(>, (10(1  was  jilaced  at 
the  disposal  of  the  chiefs.  Here  the  Indians  fared  better  than 
in  earlier  treaties.  At  Traverse  de  Sioux  the  fur  traders  were 
present  with  their  old  accounts  equipped  to  absorb  nearly  every- 
thing paid  the  Indians.  In  one  treaty  their  bills  were  rendered 
for  $250,000,  in  another  for  $156,000,  and  about  all  the  Indians 
got  was  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  money  counted  past  them.  It 
was  also  provided  that  the  annuities  thereafter  should  not  be 
subject  to  the  debts  of  individual  Indians,  but  that  satisfaction 
should  be  made  for  depredations  committed  by  them.  Next  came 
a  clause  which  probably  did  more  to  get  the  treaties  signed  than 
the  three  thousand  dollars  a  year  for  educational  and  moral  pur- 
poses. Also,  said  the  treaty,  two  hundred  guns,  one  hundred 
rifles,  five  hundred  beaver  traps,  three  hundred  dollars  in  ammu- 
nition, one  thousand  dollars  in  ready-made  clothing  for  the  young 
men  of  the  nation.  That  clause  was  reserved  by  the  commission- 
ers till  they  were  ready  to  nail  down  the  contracts,  and  it  was 
effective.  It  was  provided  that  missionaries  and  others  residing 
in  tile  tei'ritory  should  be  allowed  to  enter  at  the  minimum  price 


the  land  they  already  occupied  wherever  survey  was  made.  Also 
that  a  blacksmith  and  assistant  should  be  maintained  at  each 
reservation  for  twenty  years  and  as  much  longer  as  the  President 
should  approve. 

Last  of  all  came  a  clause  that  illustrates  happily  the  Indian 
sense  of  justice,  for  old  teachers  say  there  was  such  a  thing.  The 
Bois  Forte  Indians,  off  the  main  trail,  and  a  withered  sort  of 
tribe,  were  especially  remembered.  "Because  of  their  poverty 
and  past  neglect,"  as  the  treaty  ran,  they  were  to  have  $10,000 
additional  to  pay  their  debts,  which  suggests  a  friend  at  court^ 
and  also  $10,000  for  blankets,  clothes,  guns,  nets,  etc.,  a  suitable 
reservation  to  be  selected  afterward.  The  Indians  made  a  better 
bargain  than  the  Algonquins  made  when  they  sold  Manhattan 
island  for  twenty-four  dollars  in  trinkets.  To  be  sure,  the  iron  in 
this  Chippewa  country  was  Avortli  above  half  a  billion  dollars, 
and  the  forest  as  much  more,  but  they  were  not  worth  that  to 
the  Indians  who  sold  only  their  hunting  and  fishing  usufruct  to 
which  they  had  not  exclusive  nor  undisputed  right,  and  which  in 
measure  they  still  kept,  since  one  of  the  after-thoughts  of  the 
treaty  reserved  to  them  the  right  to  hunt  and  fish  in  the  ceded 



Etlmologists  are  slowly  agreeing  that  the  North  American 
Iridiaa  existed  on  this  continent  before  1000  A.  D.,  that  he  is  of 
Asiatic  origin  and  that  all  the  families  found  here  are  inter-related 
and  originally  came  from  one  source.  Historical  evidences  are 
multiplying  as  to  the  truth  of  these  assertions.  In  1615,  Cham- 
plain,  visiting  the  Huron  tribe  of  the  St.  Lawrence  valley,  drew 
a  map  of  the  country  which  they  said  lay  to  the  west  of  their 
land.  They  told  him  of  a  lake  called  Kitchi  Gummi,  which  he 
named  Grand  Lac.  This  lake  was  visited  by  Allouez  in  1666 
and  called  Lake  Tracy.  Hennepin  saw  it  in  1680  and  called  it 
Lake  Conde.  Schoolcraft  was  upon  its  waters  in  1819  and  left 
it  with  the  title  Lake  Algona.  It  is  now  known  as  Lake  Superior; 
and  Champlain's  rough  map  is  one  of  the  first  evidences  given 
to  white  men,  not  only  of  its  existence,  but  of  the  great  stretch 
of  land  south  and  west  of  its  shores,  known  now  as  the  Dakotas, 
Minnesota  and  Wisconsin. 

The  French  explorers  touched  the  northern  belt  of  what  is 
now  called  the  Northwest  many  decades  before  others  of  their 
kind  penetrated  the  land  since  divided  into  Illinois,  Iowa  and 
Nebraska.  Marquette  and  Joliet  did  not  ascend  the  Mississippi 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois  until  1673.  It  was  1679  before  Port 
Crevecoeur  Avas  built  on  the  Illinois  river.  The  ancient  white 
villages  of  Kaskaskia,  Cahoki  and  Prairie  du  Rocher  were  not 
set  on  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  until  after  1683.  But  it  is 
due  to  the  honor  of  France  that  during  the  years  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  when  England  was  content  to  upbuild  her  colonies 
on  the  Atlantic  coast,  when  Spain,  by  moral  law,  was  being  elimi- 
nated from  the  northern  haLC  of  the  western  continent,  the  fleur 
de  lis  should  be  implanted  in  what  is  now  the  center  of  western 
thought,  western  activity  and  agricultural  development  of  the 
United  States  of  America.  Two  separate  movements  of  Gallic 
explorers — one  along  the  shore  lines  of  Lake  Superior  and  west- 


ward  to  the  Mississippi;  the  other  via  Lake  Michigan  to  what  has 
since  become  the  Pox,  Rock  and  Wisconsin  rivers — confronted  at 
the  outset  a  remarkable  group  of  Indian  families.  The  dominion 
of  these  families  extended  from  the  Platte  and  Missouri  rivers  on 
the  west  to  Lake  Superior  and  Lake  Michigan  on  the  east;  from 
the  confluence  of  the  Missouri  and  Mississippi,  on  the  south,  to 
the  Lake  of  the  Woods  and  what  is  now  the  Canadian  border,  on 
the  north.  Within  this  area,  which  amounted  to  nearly  480,000 
square  miles,  or  one-ninth  of  the  total  area  of  the  United  States, 
to  the  time  of  the  late  Spanish-American  War,  were  living  about 
500,000  red  men.  The  census  taker  was  unknown  and  the  figures 
can  only  be  estimated  from  ancient  memoranda  and  the  tradi- 
tions of  the  Indians  themselves.  But  today,  so  swift  are  the 
mutations  of  Time,  in  this  same  area  there  are  living,  sinew  of  a 
great  commonwealth,  12,000,000  white  men  and  women  and  their 
children,  while  of  the  Indians,  lords  of  the  land  250  years  ago, 
but  48,800  are  now  to  be  found  there.  Three  great  Indian  fami- 
lies occupied  this  Northwestern  prairie  and  timber  land  when 
the  French  first  came.  The  most  important  of  these,  so  far  as 
history  is  concerned,  was  the  Siouan,  or  Sioux,  composed  of 
twelve  tribes.  Second  in  importance  M'as  the  family  of  the  Al- 
gonquins,  composed  of  eleven  tribes.  The  third,  and  the  one  to 
be  first  extinguished  in  the  wars  waged  between  the  trio,  was 
the  Iroquois,  who  occupied  the  Great  Lakes.  All  history,  as  to 
the  relation  between  the  white  men  and  the  Northwestern  Indians 
during  the  seventeenth  century,  bears  evidence  that  they  acted 
with  much  fairness  toward  each  other.  It  was  not  until  after 
the  advent  of  the  English,  who  disputed  the  right  to  the  territory 
with  the  French,  and  then  the  incoming  of  the  Americans,  who 
drove  out  French,  English  and  Indians,  that  the  record  of  savage 
warfare  begins — stained  with  powder  and  blood  from  the  knife  of 
massacre.  It  is  useless  to  say  which  was  wrong.  Since  the  for- 
mation of  the  United  States  Government,  the  American  people 
have  paid  to  the  Indians  an  average  of  $1,000,000  per  year  for 
the  land  taken.  The  Indian,  in  his  turn,  when  treated  with  the 
same  honesty,  the  same  decency,  that  characterizes  the  ordinary 
relations  of  two  white  citizens,  responded  with  a  loyalty  equal  to 
that  of  his  white  brother.  Each  race,  as  temptation  came,  was 
treacherous,  bloodthirsty,  cruel.  Each  paid  the  penalty  for  its 
wrongdoing.  But  that  the  earliest  settlers  recognized  the  Indian 
as  an  equal  is  evidenced  by  the  first  treaty  ever  made  with  a  tribe 
(the  Delawares)  in  which  they  were  conceded  to  be  citizens  en- 
titled to  representation  in  Congress.     Unfortunately,  this  good 

THE  RED  MAN  25 

intent  never  passed  in  etl'ect  beyond  the  writing  in  the  treaty. 
The  land  was  fair  to  look  upon  when  Joliet,  Marquette  and  Hen- 
nepin came  with  the  sign  of  the  cross  to  make  converts  of  the 
aboriginals.  But  the  narratives  of  the  explorers  into  the  North- 
west between  1600  and  1700  contained  no  reference  to  the  mar- 
velous bread-giving  capacity  of  the  land  they  found,  no  hint  that 
a  granary  of  the  world  had  been  found — only  descriptions  of 
half-explored  waterways,  plentiful  game,  unfound  gold  and  silver 
and  diamond  mines.  They  were  eager  to  take  possession  for  the 
honor  of  France  and  for  the  financial  gain  that  might  come  to 
them.  Little  did  they  know  of  greater  blessing  in  the  earth  than 
that  found  in  silver  and  gold,  of  the  rich  quality  of  soil  which 
would  produce  luxuriant  vegetation,  of  the  water  power  and  the 
pine  forests  that  would  draw  hither  the  might  and  the  money  of 
the  east  for  its  development. 


When  Jean  Nicolet  was  sent  by  Champlain,  governor  of  New 
France,  to  find  the  long-sought  western  route  to  China,  he  found 
on  the  shores  of  Green  Bay  the  Menomonies,  at  the  head  of  the 
bay  the  Winnebagoes,  going  on  to  the  Fox  river  he  met  the  Mas- 
coutens,  the  warlike  Sacs  and  Foxes,  and  still  further  west  were 
the  Kickapoos.  Along  the  shores  of  Lake  Superior  he  found  the 
Chippewas,  and  to  the  southwest  of  these,  on  the  St.  Croix,  were 
the  Sioux.  Powell  said  of  this  tribe,  "By  reason  of  their  superior 
numbers  the  Sioux  have  always  assumed,  if  not  exercised,  the 
lordship  over  all  the  neighboring  tribes  with  the  exception  of 
the  OjibAva  (Chippewa),  who,  having  acquired  fii-earms  before 
the  Sioux,  were  enabled  to  drive  the  latter  from  the  headwaters 
of  the  Mississippi,  and  were  steadily  pressing  them  westward 
when  stopped  by  the  intervention  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment. In  warlike  character  the  Sioux  are  second  only  to  the 
Cheyenne  and  have  an  air  of  proud  superiority  rather  unusual 
with  Indians.  The  Chippewas  were  called  by  the  French  mis- 
sionaries the  bravest,  most  warlike,  and  at  the  same  time  the 
noblest  and  most  manly  of  all  the  tribes.  They  were  derived 
from  the  Algonquin  race  and  the  Jesuits  spoke  of  the  Chippewa 
language  as  the  most  refined  and  complete  of  any  Indian  tongue. 
In  1642  the  Sioux  possessed  all  the  territory  south  of  Lake  Su- 
perior and  west  of  Lakes  Huron  and  Michigan,  south  as  far  as 
Milwaukee  and  west  even  beyond  the  Missouri  river.  About  1670 
the  Chippewas  began  their  inroads  upon  the  lands  of  the  Sioux 


on  the  north  and  east,  fighting  their  way  south  and  west.  The 
Sioux  struggled  to  retain  their  hunting  grounds,  but  were  finally 
crowded  back  to  the  St.  Croix.  From  that  time  there  was  unre- 
mitting war  between  the  two  great  nations  for  a  century  or  more, 
and  their  traditions  tell  of  many  bloody  battles  fought  beneath 
the  somber  pines  of  the  north.  In  the  Chippewa  tongue,  Sioux 
means  "the  enemy."  Meantime  the  Winnebagoes,  a  migratory 
tribe  from  Mexico  to  escape  the  Spaniards,  came  among  the  Sioux, 
who  gave  them  lands  and  refuge.  But  Sacs  and  Foxes  came 
from  the  south,  took  possession  of  the  ground  and  were  in  turn 
crowded  out  by  the  Menomonies.  In  consequence  of  these  preda- 
tory wars,  the  claims  of  the  several  nations  to  their  respective 
territories  became  very  complicated  and  caused  incessant  strife. 
To  prevent  this  as  much  as  possible  the  United  States  Government, 
in  1825,  authorized  a  general  treaty  to  be  held  at  Prairie  du 
Chien  between  all  tribes  within  a  district  of  500  miles  each  way. 
This  was  signed  on  the  part  of  the  government  by  Generals 
William  Clark  and  Lewis  Cass,  on  the  part  of  the  Sioux  by 
Wabashaw,  Red  Wing,  Little  Crow  and  twenty-three  other  chiefs 
and  braves,  and  for  the  Chippewas  by  Hole-in-the-Day  and  forty 
chiefs.  By  this  treaty  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  Sioux  began 
opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Iowa  river  on  the  Mississippi,  runs 
back  two  or  three  miles  to  the  bluffs,  following  the  bluffs  to 
Bad-Axe,  and  crossing  to  Black  river,  from  which  point  the 
line  described  is  the  boundary  between  the  Sioux  and  the  Win- 
nebagoes and  extends  nearly  north  to  a  point  on  the  Chippewa 
river,  half  a  day's  march  from  Chippewa  Falls.  From  this  point 
on  the  Chippewa  river,  which  was  fixed  on  the  mouth  of  Mud 
creek  (near  Rumsey's  Landing),  the  line  becomes  the  boundary 
between  the  Sioux  and  Chippewas  and  runs  to  the  Red  Cedar 
just  below  the  Falls,  thence  to  the  St.  Croix  river  at  the  Stand- 
ing Cedar,  about  a  day's  paddle  in  a  canoe  above  the  lake  on 
that  river ;  thence  passing  between  two  lakes  called  by  the  Chip- 
pewas "Green  Lake"  and  by  the  Sioux  "the  lake  they  bury 
the  eagles  in,"  thence  to  the  "Standing  Cedar"  that  the  Sioux 
split,  thence  to  the  mouth  of  Rum  river  on  the  Mississippi.  The 
boundary  line  between  the  Chippewas  and  Winnebagoes  was 
also  defined  as  beginning  at  the  same  point  (half  a  day's  march 
below  the  Falls),  thence  to  the  source  of  the  Eau  Claire,  thence 
south  to  Black  river,  thence  to  a  place  where  the  woods  project 
into  the  meadows,  and  thence  to  the  Plover  Portage  of  the  Wis- 
consin. Thus  we  see  that  the  boundaries  of  the  Sioux,  Chip- 
pewas and  Winnebagoes  were  brought  to  a  point  at  the  famous 

THE  RED  MAN  27 

"half  a  day's  march  below  the  Falls,"  and  very  near  the  city 
of  Eau  Claire — in  fact,  at  the  bluff  just  above  "little  Niagara." 

On  July  29,  1837,  a  treaty  was  signed  at  Fort  Snelling  be- 
tween Governor  Dodge  on  the  part  of  the  government  and  the 
Chippewa  chiefs,  ceding  a  portion  of  these  lands  to  the  United 
States.  On  September  29  of  the  same  year,  at  "Washington,  D.  C, 
a  treaty  was  signed  by  Joel  R.  Poinsett  on  the  part  of  the 
United  States  and  Big  Thunder  and  twenty  other  chiefs  of  the 
Sioux,  at  which  the  latter  ceded  to  the  United  States  their  lands 
east  of  the  Mississippi  and  all  their  islands  in  said  river. 

On  October  4,  1842,  at  La  Poiute,  Robert  Stewart  on  the 
part  of  the  United  States  and  Po-go-ne-ge-shik,  with  forty  other 
Chippewa  chiefs,  held  a  treaty  at  which  all  the  Chippewa  lands 
in  Wisconsin  were  ceded  to  the  United  States.  But  after  the 
cession  of  the  last  named  lands  several  bands  of  Chippewas 
became  dissatisfied  with  the  treaty  and  with  the  reservation  set 
apart  for  them  above  Sand  Lake,  in  Minnesota,  and  begged  so 
earnestly  to  come  back  to  Wisconsin  that  the  government,  in 
1854,  gave  them  several  townships  and  half  townships  of  the 
land  on  Court  Oreilles  and  some  other  branches  of  the  Chip- 
pewa, and  established  an  agency  there  for  the  distribution  of 
part  of  the  annuities  promised  them.  Guerrilla  fighting  had 
been  the  common  mode  of  settling  any  difference  of  opinion 
among  the  tribes  hitherto,  but  governmental  interference  had 
accomplished  much  and  soothing  measures  Avere  now  in  vogue. 
In  1841,  as  related  by  the  historian  Randall,  "a  large  party  of 
Sioux  came  up  by  invitation  of  the  Chippewas  to  Eau  Claire^ 
where  they  held  a  friendly  meeting  and  smoked  the  pipe  of 
peace.  This  was  repeated  in  October,  1846,  when  150  braves,  all 
mounted  on  ponies,  came  up  to  the  Falls,  thence  to  Chippewa 
City,  and  held  a  treaty  of  peace  with  their  hereditary  foes. 
Among  them  were  Wabashaw,  Red  Bird  and  Big  Thunder.  The 
writer  was  present,  heard  part  of  the  reception  address,  and 
afterward  learned  from  Ambrose — one  of  the  interpreters — the 
substance  of  what  was  said  on  both  sides.  The  Sioux  remained 
mounted  on  their  ponies  during  the  entire  interview.  The  Chip- 
pewa chiefs  and  braves  were  painted  after  the  mode  indicating 
peace  and  the  head  chief  advanced  with  a  large  red  pipe,  made 
of  stone  from  Pipe-stone  mountain,  in  one  hand,  and  in  the 
other  a  hatchet,  which  was  thrown  with  such  force  as  to  partly 
bury  it  in  the  earth ;  then  taking  a  whiff  or  two  from  the  pipe 
he  turned  the  stem  toward  the  Sioux  chief,  presenting  it  for  his 
acceptance.     All  this  was  done  in  silence;  the  Sioux  chief  re- 


ceived  the  emblem  of  peace,  also  in  silence,  smoked  a  few  whiffs, 
bowed  respectfully  as  he  handed  the  pipe,  reined  his  pony  one 
step  to  the  right,  and  waited  the  next  salutation,  the  substance 
of  which  was,  "Friends,  we  are  glad  you  have  come,  we  are 
anxious  to  make  peace  with  the  Sioux  nation.  As  you  have  seen 
us  throw  down  and  bury  the  hatchet,  so  we  hope  you  are  inclined 
to  make  peace."  The  Sioux  chiefs  then  threw  down  whatever 
arms  they  held  and  declared  their  purpose  to  maintain  perma- 
nent peace.  They  said  their  great  father,  the  President,  with 
whom  they  had  never  been  at  war,  had  requested  them  to  con- 
clude a  lasting  peace  with  the  Chippewa  nation,  and  although 
they  had  sold  their  lands  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  they 
still  wanted  to  hunt  tliere,  and  were  glad  that  in  the  future 
they  could  do  so  without  fear.  This  was  all  done  through  inter- 
preters, several  of  whom  were  present  on  each  side,  and  closed 
every  sentence  they  repeated  with  the  expression,  'That's  Avhat 
we  say.'  This  meeting  was  at  the  Falls  and  the  delegation  met 
a  still  larger  number  of  Chippewa  chiefs  and  braves  the  next 
day  at  Chippewa  City,  where  the  ceremonies  were  still  more 
imposing,  and  a  dinner  Avas  served  of  which  both  parties  par- 

After  this  interesting  pageant  of  truce,  a  stead.y  peace  was 
well  maintained  between  the  nations,  rarely  disturbed  by  any- 
thing more  than  trifling  quarrels  soon  settled  by  arbitration. 


The  territory  of  Wisconsin  was  organized  in  the  year  1836, 
and  comprised  the  present  states  of  Wisconsin,  Iowa,  Minnesota 
and  parts  of  North  Dakota,  South  Dakota  and  Michigan.  This 
entire  area  included  only  six  full  counties  and  parts  of  others, 
what  is  now  Eau  Claire  county  forming  a  part  of  Crawford 

In  1845  Chippewa  county  was  set  off  from  Crawford  county, 
although  the  county  government  was  not  wholly  perfected  until 
1854.  In  the  meantime,  in  1848,  the  territory  of  Wisconsin  M-as 
admitted  as  a  state,  its  area  having  been  reduced  from  time  to 
time  until  it  reached  its  present  limits. 

Chippewa  county  as  originally  formed  was  of  vast  area,  the 
counties  of  Eau  Claire,  Buffalo,  Pepin,  Clark,  Dunn,  Barron,  Bur- 
nett, Washburn,  Sawyer,  Gates,  Rusk  and  parts  of  Taylor  and 

On  July  27, 1855,  the  county  board  of  supex-visors  of  Chippewa 
county  divided  the  county  into  three  towns,  the  southernmost 
of  these,  which  was  identical  in  area  with  the  present  Eau  Claire 
county,  was  set  off  as  the  town  of  Clearwater,  the  first  town 
meeting  to  be  held  at  the  boarding-house  of  Gage  &  Reed.  The 
next  town  north  was  set  off  as  the  town  of  Chippewa  Falls,  and 
the  northernmost  town  as  the  town  of  Eagle  Point.  Up  to  this 
time  the  name  Eau  Claire  had  not  appeared  in  the  official  records 
of  Chippewa  county,  of  which  what  is  now  Eau  Claire  county 
formed  a  part.  In  this  same  year  R.  F.  Wilson  and  W.  H.  Glea- 
son  came  to  Clearwater  settlement,  at  the  junction  of  the  Chip- 
pewa and  Clearwater  rivers.  They  recognized  its  possibilities 
and  soon  made  a  deal  with  Gage  &  Reed  whereby  a  considerable 
part  of  what  is  now  the  east  side  was  platted  as  the  village  of 
Eau  Claire.  Of  course  the  platting  of  this  village  under  the  name 
Eau  Claire  could  have  no  legal  effect  on  the  name  of  the  town, 
but  it  seems  to  have  confused  the  town  officials,  as  the  records 
show  both  the  names  Clearwater  and  Eau  Claire  for  a  short 
period,  after  which,  without  any  recorded  official  action,  the 
name  Clearwater  was  dropped  and  the  name  Eau  Claire  only 


was  used.  The  town  remained  under  town  government  only  one 
year,  when  by  act  of  legislature  approved  October  6,  1856,  it 
Avas  set  off  as  Eau  Claire  county. 

The  town  of  Eau  Claire  was  the  only  organized  town  govern- 
ment in  the  new  county,  and  the  legislative  act  forming  the 
county  stipulated  that  the  town  board  of  Eau  Claire  should  can- 
vass the  returns  of  the  first  election  of  county  officers  and  per- 
form the  functions  of  the  county  board  until  the  county  organi- 
zation should  be  completed.  There  were  but  two  election  pre- 
cincts in  the  entire  town  and  county,  the  polling  places  of  one 
being  in  what  is  noAv  the  east  side  of  the  city  of  Eau  Claire,  and 
the  other  usually  at  the  farmhouse  of  Robert  Scott  in  what  is 
known  as  Scott's  Valley,  in  the  town  of  Otter  Creek. 

The  first  election  of  county  officers  for  the  new  county  took 
place  December  30,  1856.  "At  an  election  held  at  Eau  Claire 
in  the  county  of  Eau  Claire,  Wisconsin,  held  at  the  house  of  P.  N. 
Drake  in  said  village,  December  .30,  1856,  C.  M.  Seley,  chairman 
of  the  board  of  supervisors,  was  present.  In  the  absence  of  E.  "W. 
Robbins  and  M.  A.  Page,  supervisors,  Taylor  Stevens  and  S.  N. 
"Wilcox  were  elected  to  serve  as  inspectors  of  election,  and  were 
sworn  as  follows: 

Opening  paragraph  election  returns  from  first  precinct.  "At 
an  election  held  at  the  house  of  Robert  Scott  in  the  township  25, 
range  7,  on  Tuesday,  the  30th  day  of  December,  A.  D.  1856,  the 
following  inspectors  were  chosen  viva-voce  by  the  electors:  Lor- 
enzo Bennett,  Robert  Scott,  Charles  H.  Hale,  and  were  sworn 
as  follows: 

Opening  paragraph  election  returns  from  second  precinct.  On 
the  first  day  of  January,  1857,  the  town  board  of  Eau  Claire,  as 
authorized  by  legislative  act,  met  and  canvassed  tlie  returns  of 
the  first  county  election.  "At  a  meeting  of  the  board  of  super- 
visors, January  1,  1857,  C.  M.  Seley,  chairman;  E.  W.  Robbins 
and  Moses  A.  Page  present,  ordered  that  the  votes  of  the  election 
of  county  officers  be  canvassed  according  to  the  act  of  legislature 
approved  October  6,  1856,  who  were  chosen  December  30,  1856. 
"We,  the  supervisors  of  the  town  of  Eau  Claire,  having  met  at  the 
office  of  Gleason  &  Seley,  in  the  village  of  Eau  Claire,  on  the  first 
day  of  January,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  and  eight 
hundred  and  fifty-seven,  pursuant  to  the  act  for  organizing  the 
county  of  Eau  Claire  approved  October  sixth,  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  fifty-six,  to  estimate  and  determine  the  number  of 
votes  given  for  the  several  officers  provided  for  by  the  said  act 
at  the  official  election  held  on  the  last  Tuesday  of  December,  one 


thousand  eight  liundred  and  fifty-six,  as  provided  by  said  act 
do  determine  and  declare  as  follows: 

"That  the  whole  number  of  votes  cast  for  the  office  of  clerk  of 
court  was  one  hundred  ninety-one,  of  which  George  Olin  re- 
ceived one  hundred  eighteen  and  J.  H.  Duncan  received  seventy- 
three.  Sheriff,  Moses  A.  Page  188,  M.  M.  Reed  54.  Register  of 
deeds,  Charles  H.  Howard  114,  R.  F.  Wilson  76.  District  attor- 
ney, B.  U.  Strong  189.  Clerk  of  board  of  supervisors,  Charles  T. 
Babcock  120,  George  Olin  68,  scattering  2.  County  treasurer, 
Adin  Randall  130,  T.  B.  Medlar  58.  Coroner,  George  Sprague  191. 
County  surveyor,  J.  B.  Randall  135,  Benjamin  Hadley  56.  County 
judge,  Ira  Mead  129,  J.  S.  Cook  59,  scattering  2. 

"Report  of  canvassing  board  first  election  county  officers." 

As  there  was  still  but  one  town  in  the  new  county,  the  town 
board  continued  to  perform  the  functions  of  a  county  board  until 
a  sufficient  number  of  towns  should  be  formed  to  allow  the  super- 
visors of  such  towns  to  comprise  a  county  board  in  the  usual  man- 
ner. Action  to  this  end  was  taken  M'ithout  delay.  On  the  second 
day  of  January,  1857,  the  day  following  the  canvass  of  votes  for 
county  officers,  the  town  board  of  Eau  Claire,  acting  in  its  capac- 
ity as  county  board,  set  off  the  town  of  Half  Moon  Lake.  This 
comprised  all  territory  in  the  county  west  and  north  of  the  Chip- 
pewa river,  or  the  present  west  side  of  the  city  of  Eau  Claire 
and  the  town  of  Union.  On  February  24,  the  towns  of  Bi-idge 
Creek  and  Brunswick  Avere  formed  and  the  three  new  towns  held 
their  first  election  in  April  of  that  year.  On  November  16,  the 
chairman  of  the  town  boards  of  Eau  Claire,  Half  Moon  Lake, 
Bridge  Creek  and  Brunswick  organized  as  a  county  board  of 
supervisors,  after  which  the  town  board  of  Eau  Claire  ceased  to 
perform  the  functions  of  county  board. 

In  March,  18a8,  the  county  board  changed  the  name  of  the 
town  of  Half  Moon  Lake  to  Half  Moon.  On  the  fourth  of  Decem- 
ber of  that  year  a  resolution  was  passed  setting  off'  a  town  to  be 
called  Machas,  but  later  in  the  same  day  the  name  was  changed 
to  Pleasant  Valley.  The  town  North  Eau  Claire  was  formed 
in  March,  1857. 

In  November,  1860,  all  that  part  of  the  town  of  Half  Moon 
lying  north  of  an  east  and  west  quarter  section  line  running  a 
few  rods  south  of  the  present  county  courthouse  and  directly 
through  the  site  of  the  present  high  school  building  was  set  off 
imder  the  name  of  Oak  Grove.  The  part  south  of  this  line  be- 
came the  town  of  West  Eau  Claire.  Later  in  the  same  month 
the  town  of  Fall  Creek  was  formed.    After  a  few  years  the  town 


name  was  changed  to  Lincoln,  the  village  only  retaining  the  name 
of  Fall  Creek.  The  town  of  Otter  Creek  was  set  off  in  April, 
1867,  the  town  of  Washington  in  January,  1868,  and  the  town 
of  Seymour  in  March,  1872. 

The  state  legislature  having  in  March,  1872,  granted  a  charter 
forming  the  city  of  Eau  Claire,  with  its  present  boundaries,  the 
parts  of  the  towns  of  West  Eau  Claire  and  Oak  Grove  lying  be- 
tween the  new  city  of  Eau  Claire  and  the  Dunn  county  line  were 
by  act  of  the  board  of  supervisors  in  March,  1872,  voted  to  be 
formed  into  a  new  town  to  be  called  the  town  of  Randall.  On 
the  twentieth  of  the  same  mouth,  two  petitions  from  residents 
of  this  proposed  new  town  were  received  by  the  county  board. 
A  petition  from  that  part  formerly  in  Oak  Grove  asked  that  the 
action  of  the  board  uniting  these  two  parts  of  towns  be  rescinded, 
and  a  petition  from  the  part  formerly  in  West  Eau  Claire  in 
opposition  to  same.  The  board  refused  to  rescind  its  former 
action  uniting  these  two  parts  of  towns,  but  did  pass  a  resolu- 
tion changing  the  name  from  the  town  of  Randall  to  the  town 
of  Union. 

In  November,  1873,  the  southern  part  of  the  town  of  Briuis- 
wick  was  set  off  under  the  name  Lant.  This  name  was  later 
changed  to  Dramraen.  In  March,  1874,  the  town  of  Fairchild 
was  formed;  in  April,  1876,  the  town  of  Ludington,  and  in  1882, 
the  town  of  Clear  Creek. 

Augusta  was  incorporated  as  a  village  in  1864  and  received 
a  city  charter  in  1885.  Altoona,  which  was  formerly  a  part  of 
the  town  of  Wasliington,  was  platted  as  a  village  in  1881,  Avith 
the  name  East  Eau  Claire.  This  was  later  changed  to  Altoona, 
and  in  1887  it  was  granted  a  city  charter,  having  the  distinction 
of  being  one  of  the  smallest,  if  not  the  smallest,  city  in  the  United 
States.     The  village  of  Fairchild  was  incorporated  May  6,  1880. 

Although  of  considerable  size.  Fall  Creek  remained  under  the 
government  of  the  town  of  Lincoln  until  1907,  when  it  was  incor- 
porated as  a  separate  village. 





In  the  early  days  ere  history  was  written,  the  water  of 
Bridge  creek  babbled  on  to  the  sea.  It  is  not  even  written  how 
long  it  had  babbled  when  men  and  women  came  to  make  the 
country  through  which  it  flowed  fit  for  their  habitation.  Geolo- 
gists have  told  us  that  it  marks  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
vast  area  of  that  first  formation  that  arose  out  of  the  chaos  of 
the  waters  that  covered  the  earth  ere  the  sun  or  the  moon  obeyed 
the  creative  behest:  "Let  there  be  light."  But  whatever  the 
geologists  may  tell  us,  or  whatever  the  philosophers  may  reveal 
unto  us  is  not  of  particular  interest  to  us  just  now,  and  was 
of  much  less  interest  to  those  sturdy  i:)ioneers  who  came  to 
establish  a  civilization  and  realize  the  fruition  of  a  bountiful 

When  Eau  Claire  county  was  organized  by  an  act  of  the  legis- 
lature in  1856,  there  were  but  few  settlers  in  the  eastern  part 
thereof.  Probably  the  first  settler  was  Andrew  Thompson,  who 
came,  it  is  said,  iu  1854,  and  settled  and  built  a  house  on  what  was 
later  Henry  Brown's  pasture  in  Otter  creek.  The  valley  was 
named  Thompson  valley.  If  he  came  in  1854,  he  was  here  at  least 
a  year,  perhaps  more,  before  the  coming  of  others.  In  1856  when 
the  county  was  organized,  Charles  Hale,  L.  D.  McCauley  and  J.  A. 
Bride  had  settled  in  what  has  since  been  known  as  Scott's  val- 
ley; Lorenzo  and  William  Bennett  and  Charles  and  Scribner 
Chadbourne  had  located  in  Thompson  valley ;  George  Diamond  had 
settled  on  the  Diamond  farm  in  Diamond  valley,  and  a  little 
bunch  of  pioneers,  James  Woodbury,  E.  L.  Hull,  William  Young 
and  perhaps  a  few  more,  had  settled  near  where  the  village  of 
Augusta  was  soon  to  be.  These,  together  with  the  first  settlers 
in  Augusta,  Charles  Buckman,  S.  E.  Bills,  John  P.  Stone  and 
a  few  more,  constituted  at  that  time  the  population  of  the  town 
of  Bridge  Creek. 



When  Eau  Claire  county  was  organized  there  was  quitt'  a 
settlement  at  Eau  Claire,  and  the  act  of  the  legislature  wliiuh 
created  the  county  provided  that  the  government  of  the  county 
should  be  vested  in  the  town  board  until  the  next  annual  town 
meeting.  The  county  was  divided  into  the  towns  of  Half  Moon, 
Brunswick  and  Bridge  Creek.  The  town  of  Bridge  Creek  com- 
prised nearly  all  the  east  half  of  the  county,  or,  to  be  more  par- 
ticular, what  is  now  the  towns  of  Fairchild,  Bridge  Creek,  Lud- 
ington,  Otter  Creek  and  Clear  Creek. 

The  first  town  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  William 
Young,  just  east  of  the  schoolhouse  on  Main  street,  Augusta.  The 
date  of  the  town  meeting  was  April  7,  1857.  The  officers  elected 
were  as  follows: 

Supervisors,  William  Young,  chairman ;  L.  Bennett  and  Joseph 
Sargent,  sideboard.  Clerk,  J.  C.  Ilackett.  Treasurer,  James  Mc- 
Cauley.  Assessor,  Charles  Buckman.  Justices,  L.  M.  Underwood, 
J.  F.  Stone,  S.  E.  Bills  and  R.  E.  Scott.  Constables,  William 
Buck,  Anas  Brown  and  W.  A.  Bennett.  Sealer  of  weights  and 
measures,  John  A.  Bride. 

The  voters  adopted  a  resolution  to  appropriate  the  sum  of 
$150.00  for  roads  and  bridges,  and  $150.00  for  schools.  A  resolu- 
tion was  also  adopted  providing  that  "hogs  shall  not  be  allowed 
to  run  at  large,  or  that  hogs  shall  not  be  considered  free  com- 
moners." It  was  ordered  that  notices  of  the  adoption  of  this 
resolution  be  "duly  posted  according  to  law."  The  four  justices 
of  the  peace  elected  "drew  lots"  for  the  one-year  and  two-year 
terms,  and  Messrs.  Stone  and  Underwood  got  the  long  term  and 
Messrs.  Scott  and  Bills  had  to  take  the  short  term.  And  so  the 
town  of  Bridge  Creek  was  organized  and  officered.  It  was  a  big 
town  and  but  sparsely  settled.  What  is  now  the  town  of  Luding- 
ton  was  an  unsettled  wilderness ;  the  three  eastern  townships 
were  little  better.  The  southeast  portion  of  the  town  was  a  roll- 
ing country  of  a  rich  sandy  loam  soil  and  covered  with  a  low 
growth  of  oak.  It  was  well  watered  and  has  since  developed  into 
the  finest  farm  country  in  the  Northwest.  The  heavy  pine  that 
covered  the  timbered  portion  of  the  town,  and  much  of  the  hard- 
.  wood,  has  since  been  cut  off  and  many  good  lands  have  been 
opened.  There  is  still  much  good  land,  however,  that  has  not 
been  broken  and  there  is  yet  room  for  many  more  good  farms. 

The  second  annual  town  meeting  was  held  April  6,  1858. 
J.  E.  Perkins  was  elected  chairman  of  the  town  board,  and  Jose- 
phus  Livermore  and  James  Sargent,  supervisors.  J.  C.  Hackett 
was  elected  clerk,  L.  Bennett,  treasurer,  and  Charles  Buckman, 


assessor.  The  sum  of  !i>400  was  voted  for  incidental  expenses; 
$100  for  roads  and  bridges,  and  $200  for  sehools.  A  resolution 
was  adopted  to  prevent  the  running  at  large  of  calves  under  one 
year  old,  and  also  geese ;  the  former  under  a  penalty  of  50  cents 
for  the  first  otfense  and  $1.00  for  every  subsequent  offense.  Tlie 
penalty  for  geese  was  25  cents  for  the  first  oft'ense,  and  50  cents 
for  all  subsequent  offenses.  It  was  also  discovered  that  the  reso- 
lution of  1857  relating  to  hogs  was  without  a  penalty  clause,  and 
the  matter  was  remedied  by  making  the  penalty  $5.00  for  the 
first  offense  and  $10.00  for  offenses  thereafter.  These  resolutions 
were  "posted  according  to  law."  jL19S6I2^ 

July  4,  1857,  the  first  fourth  of  .luly  celebration  in  the  town 
was  held  at  the  farm  of  Simon  Kaudall.  He  had  bought  the 
William  Young  place  and  the  people  gathered  there  and  had  a 
regular  old-fashioned  good  time.  In  the  evening  they  had  a 
dance  and  Alfred  Bolton  played  the  fiddle.  Allen  Randall  was  a 
little  fellow  at  that  time,  five  years  old,  and  he  had  a  regular 
Buster  Brown  of  a  time.  That  celebration  and  that  dance  were 
the  first  events  in  the  social  life  of  Augusta  and  Bridge  Creek, 
and  for  years  thereafter  the  spirit  of  fellowship  and  good  will 
grew  and  the  social  life  was  of  that  wliolesome  kind,  unmarred 
by  class  distinctions  that  prevails  when  tlie  people  live  near  to 
Nature's  heart.  There  Avas  no  fol-de-rol,  no  nonsensical  tommy- 
rot,  nor  any  of  that  superior  culture  that  marks  the  upper 
stratum  of  the  modern  social  life.  The  people  were  hearty  in 
those  days,  good-souled,  and  between  the  hours  of  toil  had  sense 
enough  to  have  a  good  time. 

At  the  town  meeting  in  the  spring  of  1859  the  old  officers 
were  all  re-elected,  and  the  town  records  do  not  disclose  that 
anything  of  special  interest  was  done. 

The  town  meeting  in  1860  resulted  in  the  election  of  Harris 
Searl  as  chairman  and  Josephus  Livermore  and  Charles  Hale  as 
supervisors;  C.  W.  Warren  was  elected  clerk,  J.  C.  Smith,  treas- 
urer, and  Charles  Bvickman,  assessor.  Mr.  Smith  refused  to 
qualify  as  treasurer  and  the  board  appointed  Charles  Buckman 
in  his  place  and  then  appointed  J.  C.  Hackett  as  assessor,  the 
office  to  which  Mr.  Buckman  had  been  elected.  The  bond  of  Mr. 
Buckman  as  treasurer  was  $3,200.  The  first  bills  audited  by  the 
town  board  that  are  of  record  were  those  of  J.  C.  Hackett  for 
clerk,  salary  $32.33,  and  H.  C.  Putnam  for  surveying,  $3.50.  These 
claims  were  audited  and  paid  in  June,  1860.  At  the  town  meet- 
ing that  year  R.  E.  Scott  made  a  motion  that  a  committee  be 
appointed  to  investigate  the  doings  of  the  town  officers  since  its 


organization.  There  is  no  record  that  the  committee  ever  made 
a  report.  The  total  amount  of  claims  paid  and  town  orders 
issued  was  $672.60.  The  accounts  were  audited  and  the  orders 
cancelled  by  the  board  of  audit  March  26,  1861.  The  record  also 
discloses  the  fact  that  William  Young  was  elected  superintend- 
ent of  schools  at  the  town  meeting  in  1860.  Just  what  his  duties 
were  the  writes  does  not  understand,  but  they  were  probably 
similar  to  those  of  the  county  superintendent  of  schools  at  the 
present  time. 

In  1861  the  old  board  Avas  re-elected  with  William  Maas  as 
clerk,  Charles  Buckmau,  treasurer,  and  J.  C.  Smith  and  S.  W. 
Crockett  as  assessors.  The  town  was  too  big  for  one  assessor, 
and  so  they  elected  two.  Both  of  the  assessors  refused  to  qualify, 
however,  and  C.  W.  Chadbourne  and  J.  M.  Woodbury  were  ap- 
pointed in  their  stead.  The  total  amount  of  orders  drawn  for 
incidental  expenses  that  year  was  $481.94. 

.  The  result  of  the  election  in  1862  was  the  choice  of  Josephus 
Liverraore  as  chairman,  C.  H.  Hale  and  Orriu  C.  Hall,  super- 
visors; Harris  Searl,  clerk;  Charles  Buckman,  treasurer,  and  R. 
E.  Scott,  assessor.  A  committee  consisting  of  Messrs.  F.  Dighton, 
Peter  Lundeville  and  William  Young  was  appointed  by  the  voters 
at  the  town  meeting  to  look  into  certain  doings  of  the  town  board. 
The  committee  made  the  investigation  during  the  day,  and  before 
the  meeting  adjourned  brought  in  two  reports.  The  majority 
report  was  by  Messrs.  Dighton  and  Lundeville  in  effect  that  the 
board  had  an  undoubted  right  to  purchase  a  map.  Mr.  Young 
made  the  minority  report  which  declared  that  $25.00  for  a  map 
is  unnecessary  in  these  times  of  high  taxes.  The  majority  report 
Avas  adopted  by  the  electors.  The  total  vote  volled  at  the  election 
was  75.    A  tax  of  five  mills  was  levied  for  highAvay  purposes. 

The  war  Avas  on  and  the  country  Avas  calling  for  brave  men  to 
come  to  the  front  and  offer  their  lives  upon  the  altar  of  their 
country.  The  call  Avas  not  unheeded,  even  among  the  little  band 
of  pioneers  of  Bridge  Creek.  On  September  5  Supervisor  Hale 
and  Treasurer  Buckman  resigned  their  offices  to  take  up  arms  in 
defence  of  liberty,  and  Messrs.  James  Sargent  and  li.  Blair  Avere 
appointed  to  the  respective  positions.  On  September  19  Orrin 
C.  Hall  resigned  as  supervisor  and  Daniel  Russell  was  appointed 
in  his  stead.  He  went  to  the  war  and  never  returned.  J.  L.  Ball 
also  resigned  as  justice  of  the  peace,  and  M.  B.  Riekard  Avas 
chosen  at  a  special  election  to  take  his  place.  Thus  the  toAvn 
of  Bridge  Creek  Avas  organized,  and  had  already  assumed  au 
importance   as   an    economic,   political   factor   in   the   history   of 


northern  Wisconsin.  In  fact,  when  Governor  Barstow,  in  1856, 
wanted  a  few  hundred  votes  to  re-elect  him,  they  were  forthcom- 
ing from  Bridge  Creek,  even  though  there  were  not  twenty-five 
people  in  the  town.  The  game  worked  for  a  short  time,  but  the 
courts  took  the  matter  in  hand  and  Barstow  gave  up  the  execu- 
tive office  in  compliance  with  the  judicial  determination. 

These  were  strenuous  years  in  Bridge  Creek.  The  flower  of 
the  young  manhood  went  to  the  war;  the  country  was  new  and 
taxes  were  high.  On  March  3,  1864,  a  special  town  meeting  was 
called  to  vote  upon  a  proposition  to  raise  $5,000  to  pay  bounties 
to  the  volunteers  and  men  drafted  to  fill  the  quota  called  for  by 
President  Lincoln.  There  were  50  votes  cast  on  the  proposition, 
all  in  the  affirmative.  A  resolution  was  passed  directing  the 
clerk  to  draw  orders  on  the  fund  as  the  claims  were  allowed. 
Anotlier  special  town  meeting  was  held  and  $4,000  was  appropri- 
ated for  the  same  purpose.  There  were  48  votes  cast,  of  which 
47  were  for  the  appropriation  and  1  against.  February  25,  1865, 
another  special  meeting  voted  $1,000,  and  March  25  $2,000  more 
was  voted.  These  various  funds  were  largely  made  up  by  per- 
sonal subscriptions,  thus  avoiding  the  necessity  of  a  tax  levy. 
To  raise  so  large  a  sum  of  money,  $12,000,  among  a  people  where 
50  votes  was  the  entire  voting  population,  was  a  task  of  no  mean 
proportions,  but  it  was  done  and  out  of  the  effort  the  people  came 
forth  unscorched  by  the  fires  of  distress  and  ready  to  bear  still 
greater  burdens. 

In  1867  the  town  of  Otter  Creek  was  organized  and  set  off 
from  Bridge  Creek.  It  comprised  what  is  now  the  towns  of 
Otter  Creek  and  Clear  Creek.  In  the  division  of  the  town  funds 
after  all  debts  had  been  paid  Otter  Creek  had  $232.94,  and 
Bridge  Creek  had  $412.18. 

Meanwhile  the  village  of  Augusta  had  grown,  and  there  were 
those  who  had  an  idea  that  there  should  be  provided  places 
where  booze  might  be  purchased.  In  conformity  with  this  idea 
G.  J.  Hardy  made  application  to  the  town  board.  The  application 
was  favorably  acted  upon  and  the  license  to  sell  spirituous  and 
malt  liquors  was  granted.  The  license  fee  M-as  fixed  at  $75.00. 
Soon  thereafter  Ren  Halstead  and  H.  S.  Baldwin  were  granted 
a  license  for  the  same  purpose  at  the  same  time.  Later  it  was 
discovered  that  the  license  fee  as  fixed  by  the  town  board  was 
excessive,  and  it  was  reduced  to  $20.  In  1870  the  fee  was  again 
raised  to  $75.00.  In  1873,  June  24,  a  special  town  meeting  was 
called  to  vote  $2,500  to  build  a  bridge  across  the  Eau  Claire  river 
where  the  main  river  bridge  now  is.     The  proposition  was  de- 


feated  by  a  vote  of  66  to  16.  This  was  about  the  voting  strength 
of  the  town  at  that  time.  In  1877  the  towns  of  Ludington  and 
Fairchild  were  organized  and  set  off  from  Bridge  Creek.  The 
village  of  Augusta  was  organized  and  set  off  in  1883.  This  left 
Bridge  Creek  with  less  than  three  townships. 

In  the  eai'ly  days  nearly  all  of  the  northern  and  eastern  por- 
tions of  the  town  were  covered  by  forests  and  these  were  watered 
by  numerous  small  streams,  tributaries  to  the  Eau  Claire  river. 
Game  and  fish  abounded  and  the  territory  was  the  paradise  of 
the  hunter  and  the  fisherman.  The  southern  and  western  portions 
of  the  town  as  it  originally  was  and  as  it  is  now  presents  a  pros- 
pect that  to  the  agriculturist  is  a  dream  of  pure  delight. 

The  original  population  was  mostly  of  Yankee  descent,  but 
since  the  war  the  Germans  have  come,  and  with  their  industry 
and  persistence  have  practically  possessed  the  land.  Dairying 
and  diversified  farming  is  the  principal  occupation  of  the  people, 
who  are  earnest,  honest  and  industrious,  and  nowhere  in  the 
world  can  be  found  a  more  patriotic  people. 

Brunswick  Township,  which  contains  about  thirty-six  square 
miles,  was  formed  in  1857,  and  is  bounded  irregularly  on  the 
north  by  the  Chippewa  river,  which  divides  it  from  the  town  of 
Union;  on  the  south  by  the  town  of  Drammen,  on  the  east  by  the 
towns  of  Washington  and  Pleasant  Valley,  and  on  the  west  b.y 
Dunn  county.  Besides  being  abundantly  watered  by  the  Chip- 
pewa river  at  its  northern  extremity,  the  town  is  intercepted  by 
Taylor's,  West  and  Coon  creeks.  It  had  a  population  according 
to  the  census  returns  of  1910  of  706.  Porter's  Mills  were  the  only 
manufacturing  industries  of  this  township.  This  was  formerly 
called  Porterville  and  was  surveyed  and  platted  with  that  name 
in  the  fall  of  1883.  It  had  a  station  on  the  Chippewa  Valley 
division  of  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  railway,  described 
as  "Porter's  Mills."  Among  the  early  settlers  in  close  proximity 
to  it  were  Nelson  Cooley,  in  1855,  and  Washington  Churchill,  in 
1856.  This  location  was  selected  as  the  site  for  a  sawmill  in 
1863  by  Charles  Warner,  who  began  the  erection  of  a  structure 
of  this  description.  It  was  completed  in  the  following  year  by 
Messrs.  Porter,  Brown  and  Meredith.  The  capacity  of  the  mill 
was  then  20,000  feet  a  day  of  twelve  hours.  It  was  burned  down 
in  October,  1866,  and  rebuilt  by  Gilbert  E.  Porter  and  D..  R. 
Moon  during  the  following  winter,  and  its  capacity  increased  to 
40,000  feet.  The  business  was  carried  on  under  the  firm  name  of 
Porter  &  Moon,  and  in  1869  the  capacity  of  the  mill  was  again 
increased  with  an  output  of  60,000  feet  per  day.     When  the  first 


mill  was  started  in  1865  there  was  only  one  house  at  this  place. 
It  was  occupied  by  the  few  men  then  required  to  run  the  busi- 
ness. According  to  the  census  returns  for  1890  the  population 
of  the  village  was  1,194.  There  was  no  industry  here  other  than 
those  controlled  by  this  company.  A  Scandinavian  Lutheran 
frame  church  was  erected  and  dedicated  in  1889,  and  a  tine  school 
house  was  built. 

Fairchild  Township  was  formed  in  1874,  and  is  identical  in 
size  and  sliape  with  one  of  government  survey.  It  is  bovinded 
on  the  north  by  the  town  of  Bridge  Creek,  on  the  south  by 
Jackson  county,  on  the  east  by  Clark  county,  and  on  the  west 
by  the  town  of  Bridge  Creek.  It  is  watered  by  Coon  and  Bridge 
creeks  and  their  tributaries.  Its  business  center  is  the  village 
of  the  same  name,  which  is  located  in  the  extreme  southeast 
corner  of  the  county  and  the  township,  and  was  settled  in  1868, 
about  the  time  when  the  then  West  Wisconsin  railway  was  con- 
structing its  roadbed.  The  land  at  this  time  was  covered  with 
a  low  growth  of  bushes,  but  is  now  made  into  fine  farms  and 
country  homes.  One  of  the  first  settlers  there  was  Mr.  Yan- 
Auken,  who  built  the  first  steam  sawmill  and  sold  it  to  another 
earl.y  settler,  G.  S.  Graves,  in  1870.  It  was  twice  burned  down, 
the  second  time  in  1874,  and  was  not  rebuilt. 

Lincoln  Township  is  irregular  in  line  on  the  north.  Its  great- 
est length  from  north  to  south  is  nine  miles,  while  the  distance 
from  east  to  west  is  eight  miles.  It  contains  a  fraction  over 
sixty  square  miles  and  is  settled  chiefly  by  an  agricultural  com- 
munity. It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  towns  of  Seymour 
and  Ludington,  on  the  south  by  the  towns  of  Clear  Creek  and 
Otter  Creek,  on  the  east  by  Ludington  and  Bridge  Creek,  and 
on  the  west  by  the  town  of  Washington.  The  Eau  Claire  river 
runs  through  the  towns  from  northeast  to  northwest,  and  it  is 
also  watered  by  the  tributaries,  Fall  and  Bear's  Grass  creeks. 
According  to  the  census  of  1910  it  had  a  population  of  1,189. 

Otter  Creek  Township,  which  contains  sixty-six  square  miles, 
with  a  population,  according  to  the  census  of  1910,  of  703,  Avas 
set  off  in  April,  1867.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  town 
of  Lincoln,  on  the  south  by  Trempealeau  county,  on  the  east  by 
the  town  of  Bridge  Creek  and  on  the  west  by  the  town  of  Clear 
Creek.  The  upper  portion  of  the  town  is  watered  by  Otter, 
Bear's  Grass  and  Thompson's  creeks.  The  nearest  shipping  point 
is  Augusta,  which  is  eleven  miles  distant.  This  town  is  essen- 
tially agricultural  and  lias  splendid  farms  owned  by  a  thrifty 


Pleasant  Valley  Township  was  set  off  in  1858  and  first  given 
the  name  of  Machas,  which  was  afterwai'ds  changed  by  the  county 
board  to  its  present  name.  It  is  principally  a  farming  country 
with  good  land  and  prosperous  people.  It  contains  fifty-four 
square  miles,  and  is  oblong  in  shape,  being  six  miles  wide  from 
east  to  west,  and  nine  miles  long  from  north  to  south.  The  water 
supply  is  ample,  Low's  creek,  Pine  and  Clear  creeks  intersecting 
the  country  in  almost  every  direction.  Fine  homes  and  farms 
are  to  be  found  here  and  happiness  and  prosperity  abound. 

Washington  Township  is  rectangular  in  shape,  but  irregular 
in  outline  and  contains  sixty-six  square  miles.  It  was  set  off 
in  January,  1866,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  city  of 
Eau  Claire  and  the  town  of  Seymour,  on  the  south  by  the  towns 
of  Clear  Creek  and  Otter  Creek,  on  the  east  by  the  town  of 
Lincoln  and  on  the  west  by  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  and  the  town 
of  Brunswick.  Otter  creek  runs  through  the  town  from  the 
extreme  southeast  to  the  extreme  northwest,  and  Low's  creek 
waters  the  western  portion  of  it.  It  has  a  population,  according  to 
the  census  returns  of  1910,  of  1,489,  exclusive  of  the  city  of 
Altoona,  which  has  824.  This  place  was  originally  East  Eau 
Claire,  and  was  surveyed  and  platted  as  a  village  with  that  name, 
in  September,  1881.  It  was  afterwards  changed  to  Altoona,  and 
incorporated  as  a  city  in  1887.  It  is  located  on  the  Eau  Claire 
river  and  Otter  creek  and  is  distant  four  miles  east  from  the 
city  of  Eau  Claire.  There  were  only  two  houses  here  in  1882 
when  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  railway 
selected  it  as  the  site  for  machine  shops  and  the  roundhouse. 
As  these  buildings  were  constructed  the  population  rapidly 
increased,  and  in  the  Pall  of  that  year  at  least  a  dozen  habitations 
had  been  erected.  In  the  following  year  hotels,  stores  and  resi- 
dences went  up  in  all  directions.  A  postoffice  was  established,  a 
union  frame  church  was  erected  in  1884  and  the  graded  school 
house  with  three  departments. 

Since  1884  Altoona  has  experienced  a  steady  and  prosperous 
growth ;  new  people  have  come  in,  churches  of  all  denominations 
have  been  established;  improved  schools  have  been  erected,  and 
while  it  may  be  stjded  one  of  the  smallest  cities  in  the  United 
States,  it  is  nevertheless  a  hustling  business  place  which  prom- 
ises to  improve  with  rapidity  with  the  addition  of  its  transporta- 
tion facilities  of  the  interurban  railway  line  from  Eau  Claire, 
which  has  recently  been  completed.  Originally  what  is  now  the 
Omaha  Railway  Company,  in  1880  deemed  it  essential  to  locate 
a  division  point  at  some  place  nearly  equidistant  between  Saint 


Paul  and  Elroy.  They  were  urged  to  make  that  point  Eau  Claire. 
This  they  claimed  they  could  not  do,  as  it  would  make  the  eastern 
division  much  longer  than  the  western.  They  had  purchased 
the  land  necessary  at  Fall  Creek  and  had  commenced  operations. 
The  citizens  of  Eau  Claire  realized  that  this  was  detrimental  to 
its  prosperity.  W.  F.  Bailey  took  the  matter  up  with  Mr.  Porter, 
president  of  the  road,  the  latter  agreeing  if  a  suitable  place  hav- 
ing a  half  mile  of  level  track  was  nearer  Eau  Claire,  and  other 
conditions  suitable,  he  would  consider  a  proposition  to  locate 
the  division  there.  Mr.  Johnson,  the  company's  engineer,  and 
Mr.  Bailey  went  over  the  line  and  place  where  Altoona  is  located 
and  found  suitable.  If  an  abundance  of  a  suitable  water  could 
be  found  and  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  would  grade  the  yards  Mr. 
Porter  agreed  to  locate  there.  Water  was  found,  the  city  pay- 
ing the  expense.  Subsequently  it  was  agreed  that  the  company 
would  grade  the  j-ard,  the  city  paying  in  lieu  of  grading  $2,000. 

Clear  Creek  Township  was  organized  in  1882,  and  is  strictly 
agricultural.  It  contains  thirty-six  square  miles  and  is  bounded 
on  the  north  by  the  towns  of  Washington  and  Lincoln,  on  the 
south  by  Trempealeu  county,  on  the  east  by  the  town  of  Otter 
Creek  and  on  the  west  by  Pleasant  Valley.  The  northern  half 
is  watered  by  Clear,  Bear's  and  Otter  creeks;  its  popidation, 
according  to  the  census  returns  of  1910,  are  728. 

Drammen  Township  is  identical  in  size  and  shape  with  a 
township  of  government  survey.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
the  town  of  Brunswick,  on  the  south  by  Buffalo  county,  on  the 
east  by  the  town  of  Pleasant  Valley,  and  on  the  Avest  by  Pepin 
county.  In  1873  this  town  was  set  off  from  Brunswick  imder 
the  name  of  Lant,  which  was  afterwards  changed  to  its  present 
name  of  Drammen.  The  water  supply  is  furnished  by  Rock  and 
Hoyt's  creeks  and  their  tributaries.  Its  population  for  1910 
was  869. 

Ludington  Township  is  sixteen  miles  in  length  from  east  to 
west,  six  miles  in  Avidth  and  contains  96  square  miles,  with  a 
population  for  1910  of  989.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Chip- 
pewa county,  on  the  south  by  the  towns  of  Lincoln  and  Bridge 
Creek,  on  the  east  by  Clark  county  and  on  the  west  by  Seymour 
and  Lincoln.  It  is  well  watered  by  the  north  fork  of  the  Eau 
Claire  river  aud  Twelve  Mile  Pine,  Sand,  Hay  and  Muskrat 
creeks.  '  It  is  stocked  with  an  abundance  of  hard  wood,  and  in 
its  west  center  is  located  the  great  maple  sugar  district. 

Seymour  Township  is  about  twelve  miles  long  and  three  wide, 
containing  thirty-six  square  miles.     It  is  bounded  on  the  north 


by  Chippewa  county,  on  the  south  by  the  towns  of  Washington 
and  Lincoln,  on  the  east  by  the  town  of  Ludington  and  on  the 
west  by  the  city  of  Eau  Claire.  The  Eau  Claire  river  runs  nearly 
the  whole  length  of  the  farther  extremity  of  the  town,  and  other 
portions  of  it  are  intersected  by  the  river's  tributaries.  Its  popu- 
lation in  1910  was  588. 

Union  Township  was  first  laid  out  as  the  town  of  Randall, 
but  afterward  changed  to  Union.  It  has  thirty-four  square  miles, 
a  little  less  than  a  regular  township,  with  a  population  in  1910 
of  1,090.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Chippewa  county,  on 
the  south  by  the  town  of  Brunswick  (the  Chippewa  river  dividing 
the  two  towns),  on  the  east  by  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  and  on  the 
west  by  Dunn  county.  Truax  is  a  station  on  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul, 
Minneapolis  &  Omaha  railway  four  and  one-half  miles  north- 
west of  Eau  Claire.  The  Eau  Claire  county  poor  farm  and 
asylum  is  located  in  this  town,  which  contains  many  fine  farms 
and  farm  buildings. 


Prof.  Fi-t'deric  Craiiefield.  secretary  of  the  Wisconsin  State 
Iloi-ticultiual  Society  at  Madison  said  in  an  interview  regarding 
the  jiossibilities  of  Wisconsin  as  a  fruit  raising  state:  "What 
about  Wisconsin?  Wisconsin  is  a  good  fruit  state;  quite  as  good 
as  anj-  other  state  and  far  better  than  many.  Give  the  right 
kind  of  a  man  the  right  kind  of  land — we  have  millions  of  acres 
of  it  in  Wisconsin — the  right  kinds  of  fruits  and  as  much  money 
may  be  made  in  fruit  raising  in  Wisconsin  as  in  any  other  place 
in  the  United  States.  Don't  go  M-est,  young  man!  Stay  at  home 
and  grow  up  with  the  country.  Even  if  you  have  only  a  little 
money,  good  horse  sense,  plenty  of  ambition,  a  stout  heart,  hard- 
ened muscles  and  a  clever  wife  stay  in  Wisconsin — we  need  you. 

"With  a  capital  of  $5,000  a  splendid  fruit  farm  may  be  devel- 
oped in  Wisconsin  that  will  yield  in  ten  years  an  annual  income 
equal  to  the  original  investment.  If  this  sum  is  not  available 
$2,000  will  answer,  and  if  that  is  too  much  $1,000  and  fair  credit 
will  place  a  beginning  on  a  safe  business  foundation.  A  young 
man  full  of  energy  without  a  dollar  can  make  a  start  by  working 
for  others  and  learning  the  industry,  and  before  middle  age  own 
a  business  that  will  yield  him  a  competent  income  for  the  rest  of 
his  days.    We  have  men  in  Wisconsin  who  have  done  it. 

"After  making  a  tliorough  research  and  scientific  study  of 
the  soil  and  climate  of  Wisconsin  we  are  sure  of  our  facts  when 
we  make  the  statement  that  these  conditions  are  as  favorable 
for  the  raising  of  small  fruits,  apples  and  cherries  on  a  commer- 
cial or  market  basis  as  in  Michigan,  Indiana,  Iowa,  Missouri,  or 
any  other  central  or  western  state. 

"In  many  respects,  as  markets,  high  color  of  fruit  and  free- 
dom from  frost,  the  conditions  are  more  favorable  than  in  any  of 
the  states  named.  Taking  into  consideration  the  amount  of  cap- 
ital required,  the  raising  of  apples  or  cherries  in  Wisconsin  is 
as  profitable  as  in  any  other  state  east  or  west.  To  illustrate 
this  statement  I  will  call  attention  to  one  upper  Wisconsin  county 
in  particular.  After  ten  years  of  careful  observation  I  am  well 
satisfied  that  Door  county  offers  exceptional  opportunities  for 


fruit  growing,  particularly  for  the  raising  of  sour  cherries  and 
apples.  After  a  careful  investigation  of  the  returns  from  fruit 
growing  in  different  parts  of  the  United  States  I  am  well  con- 
vinced that  the  net  profits  earned  by  several  of  the  cherry 
orchards  in  the  vicinity  of  Sturgeon  Bay  during  the  past  ten 
years  are  greater  than  can  be  shown  by  any  other  areas  of  similar 
extent  devoted  to  fruits  of  any  kind  anywhere  in  the  United 

"Land  can  be  bought  in  Wisconsin,  an  orchard  planted  and 
brought  to  profitable  bearing  age  for  one-fourth  to  one-half  the 
price  asked  for  western  irrigated  orchard  tracts.  The  cost  of 
transportation  from  Oregon  to  New  York  on  a  carload  of  apples 
is  about  the  same  as  ten  acres  of  good  fruit  land  in  Wisconsin. 

"Another  thing,  the  Wisconsin  fruit  grower  is  within  easy 
reach  of  one-third  of  the  entire  population  of  the  United  States. 
Only  a  few  hundred  carloads  of  strawberries  of  300  bushels  each 
are  shipped  out  of  Wisconsin  each  year,  just  about  enough  to 
make  one  good  shortcake  for  Chicago.  Strawberries  bear  one 
year  after  planting  and  yield  4,000  to  6,000  quarts  per  acre.  No 
state  in  the  Union  can  produce  better  strawberries  than  Wis- 
consin or  furnish  cheaper  land  adapted  to  their  growth. 

"Raspberries,  blackberries,  currants  and  gooseberries  all 
thrive  in  every  part  of  the  state  and  are  money  makers.  Two 
to  four  hundred  dollars  an  acre  may  be  made  from  berries. 
Grapes  are  raised  in  the  southern  counties  and  always  bring  a 
good  price  on  local  markets.  A  good  crop  of  Concord  or  Moore's 
Early  will  bring  $250  an  acre.  Wisconsin  is  pre-eminently  an 
apple  state.  In  size,  color,  qualitj^  and  productiveness  Wisconsin, 
Duchess,  Wealthy  and  McMahan  cannot  be  equaled.  Early 
apples  always  find  a  ready  market  at  good  prices,  and  the  money 
is  in  the  grower's  pocket  long  before  the  winter  apples  of  other 
states  are  harvested,  and  with  no  storage  charges  to  pay. 

"A  ten-year  apple  orchard,  if  properly  handled,  will  yield 
an  annual  average  income  of  $250  to  $300  per  acre.  We  have 
records  of  $1,400  per  acre  for  a  single  crop.  Where?  Almost 
anywhere  in  the  state.  There  are  but  few  sections  in  Wisconsin 
wholly  unsuited  to  fruit  raising,  in  fact,  berries  and  all  small 
fruits  may  be  grown  successfully  in  any  county  in  the  state. 
Concerning  apples  and  cherries,  certain  sections  are  much  better 
than  others.  This  is  true  of  other  crops  and  of  fruits  in  every 
other  state.  Fruit  raising  anywhere  is  not  unlike  any  other  busi- 
ness enterprise.  Capital,  common  sense,  energy,  determination 
and  close  application  to  details  are  all  quite  as  essential  in  fruit 


raising  as  in  any  other  commercial  enterpi'ise.     It  is  the  "man 
behind  the  tree  that  counts." 


A  great  many  years  ago  attempts  were  made  iu  some  portions 
of  the  county  to  raise  apples  with  some  measure  of  success,  but 
the  farmers  of  that  period  did  not  have  the  advantage  which 
those  of  this  day  have  iu  the  benefit  of  scientific  learning  and 
instruction  from  the  agricultural  college  in  connection  with  the 
university,  which  has  investigated  all  sorts  of  subjects  Avhich 
are  related  to  agriculture  in  any  way,  and  a  great  deal  of  atten- 
tion has  been  paid  to  the  subject  of  apple  raising,  and  as  to 
whether  or  not  the  soil  and  climate  conditions  iu  this  part  of  the 
state  will  permit  of  apples  being  raised  on  a  large  scale.  In  the 
earlier  days  alluded  to,  occasionally  was  found  a  small  orchard 
which  was  planted  by  some  farmer  and  just  allowed  to  grow 
witliout  any  particular  attention,  except  that  in  some  instances 
the  science  of  grafting  was  gone  into  when,  perhaps,  some  man 
who  had  been  familiar  with  the  growing  of  apples  in  some  eastern 
state  knew  the  method  of  grafting  apple  trees;  but  in  no 
locality  iu  the  county  was  a  determined  effort  made  to  raise 
apples  as  a  commercial  proposition,  although  many  varieties 
were  in  fact  raised  of  good  quality  and  flavor,  but  with  the  lack 
of  attention  these  little  orchards  gradually  went  into  decay  and 
the  trees  died  off,  more  for  the  want  of  proper  care  and  attention 
than  on  account  of  any  conditions  in  the  soil  or  climate. 

"With  the  awakening  all  along  the  line  in  agricultural  sub- 
jects has  come  a  movement  in  this  county  in  the  last  few  years 
to  experiment  with  the  growing  of  apple  orchards,  and  with  the 
great  assistance  which  has  been  rendered  by  the  agricultural 
department  of  the  university,  and  also  the  officials  of  the  State 
Horticultural  Society,  we  are  able  in  this  chapter  to  record  the 
result  of  experiments  which  prove  beyond  any  question  that 
within  the  limits  of  Eau  Claire  county  there  is  just  as  good 
fruit  lands  as  can  be  found  anywhere  in  the  United  States  for 
the  raising  of  certain  varieties  of  apples.  For  the  year  1912 
there  were  two  hundred  and  twenty  acres  of  orchard  iu  the 
county,  containing  12,043  growing  apple  trees,  which  produced 
10,300  bushels  of  apples. 

To  illustrate  what  may  be  accomplished  in  the  raising  of  fruit 
in  Wisconsin  we  quote  from  statistics  which  show  what  one  man 
did  iu  one  of  the  nearby  counties,  that  of  Monroe : 


"If  anything  else  was  needed  to  establish  beyond  any  qiiestion 
that  apple  growing  in  this  part  of  Wisconsin  can  be  successfully 
accomplished,  and  not  only  apples,  but  grapes,  plums  and  cher- 
ries, it  has  been  most  conclusively  furnished  in  the  results  accom- 
plished by  J.  W.  Leverich  at  his  fruit  farm  in  the  town  of  Angelo, 
Monroe  county.  Mr.  Leverich,  who  now  is  acknowledged  one  of 
the  authorities  on  small  fruits,  started  in  1904  an  experimental 
orchard  of  five  acres,  which  he  planted  in  May  of  that  year.  In 
order  to  demonstrate  to  his  own  satisfaction  whether  these  fruits, 
apples,  grapes  and  cherries  could  be  successfully  raised  if  handled 
scientifically,  his  trees  were  selected  with  the  greatest  care  and 
planted  upon  a  piece  of  land  which  was  carefully  selected  for  the 
purpose,  and  his  long  experience  in  small  fruit  raising  gave  him 
the  knowledge  necessary  to  select  the  particular  land  which  he 
did  for  this  orchard.  The  tract  is  protected  on  the  north  and 
west  by  growing  timber  from  the  winds;  to  the  south  and  east 
are  hills  which  protect  the  trees  from  wind  blowing  from  that 
direction.  There  are  sixteen  rows  of  fruit  trees  and  two  rows 
of  grapes.  The  trees  are  set  twenty-two  in  a  row.  and  the  two 
rows  of  grapes  about  four  hundred  feet  in  lengtli  each,  in  which 
there  are  seven  distinct  varieties. 

"At  the  time  of  setting  this  five-acre  tract  into  an  orchard  in 
the  spring  of  1904,  Mr.  Leverich  placed  between  the  rows  of  trees 
either  raspberries,  red  raspberries  or  blackberry  brush.  These 
berry  brush  have  been  thoroughly  cultivated  and  cared  for,  as 
the  trees  and  vines  of  the  orchard  were,  and  as  a  consequence 
there  has  been  a  crop  of  berries  each  year  commencing  with  1905. 
In  1906  the  first  returns  from  the  orchard  proper  were  secured, 
being  ten  baskets  of  grapes.  The  plum  trees  commenced  bearing 
in  1907,  and  the  apples  in  1908,  while  the  first  cherries  were 
secured  in  1911.  and  it  is  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Leverich  that  this 
locality  in  the  town  of  Angelo  is  not  adapted  to  the  culture  of 
cherries.  But  his  experiment  has  demonstrated  beyond  a  doubt 
that  the  valley  soil  of  Monroe  county,  as  well  as  the  ridges,  is 
suitable  and  just  as  well  adapted  naturally  for  the  culture  of 
fruits  as  the  ridge  lands.  It  only  needs  the  intelligence,  industry 
and  perseverance,  which  are,  of  course,  all  necessary  in  an  indus- 
try of  this  character  to  put  into  a  paying  proposition  an  orchard 
bearing  apples,  plums  and  grapes.  During  the  fall  season  of 
1911  Mr.  Leverich  exhibited  in  one  or  two  store  windows  in  the 
city  of  Sparta  baskets  containing  the  varieties  of  fruit  and  grapes 
raised  in  this  orchard,  and  they  made  a  tempting  picture  indeed. 
We  have  here  the  record  which  was  kept  by  him  from  tlie  time 


beginning  with  the  planting  of  tlie  oreliard  up  until  the  market 
of  1911,  showing  in  detail  the  number  of  baskets,  cases  or  bushels, 
as  the  case  may  be,  of  fruit  which  was  raised  upon  this  five-acre 
tract  of  land  from  May,  1904,  up  to  and  including  the  crop  of 
1911,  giving  the  total  amount  realized  upon  the  entire  tract: 


"1905,  24  cases,  $1.19  per  case,  $28.56;  1906,  152  cases,  $1.47 
per  case,  $223.44;  1907,  207  eases,  $1.67  per  case,  $405.69;  1908, 
288  cases,  $1.59  per  ease,  $557.92 ;  1909,  239  cases,  $1.54  per  case, 
$368.06;  1910,  124  cases,  $1.93  per  ease,  $239.32;  1911,  155  cases, 
$1.64  per  case,  $254.20.     Total,   1,190  cases;  total,  $2,231.86. 


"1905,  54  eases,  $1.21  per  ease,  $65.34;  1906,  421  eases,  $1.46 
per  case,  $614.66 ;  1907,  305  cases,  $1.60  per  case.  $488 ;  1908,  235 
cases,  $1.89  per  case,  $445.25 ;  1909,  145  cases,  $2.05  per  case, 
$297.25;  1910,  76  cases,  $1.95  per  case,  $148.20;  1911,  111  cases, 
$1.56  per  case,  $173.16.     Total,  1,342  cases;  total,  $2,231.86. 


"1905,  10  cases,  $1.21  per  case,  $12.10;  1906,  154  cases,  $1.47 
per  ease,  $226.38;  1907,  125  cases,  $1.68  per  ease,  $200;  1908,  215 
cases,  $1.75  per  case,  $376.25 ;  1909,  54  cases,  $1.85  per  case, 
.$99.90;  1910,  10  cases,  $1.98  per  case,  $19.80.  Total,  568  cases; 
total,  $934.43. 


"1906,  10  baskets;  1907,  110  baskets;  1908,  200  baskets;  1909, 
20  baskets;  1910,  10  baskets;  1911,  175  baskets.  Total,  505  bas- 
kets, at  25  cents  per  basket,  $126.25. 

"Cherries — 20  cases,  $1..50  per  case,  $30. 

"Apples— 1908,  5  bushels;  1909,  10  bushels;  1911,  75  bushels. 
Total,  90  bushels,  at  75  cents  per  bushel,  $67.50. 

"Plums— 1907,  5  cases;  1908,  30  eases;  1909,  50  cases;  1911, 
130  cases.  Total,  215  cases,  $1.25  per  case,  $268.75.  Plants  sold, 
$500.     Grand  total,  $6,235.98." 

These  figures  are  for  cases  of  twenty-four  pints  each  of  black- 
berries and  blaek  and  red  raspberries,  and  sixteen  quarts  of  plums 
and  cherries. 


The  conditions  of  Monroe  county  are  not  much  different  from 
those  of  Eau  Claire,  the  soil  with  few  exceptions  is  much  the 
same,  except  that  in  places,  if  anything,  Monroe  county  has  more 
sand.  The  farm  from  which  the  above  figures  were  obtained  is 
located  in  a  valley  where  the  soil  is  largely  composed  of  sand. 
In  Eau  Claire  county  for  many  years  has  been  raised  small  fruit, 
especially  berries,  but  it  is  not  until  recently  that  apples  have  been 
raised  in  any  quantities.  In  1912  there  were  eighty-three  acres 
given  to  the  strawberry  plant,  from  which  3,626  bushels  of  berries 
were  gathered,  and  the  same  year  1,222  bushels  of  raspberries 
were  produced  from  forty-seven  acres  and  1,030  bushels  of  black- 
berries were  gathered  from  twenty-eight  acres.  Sis  acres  set  to 
currant  bushes  yielded  one  hundred  and  thirty  bushels,  and  the 
grapes  produced  amounted  to  eleven  bushels,  and  from  three 
acres  one  hundred  bushels  of  cranberries  were  marketed. 


Since  the  organization  of  Eau  Claire  county,  in  1856,  when 
the  country  was  densely  covered  with  a  heavy  growth  of  timber, 
rapid  strides  have  been  made  in  agricultural  pursuits.  "Where 
once  stood  the  great  forests  of  pine  and  hard  timber,  long  since 
brought  in  contact  with  the  woodman's  axe,  fine  farms  and  ele- 
gant homes  now  abound.  When  the  first  settlers  reached  Eau 
Claire  county  and  observed  the  immensity  of  the  forest  some  of 
them  little  thought  that  only  a  few  short  years  would  elapse  be- 
fore the  county  would  become  one  of  the  leading  counties  rich  in 
agriculture.  Others  of  the  pioneers  who  came  to  make  a  home 
for  themselves  and  families  set  to  work  cleai-ing  the  land,  erect- 
ing buildings,  and  otherwise  improving  the  land,  so  that  now, 
where  the  wild  beasts  once  roamed  at  their  leisure  the  soil  is 
made  to  blossom  like  the  rose. 

The  soil  for  the  most  part  is  a  rich  clay  and  sandy  loam,  with 
here  and  there  in  some  parts  of  the  county  a  little  sand,  which 
in  later  years  has  been  made  to  produce  abundant  crops.  The 
county  is  especially  favored  with  a  bountiful  water  supply  nearly 
everywhere,  for  in  most  every  direction  there  are  creeks  and 
small  sti-eams. 

It  is  the  writer's  firm  belief  that  there  is  no  territory  in  the 
country  of  equal  size  that  has  produced  more  net  profit  per  acre 
than  has  the  soil  of  Eau  Claire  county  for  the  length  of  time 
that  it  has  been  under  cultivation.  The  products  of  this  county 
and  their  aggregate  value  are  increasing  with  each  succeeding 
decade,  as  will  be  shown  by  the  comparative  tables  which  are 
here  submitted.  At  the  time  of  the  first  settlers  in  Eau  Claire 
who  engaged  in  farming  wheat  was  the  principal  or  staple  crop 
grown,  the  soil  being  new  and  containing  all  of  the  elements 
necessary  to  produce  large  yields,  but  as  the  years  went  on  and 
the  continued  cropping  of  the  ground  exhausted  the  greater  part 
of  the  phosphates,  and  the  nitrogenous  compounds  that  are  so 
abundantly  essential  to  the  production  of  grain.  The  result  was 
diminished  yields.  This,  combined  with  low  prices,  which  ruled 
for  a  number  of  years,  and  the  competition  of  the  great  wheat 


belt  of  the  west  and  northwest,  compelled  the  farmers  to  adopt 
different  methods  of  farming.  This  course  they  pursued,  so  that 
at  this  time,  while  there  is  quite  an  acreage  of  wheat  sown  yearly, 
the  yield  is  diminishing.  Corn,  oats,  rye  and  barley  yield  large 
crops,  while  the  sugar  beet  in  some  localities  is  raised  success- 
fully. Where  stock  raising,  dairying  and  clover  predominates 
the  fertility  of  the  land  is  sustained  and  is  yearly  growing  better 
under  the  skillful  management  of  the  Eau  Claire  county  farmer. 

The  cultivation  of  the  sugar  beet  and  the  manufacture  of 
sugar  is  receiving  considerable  attention  and  is  not  an  experi- 
ment, for  it  was  proven  as  early  as  1867  at  Fond  du  Lac  and  at 
Black  Hawk,  Sauk  county,  in  1870,  that  the  soil  and  climate  of 
Wisconsin  were  si;ited  to  tlie  successful  growth  of  the  sugar  beet. 
The  failure  of  these  enterprises  was  due,  however,  to  lost  interest 
in  this  particular  product  by  the  farmers. 

In  writing  of  the  dairying  interests,  and  keeping  in  mind 
the  fact  that  the  state  of  Wisconsin  stands  in  the  front  rank  in 
the  production  of  butter  and  cheese,  it  must  also  be  kept  in  mind 
that  Eau  Claire  county  is  on  the  star  list  in  these  commodities; 
with  the  nearness  to  market,  the  right  kind  of  soil,  the  best  grass 
and  the  purest  water,  they  can  and  do  produce  butter  and  cheese 
that  cannot  be  surpassed  by  even  the  most  favored  localities  of 
Europe.  The  growth  of  this  branch  of  agriculture  has  been 
rapid,  but  has  never  yet  exceeded  the  demand,  which  is  con- 
stantly increasing.  And  not  only  has  this  indvistry  been  a  source 
of  immense  revenue,  it  has  completely  revolutionized  the  methods 
of  farming  that  were  in  vise  twenty-five  or  thirty  years  ago,  when 
nearly  all  the  land  was  plowed  up  in  the  fall  or  spring  and 
planted  to  wheat  and  other  grains.  Then  in  addition  to  the  wash- 
ing away  of  the  loose  soil  by  the  spring  rains  come  years  of 
short  crops,  low  prices  and  innumerable  trials  and  troubles  that 
arise  from  depending  wholly  upon  the  success  of  one  growth  of 
a  certain  crop. 

The  following  comjiarison  Avill  be  of  interest  and  show  the 
increase  or  decrease  in  the  yield  of  the  various  commodities.  The 
agricultural  products  for  the  county  in  1890  were  as  follows: 
Wheat,  72,150  bushels;  corn,  150,000  bushels;  oats,  395,538 
bushels;  rye,  28,194  bushels;  potatoes,  86,563  bushels;  flax,  13,040 
pounds ;  tobacco,  354  pounds ;  cultivated  grasses,  10,966  tons. 
The  acreage  seeded  to  grain  in  1890  was  as  follows:  Wheat, 
7,467 ;  corn,  9,042 ;  oats,  18,850 ;  barley,  1,157 ;  rye,  2,952 ;  that  of 
potatoes  was  1,044;  cultivated  grasses,  15,408. 

In  1912  the  agricultural  products  of  the  county  were :    Wheat, 


52,458  bushels;  corn,  441,647  bushels,  shelled;  oats,  1,129,807 
bushels;  barley,  196,759  bushels;  rye,  141,414  bushels;  flax,  690 
bushels;  potatoes,  287,065  bushels;  beans,  1,675  bushels;  timothy 
seed,  2,065  bushels;  eloverseed,  2,593  bushels;  sugar  beets,  1,023 
tons;  tobacco,  12,800  pounds;  cabbage,  3,397  tons;  hay,  26,170 
tons.  The  acreage  seeded  to  grain  in  1912  was  as  follows :  Wheat, 
2,841 ;  corn,  16,784 ;  oats,  40,982 ;  barley,  8,210 ;  rye,  11,078 ;  flax, 
495;  potatoes,  2,270;  beans,  195;  sugar  beets,  57;  cabbage,  189; 
tobacco,  8;  cultivated  grasses,  33,635. 


It  took  a  good  many  years  of  experience  and  the  efforts  of 
some  farmers  more  progressive  than  others  of  the  general  run 
to  bring  to  the  fore,  as  a  commercial  proposition,  the  dairying 
industry.  Cattle,  almost  from  the  earliest  settlement  down  to 
within  the  last  fifteen  years,  were  raised  for  beef,  with  occasion- 
ally a  "cheese  factory"  which  would  spring  up  and  flourish  for 
a  time  and  then  quit  business,  for  the  Avell  developed  farming  of 
the  east  could  more  than  successfully  compete  with  the  middle 
west  in  "cream  cheese."  Every  farmer  who  kept  cows  made 
more  or  less  dairy  butter,  usually  a  department  presided  over 
by  the  good  wife,  who  presided  at  the  churn  and  had  her  regular 
days  for  turning  out  butter  for  the  market,  but  with  the  develop- 
ment of  this  section  and  the  steady  increase  of  population  of 
villages  came  the  demand  "more  butter,"  and  with  this  demand 
from  the  markets  developed  the  raising  of  better  cattle,  the 
establishment  of  creameries  and  the  application  of  scientific 
modern  methods  to  the  making  and  marketing  of  butter. 

Eau  Claire  county  farmers  have  kept  pace  with  other  sections 
of  the  state,  and  this  very  profitable  industry  has  been  pretty 
well  developed  in  almost  all  parts  of  the  county ;  farmers  are  and 
have  been  studying  the  breeds  of  dairy  cattle;  they  send  their 
sons  to  the  university,  some  taking  the  short  course  and  some 
the  long  course  in  agriculture,  and  come  out  fitted  to  manage 
stock  farms  successfullj^  There  are  one  or  two  associations  of 
men  who  breed  a  certain  kind  of  dairy  cattle,  and  stock  farms 
with  modern  sanitary  barns  and  apparatus  for  handling  milk 
and  cream  are  found  in  nearly  every  township,  and  not  only 
that,  but  there  are  numerous  creameries,  which  are  generally 
operated  on  the  co-operative  plan  by  the  farmers  in  its  com- 
munity, where  butter  fat  is  turned  into  cash  with  scientific  regu- 
larity, and  from  this  one  industry  alone  has  come  a  great  increase 


in  laud  values  all  over  the  county.  As  late  as  1890  there  were 
but  4,10i  milch  cows  in  the  county.  In  1912  this  number  had 
been  increased  to  10,248,  valued  at  $202,312.  In  this  same  year 
there  was  6,609  head  of  other  cattle,  valued  at  $67,697.  Horses 
there  were  7,723  head,  valued  at  $568,668.  Sheep  and  lambs,  5,116 
head,  valued  at  $13,127.  This  same  year  there  were  5,515  head  of 
swine  four  months  old  or  over,  valued  at  $30,917.  For  the  year 
1912  there  were  1,295  silos  in  the  county. 

Previous  to  1880  there  was  very  little  dairying  done  in  Eau 
Claire  county.  Farming  was  practically  all  wheat,  barley  and 
oats,  the  cattle  of  the  county  pasturing  in  the  brush  or  on  the 
roadside  in  the  summer,  and  living  on  the  straw  stacks  in  the 
winter.  What  little  butter  was  made  was  made  in  the  summer 
and  all  handled  by  the  women  folks  and  put  down  in  the  cellar 
for  the  winter.  The  surplus  was  traded  out  to  the  grocery  store 
or  kept  in  the  cellar  until  the  fall  and  then  sold  for  what  it  would 
bring,  which  was  not  much. 

The  first  creamery  in  the  county  was  started  along  early  in 
the  eighties,  shortly  after  the  first  institute  was  held  in  Augusta. 
At  that  time  Ex-Governor  "W.  H.  Hoard,  Hiram  Smith  and  Dean 
Henry  of  the  university  were  out  preaching  the  gospel  of  the 
dairy  cow  as  the  only  salvation  of  the  northern  Wisconsin  farmer. 
The  creamery  ran  all  summer  and  then  failed.  The  next  year  it 
went  into  the  hands  of  the  Victory  Drug  Co.,  of  Augusta,  who 
made  a  success  of  it.  Shortly  after  this  a  creamery  was  started 
at  Fall  Creek.  This  creamery  adopted  the  plan  of  gathering  hand 
skimmed  cream  from  the  farmers,  and  followed  that  plan  for  a 
year  or  two,  until  the  advent  of  the  cream  sepai-ator.  They  then 
established  a  skimming  station  as  did  the  Augusta  creamery. 
This  improved  the  quality  of  the  butter  and  brought  more  money 
to  the  farmers,  making  it  possible  for  them  to  make  money  out 
of  dairying.  Soon  after  this  a  cheese  factory  was  started  at 
Russell's  Corner,  near  Augusta,  which  was  later  turned  into  a 
creamery,  and  has  been  very  successful. 

About  1885  the  Augusta  Creamery  established  a  skimming 
station  in  the  town  of  Ludington.  This  branch  later  grew  and 
developed  into  a  creamery.  It  was  sold  out  to  Ludtke  Bros.,  of 
Ludington,  who  operated  it  until  about  three  years  ago,  when  it 
burned  down.  The  farmers  then  organized  a  co-operative  cream- 
ery, which  is  now  in  active  operation.  In  about  the  year  1886 
there  was  a  company  organized  in  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  to  biiild 
and  operate  a  creamery.  This  was  built  on  Water  street,  but 
proved  a  failure,  there  not  being  enough  cows  within  easy  hauling 


distance  of  the  creamery  to  furnish  cream  for  the  plant.  The 
next  creamery  to  be  organized  in  the  county  was  at  Cleghorn. 
This  was  along  about  1893  or  1894  and  is  still  in  operation  and 
doing  well.  Along  about  1894  there  was  a  creamery  started  in 
the  town  of  Drammen.  This  never  was  a  success,  was  closed  down 
about  two  years  ago  and  sold  at  auction  about  one  year  ago.  Has 
now  been  turned  into  a  cheese  factory. 

Shortly  after  this  Messrs.  Hanke  and  Emmerson  built  a  cream- 
ery at  Brackett  in  the  town  of  Washington.  This  creamery  was 
very  successful  for  a  Avhile,  but  gradually  lost  patronage  and  was 
sold  out  several  times  and  finally  organized  into  a  co-operative 
plant  and  failed,  closing  down  about  two  years  ago.  There  was 
also  a  creamery  organized  in  the  town  of  Union  about  four  miles 
from  Eau  Claire.  This  creamery  never  did  very  much  and  finally 
closed  down. 

In  1901  the  farmers  of  the  town  of  "Washington  organized  a 
co-operative  creamery  and  built  it '  about  five  miles  from  Eau 
Claire.  This  creamery  has  been  successful  from  the  start  and  is 
now  doing  a  good  business.  In  1901  they  discontinued  making 
cheese  at  Russel's  Corner  and  built  a  new  creamery,  and  about 
the  same  time  the  farmers  of  the  town  of  Bridge  Creek  in  what  is 
known  as  Diamond  Valley  organized  a  co-operative  creamery 
there  and  are  still  in  successful  operation.  In  1906  the  Eau  Claire 
Creamery  Company  was  organized  and  started  business  in  May 
of  that  year.  This  company  has  steadily  grown  until  it  ranks  as 
one  of  the  largest  concerns  of  this  kind  in  the  state.  Since  1880 
the  county  has  gradually  di-ifted  away  from  grain  raising  to 
dairying  and  stock  raising.  They  have  a  Guernsey  Breeders' 
Association,  also  a  Holstein  Breeders'  Association,  and  they  work- 
ing in  harmony  with  Prof.  Ingles,  the  State  Agricultural  Instruc- 
tor, have  done  a  vast  amount  of  good  in  the  last  two  years.  And 
the  day  is  not  far  distant  when  Eau  Claire  coimty  will  rank  as 
one  of  the  best  dairy  and  stock  counties  of  the  state. 



W.  A.  CLARK. 

The  Eau  Claire  County  Training  School  for  Teachers  was 
established  by  act  of  the  county  board  November  IS,  1904,  and 
opened  in  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  August  28,  1905,  and  was  the 
eighth  school  of  this  kind  in  the  state.  At  the  present  time, 
less  than  nine  years  later,  there  are  twenty-eight. 

This  school  at  first  occupied  rooms  in  the  high  school  building 
and  employed  two  teachers,  namely,  W.  A.  Clark,  principal,  and 
Miss  Franc  Wilkins,  assistant.  The  school  opened  with  an 
attendance  of  forty-eight  and  increased  so  rapidly  that  another 
teacher  Avas  secured  for  the  second  year.  Miss  Clara  McNown 
was  engaged  in  this  capacity,  and  remained  with  the  school  two 
years.  On  Miss  McNown 's  resignation,  Miss  Lydia  Wheelock 
was  engaged  as  second  assistant,  and  remained  in  this  position 
for  four  years.  She  was  followed  by  Miss  Maud  Guest,  who  is 
still  one  of  the  faculty.  Miss  Wilkins  and  Mr.  Clark  have  been 
with  the  school  from  the  beginning  to  the  present  time   (1914). 

During  the  summer  of  1907  the  beautiful  and  commodious 
building  now  occupied  by  the  school  was  erected  by  the  county 
on  grounds  adjoining  the  courthouse.  In  the  spring  of  1912 
the  usefulness  of  the  school  in  promoting  agricultural  education 
was  greatly  increased  by  the  coming  of  G.  K.  Ingalls  as  county 
agriculturist,  who  was  given  an  office  in  the  building,  made  it 
his  headquarters  and  became  teacher  of  agriculture  in  the  train- 
ing school.  The  following  winter  a  short  course  in  agriculture 
was  given  in  which  seventeen  young  men  were  enrolled.  The 
present  time  finds  the  school  taxed  to  its  utmost  capacity,  Avith 
sixty-four  students  in  the  teachers'  training  courses  and  twenty- 
two  in  the  short  course  in  agriculture.  That  the  reputation  of 
the  school  has  reached  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  county  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  there  are  in  attendance  this  year  (1914) 
more  than  thirty  non-resident  students  coming  from  Chippewa, 
Rush,  Clark,  Burnette,  Jackson,  Trempealeau,  Buffalo  and  Pepin 

The  school  has  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  graduates  up  to 
date,  of  whom  one  hundred  and  twenty  are  actively  engaged  in 
teaching,  which  testifies  to  the  efficiency  of  the  school  in  incul- 


eating  professional  spirit  and  love  for  the  work.  These  gradu- 
ates have  been  uniformly  successful  and  the  demand  for  the 
product  of  the  school  is  steadily  increasing.  No  little  credit  for 
the  success  of  the  school  is  due  the  high  eliaracter  and  ability 
of  the  men  and  women  who  have,  during  the  past  eight  years, 
served  the  school  on  the  training  school  board.  The  first  training 
school  board  was  composed  of  Hon.  Emmet  Horan,  of  Eau  Claire, 
president;  Mr.  Gus  Dittmer,  of  Augusta,  treasurer,  and  County 
Superintendent  of  Schools  Laura  Burce,  secretary.  On  Mr. 
Koran's  appointment  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  regents  of 
normal  schools  he  resigned  from  the  training  school  board,  April 
22,  1908,  and  Mr.  Richard  II.  Loether,  of  Eau  Claire,  was  made 
his  successor.  On  the  retirement  of  Miss  Burce  from  the  county 
superintendency  in  July,  1909,  her  successor.  Miss  Theresa  A. 
Leinenkugel,  became  secretary  of  the  board.  In  November,  1913, 
Mr.  E.  G.  Herrel,  of  Augusta,  was  given  a  place  on  the  board. 
Ml-.  Dittmer  retiring,  and  at  the  same  time  Mr.  J.  H.  Waggoner 
succeeded  Mr.  Loether  as  president  of  the  board.  The  board 
as  now  constituted  consists  of  J.  H.  Waggoner,  president;  E.  G. 
Herrel,  treasurer,  and  j\Iiss  Theresa  Leinenkugel,  secretary. 


Eau  Claire  county  has  not  fallen  behind  others  of  the  state 
in  regard  to  the  educational  welfare  of  its  population.  There  are 
88  rural  schools  under  the  supervision  of  the  county  superintend- 
ent. Miss  Theresa  A.  Leinenkugel,  who  has  filled  the  office  for 
six  years — her  predecessor,  Miss  Burce,  having  held  it  for  the 
same  length  of  time.  Under  them  the  schools  have  shown  a  con- 
stant advance  in  methods  and  efficiency.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
the  system  of  consolidation  which  has  proved  so  successful  in 
Illinois  and  Indiana  will  be  tried  more  faithfully  in  this  state 
and  county.  Each  district  should  see  its  three  or  four  small 
schools  united  in  one,  which  could  thereby  secure  better  teachers 
and  more  fitting  equipment.  The  state  legislature  grants  $50 
yearly  on  certain  conditions  to  each  school  which  has  a  specified 
number  of  enregistered  pupils,  this  sum  to  be  expended  in  suit- 
able blackboards,  maps,  a  globe,  systematic  ventilation,  properly 
screened  outbuildings,  etc.  This  appropriation  is  granted  for 
three  consecutive  years,  is  highly  appreciated  and  has  shown  good 
results  in  the  interest  and  zeal  inspired  by  pleasing  and  sanitary 
surroundhigs  and  adequate  working  tools. 




Editor's  Note.  To  Mr.  William  W.  Bartlett,  of  Eaii  Claire, 
is  due  the  credit  for  this  interesting  and  valuable  chapter,  and  a 
work  of  explanation  is  here  appropriate  regarding  the  form  in 
which  the  matter  is  presented. 

Mr.  Bartlett  has  long  taken  great  interest  in  gathering  remi- 
niscences of  the  Civil  War,  and  especially  of  those  from  Eau  Claire 
county  who  participated  in  it.  In  fact  he  is  recognized  as  Eau 
Claire's  authority  of  Civil  War  history.  In  1911  the  fiftieth 
anniversary  of  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  the  Eau  Claire  Telegram 
started  a  Civil  War  column  and  asked  for  reminiscences  from  the 
veterans.  Knowing  of  Mr.  Bartlett 's  researches  along  this  line 
he  was  also  asked  to  contribute,  and  responded  with  an  article 
made  up  of  verbatim  extracts  from  the  Civil  War  time  files  of 
local  newspapers,  narrating  events  in  Eau  Claire  just  preceding 
and  immediately  after  the  firing  upon  of  Fort  Sumter.  Pertain- 
ing as  it  did  to  individuals  known  to  many  of  the  Telegram 
readers  it  awakened  much  interest  and  more  was  called  for.  The 
result  was  a  series  of  articles  extending  over  several  months. 
Supplementing  the  extracts  from  local  newspaper  files,  of  official 
records  and  many  hitherto  unpublished  private  Civil  War  letters, 
Mr.  Bartlett  prevailed  upon  a  number  of  surviving  officers  and 
members  of  companies  recruited  in  Eau  Claire  county  to  furnish 
reminiscences  of  their  companies.  These  contributions  constitute 
an  almost  complete  account  of  Eau  Claire's  contingent  in  the  war 
and  were  highly  appreciated  by  the  public. 

The  foi'm  in  which  the  record  appeared  in  the  Telegram  has 
been  preserved  in  this  chapter,  not  only  because  the  series 
attracted  great  attention,  but  also  because  letters  from  men  who 
participated  in  the  great  conflict  convey  a  more  intimate  knowl- 
edge and  more  vivid  impression  than  anj'  other  form  of  record 
could  possibly  give.  They  also  add  an  intensity  of  interest  to  the 

The  publication  of  the  letters  makes  this  chapter  somewhat 
lengthy,  but  a  valuable  chapter  has  been  the  sole  aim  of  the  pub- 


lishers.     For  that  reason  Mr.  Bartlett  was  persuaded  to  edit, 
rearrange  and  make  a  connected  story  of  the  series. 

"We  are  also  indebted  to  Mr.  Bartlett  for  the  fine  collection 
of  war  pictures  which  illustrate  this  chapter.  They  are  the  result 
of  years  of  patient  search  and  gathering. 

Eau  Claire,  Wisconsin,  March  4,  1911. 

Editor  Daily  Telegram :  I  have  your  request  for  some 
material  for  your  proposed  series  of  Civil  War  articles, 
and  shall  be  pleased  to  furnish  something  along  that  line. 
Doubtless  it  is  your  purpose  to  publish  reminiscences  of 
any  sort  which  may  pertain  to  the  Civil  War,  but  what- 
ever I  may  furnish  will  be  of  a  strictly  local  nature.  As 
you  know,  I  am  not  a  veteran,  neither  did  I  reside  here 
during  the  Civil  War.  My  parents  came  here  from  Maine 
in  the  spring  of  1867,  when  I  was  but  six  years  of  age,  but 
other  relatives  had  preceded  us,  and  I  had  cousins  in  a 
good  proportion  of  the  companies  recruited  in  this  county, 
and  also  in  some  of  the  companies  from  other  counties  in 
this  part  of  the  state. 

It  would  seem  to  me  that  no  sketch  of  Civil  War  times 
in  Eau  Claire  county  would  be  complete  without  mention 
of  Gilbert  E.  Porter,  editor  of  the  Eau  Claire  Free  Press 
from  December,  1858,  until  the  fall  of  1864,  and  who  later 
became  so  prominent  in  the  lumbering  industry  of  the 
Chippewa  Valley.  I  am  furnishing  you  today  a  picture  of 
Mr.  Porter,  taken  in  middle  life,  and  shows  him  as  most 
of  us  younger  men  recall  him.  Mr.  Porter  was  a  true 
patriot,  and  every  editorial  which  appeared  in  his  paper 
was  a  credit  both  to  the  man  and  to  Eau  Claire. 

The  following  editorial,  which  appeared  in  the  Free 
Press  of  December  24,  I860,  presents  the  first  rumbling  of 
the  approaching  conflict: 

Free  Press,  December  24,  1860. 

"We  give  today  pretty  full  accounts  of  the  secession  move- 
ment. It  will  be  seen  that  South  Carolina  has  passed  an  ordi- 
nance of  secession  unanimously,  and  the  others  of  the  cotton 
states  are  likely  to  follow  suit.  How  the  matter  will  terminate 
is  beyond  the  reach  of  mortal  ken.  If  we  had  a  Jackson  at  the 
helm  of  the  ship  of  state  we  should  not  be  kept  long  in  suspense, 
but  as  long  as  the  president's  chair  is  occupied  by  the  present 
corrupt  old  traitor  we  know  not  what  a  day  will  bring  forth. 


Dispatches  from  the  South  justify  us  in  the  belief  that  Buchanan 
has  betrayed  his  solemn  trust  by  ordering  the  surrender  of  the 
forts  and  the  government's  arms  at  Charleston  upon  the  demand 
of  the  southern  traitors.  If  that  be  so  we  shall  not  be  surprised 
if  an  attempt  is  made  to  impeach  the  Old  Public  Functionary  for 
high  crimes  and  misdemeanors." 

Although  realizing  to  some  extent  the  feeling  in  the  South, 
it  seemed  to  Editor  Porter  hardly  possible  that  it  Avould  go  to 
the  extent  of  beginning  actual  hostilities  against  the  government. 
The  unexpected  happened.  On  April  12,  1861,  Fort  Sumter  was 
fired  on.  The  Free  Press  came  out  with  an  extra  announcing  the 
fact.  Probably  no  copy  of  this  extra  is  in  existence,  but  the  next 
regular  issue,  April  19,  the  announcement  was  reprinted.  Fol- 
lowing the  display  head  are  given  the  dispatches,  with  particulars 
of  the  bombardment  and  evacuation  of  the  fort.  On  the  same 
page  Mr.  Porter  expresses  his  feelings  in  an  editorial  as  repro- 
duced below : 


"The  terrible  fact  of  a  civil  war  now  stares  us  full  in  the  face, 
and  lovers  of  the  Union  must  meet  the  sudden  tho.ugh  not  unex- 
pected responsibilities  which  devolve  upon  them.  Every  Union 
loving  heart  will  swell  with  emotion  as  it  contemplates  the  unal- 
terable baseness  and  dishonor  of  those  who  have  inaugurated 
civil  war ;  and  we  greatly  mistake  the  temper  of  all  good  citizens, 
South  as  well  as  North,  if  they  do  not  firmly  resolve  to  aid  when 
duty  calls,  in  executing  a  terrible  retribution  upon  the  rebels. 
Let  the  watchword  be,  "The  government,  it  must  and  shall  be 
preserved ' ;  and  if  perchance  there  is  a  wretch  in  our  midst  whose 
sympathies  are  not  with  the  government,  let  the  execrations  of 
all  good  citizens  be  upon  him;  let  the  finger  of  scorn  follow  him 
till  sham_e  burns  his  cheeks  to  a  cinder." 

In  the  press  of  the  following  week,  April  26,  appears  the  call 
for  the  first  war  meeting,  reproduced  below: 


"There  will  be  a  meeting  of  the  patriotic  citizens  of  Eau 
Claire  and  vicinity  in  Reed's  Hall  on  Monday  the  29th  for  the 
purpose  of  devising  means  to  get  up  a  company  to  go  and  fight 
the  battles  of  our  country.  Speaking  and  singing  may  be 

In  the  Free  Press  of  May  3,  1861,  appears  the  report  of  that 
gathering,  as  follows : 


Free  Press,  May  3,  1861. 

"On  Monday  evenmg-  the  citizens  of  this  place,  irrespective 
of  party,  met  at  ReecVs  Hall  for  the  purpose  of  attesting  their 
attachment  to  the  good  old  Stars  and  Stripes  of  the  Union.  It 
was  in  every  respect  by  far  the  largest  and  most  enthusiastic 
meeting  ever  held  in  this  place.  A  common  cause  brought  them 
together  and  a  common  sentiment  animated  every  heart.  At  an 
early  hour  the  hall  was  densely  packed  with  people,  including 
fifteen  or  twenty  ladies,  Avho  came  early  enough  to  obtain  admit- 
ance.  A  great  many  were  unable  to  get  in  the  hall.  N.  B.  Boyden, 
Esq.,  was  called  to  chair  and  J.  G.  Callahan  was  elected  secre- 
tary. Mr.  Boyden  briefly  and  appropriately  addressed  the  meet- 
ing and  his  remarks  were  well  received.  Messrs.  Barnes,  Meg- 
gett,  Davis,  Bartlett,  Barrett,  Woodworth,  Taylor,  Porter,  Whip- 
ple, Wilson,  Stillman  and  McNair  were  respectively  called  to  the 
stand,  all  of  whom  made  speeches  abounding  in  patriotism  and 
expressing  warm  attachment  to  the  government  and  union.  Men 
and  means  promptly  tendered — the  former  to  fight  for  the  coun- 
try, the  latter  to  equip  the  soldiers  and  provide  for  their  families. 
The  Eau  Claire  Brass  Band  and  Sprague's  Military  Band  added 
much  to  the  interest  of  the  occasion. 

"After  the  meeting  the  following  names  were  enrolled  to  form 
the  company :  John  Taylor,  G.  W.  Marcum,  A.  S.  Bostwick,  John 
Woodworth,  A.  C.  Ellis,  Thomas  B.  Coon,  Charles  Sargent,  G.  E. 
Bonell,  D.  R.  King,  Henry  Schaffer,  John  Dennis,  F.  R.  Buck, 
J.  D.  McCauley,  Machler  Strifi',  Robert  Lackey,  W.  J.  Cosporus, 
G.  W.  Wilson,  Melvin  M.  Adams,  G.  M.  Brewer,  L.  Cornwell, 
Jesse  Adams,  Myron  Shaw,  Theodore  DeDesert,  G.  A.  Brown, 
H.  McDougal,  John  E.  Stillman,  A.  Watson,  H.  II.  Parker,  W.  P. 
Bartlett,  J.  Wells,  J.  Sloat,  C.  S.  McLeod,  Augustus  Block,  James 
Jones,  George  Eckart,  J.  Swan,  Philip  Hammer,  Chriss  Scholkopf, 
John  Sloverman,  B.  F.  Cowen,  Jacob  Siegil,  John  Harrson,  C.  W. 
Burbauk,  Osten  Rutland,  Henry  J.  Linhergue,  William  E.  Kil- 
gore,  B.  F.  Buck,  Oscar  Sargent,  William  Monteith,  M.  V.  Smith, 
J.  C.  Davis,  J.  S.  Goodrich,  Couradon  Wyman,  J.  P.  Hale,  D.  H. 
Hollister,  Otis  F.  Warren,  D.  P.  Gordon,  A.  Parker,  J.  A.  Bar- 
berish,  G.  II.  Hamilton,  Henry  Hunter,  John  Legore,  J.  S. 

"Prom  present  indications  we  have  no  doubt  that  two  com- 
panies might  be  raised  in  this  place  and  Chippewa  Falls.  Of 
course  the  country  about  will  be  well  represented.  Quite  a  dele- 
gation from  Bridge  Creek  came  down  to  enlist,  and  yesterday  a 


wagonload  drawn  by  four  gray  horses,  decked  with  small  Union 
flags,  and  a  beautiful  large  one  streaming  from  a  staff  supported 
in  the  wagon,  came  into  town  from  Mondovi.  They  were  vocifer- 
ously cheered  by  our  citizens.  They  are  a  determined  and 
patriotic  set  of  men  and  would  fight  like  tigers  when  duty  calls 
them  to  the  battlefield." 

Other  names  were  added  later  and  in  the  Free  Press  of  May 
10  we  find  the  following: 


"This  company  is  about  full  and  is  aching  for  active  service. 
It  is  composed  of  active,  intelligent  men,  who  have  good  health, 
strong  muscular  development  and  determined  wills.  "We  wish 
to  correct  the  absurd  rumor  which  is  now  going  the  rounds  of 
the  papers  that  a  company  has  been  formed  here,  all  of  whose 
members  stand  over  six  feet  high.  The  Eau  Claire  boys  in  time 
of  peace  are  probably  not  larger  than  the  average  run  of  men, 
but  if  they  come  to  a  hard  fight  we  have  no  doubt  the  rebels  will 
think  that  each  man  weighs  at  least  a  ton.  On  Saturday  last  the 
Badgers  met  at  Reed's  Hall  and  elected  officers.  They  are  as 
follows:  Captain,  John  Taylor;  first  lieutenant,  A.  S.  Bostwick ; 
second  lieutenant,  Henry  Hunter;  third  lieutenant,  Oscar  Sar- 
gent •  orderly  sergeant,  A.  C.  Ellis.  Captain  Taylor  left  for 
Madison  on  Monday  last  for  the  purpose  of  tendering  the  services 
of  the  company  to  the  governor.  He  Avill  probably  return  home 
as  soon  as  Sunday." 

(For  some  reason  there  was  considerable  delay  in  closing  \\p 
the  final  arrangements  for  the  mustering  in  of  this  company,  and 
many  of  the  recruits  became  restless.) 

Free  Press,  May  31,  1861. 

"The  Eau  Claire  Badgers  have  forwarded  their  application  to 
the  adjutant-general  for  their  acceptance  into  service.  A  reply 
will  probably  be  had  in  a  few  days.  The  boys  are  ready  and 
willing  to  go  to  war,  but  if  there  is  no  show  of  being  accepted 
they  will  probably  disband. 

"Mr.  Victor  Wolf,  who  has  had  several  years'  experience  in 
the  militarj^  service  of  the  United  States,  has  been  drilling  them 
for  some  time  past,  and  it  is  said  they  have  made  commendable 
progress  in  the  arts  of  war." 

(Unwilling  to  wait  longer  for  an  opportunity  to  see  active 
service  the  compan.y  began  to  droj)  out.     Just  at  this  opportune 


time  a  recruitiug  officer  from  another  count}'  appeared  on  the 
scene,  as  told  in  the  Free  Press  as  follows)  : 

"The  captain  of  the  'Prescott  Guards,'  of  Prescott,  came  up 
to  the  Chippewa  Valley  yesterday  for  the  purpose  of  filling  up 
his  company  to  the  required  number,  it  having  been  assigned  to 
a  place  in  the  Sixth  Regiment,  and  notified  to  be  in  readiness  for 
mustering  by  the  lOtli  inst.  Some  twenty  of  the  boys  of  the  Eau 
Claire  Badgers  enlisted  under  him  last  night  and  left  this  morning 
for  Prescott,  well  pleased  with  the  prospects  of  getting  into  active 
service.  Our  boys,  we  doubt  not,  will  'make  their  mark'  when 
the  lighting  comes." 

(If  these  boys  were  looking  for  a  cliance  to  fight  they  certainly 
made  no  mistake  in  the  choice  of  their  company,  for  it  will  be 
remembered  the  Sixth  Regiment  with  the  Second  and.  Seventh 
became  a  part  of  the  famous  Iron  Brigade  and  saw  some  of  the 
heaviest  service  of  the' war.  Among  those  who  left  the  Eau  Claire 
Badgers  to  join  the  Prescott  company  was  A.  C.  EHis,  who 
attained  the  rank  of  first  lieutenant,  returned  to  Eau  Claire  and 
lived  here  for  a  number  of  years  after  the  war. 

Another  Eau  Claire  man  who  enlisted  in  the  Sixth  Regiment, 
although  not  in  the  same  company  with  Ellis  and  his  associates, 
was  Franz  Siebenthall.  He  was  in  Company  D,  was  wounded  at 
South  Mountain,  and  on  the  1st  of  July,  1863,  was  killed  on  the 
field  of  Gettysburg.  Mr.  Siebenthall  in  the  summer  of  1855 
bought  from  the  United  States  government  about  seventy-five 
acres  of  land  on  the  west  side,  for  which  he  paid  $1.25  per  acre, 
or  $94.50  for  the  tract.  The  following  spring  he  sold  the  land 
to  Ira  Mead  for  $756,  a  very  fair  profit,  but  this  amount  would 
hardly  purchase  the  land  today,  as  it  lay  just  south  of  Grand 
avenue  and  extended  from  about  Fifth  avenue  east  to  the  Chip- 
pewa river,  comprising  the  ~  principal  part  of  what  is  now  the 
Fifth  ward.  In  addition  to  those  who  joined  the  Sixth  Regiment 
were  a  number  of-  the  Badger  company  who,  a  few  days  before, 
had  taken  blankets  and  other  equipment  belonging  to  the  com- 
pany, helped  themselves  to  some  boats  and  went  down  the  river, 
where  they  joined  an  artillery  company  then  being  formed  at 
LaCrosse.  These  individuals  may  have  been  able  to  justify  their 
conduct  to  themselves,  but  Editor  Porter  expressed  very  strongly 
his  disapproval  of  same.) 

Free  Press,  June  7,  1861. 

"After  the  company  Avhich  had  been  formed  here  had  con- 
cluded that  they  could  not  get  into  service,  something  like  a  half 


dozen  committed  a  most  dishonorable  trick  by  running  off  in  the 
night  with  all  the  available  property,  such  as  blankets,  etc.,  they 
could  lay  their  hands  upon.  In  view  of  such  a  transaction  we  are 
glad  the  company  was  not  accepted,  as  we  want  no  men  to  go  to 
the  wars  from  Eaii  Claire  who  are  not  gentlemen.  Of  course 
those  who  remain  would  not  countenance  such  petty  theft,  and 
who  are  exempt  from  the  above  reflection.  A  good  soldier  must 
be  a  man  of  honor." 

Under  date  of  June  21,  1861,  the  Free  Press  announced  that 
Captain  Taylor  had  received  notice  from  Governor  Randall  that 
the  company  would  be  accepted,  and  in  the  same  issue  there  also 
appeared  the  following: 


"I  have  just  received  an  order  from  the  governor  to  fill  up 
a  company  to  be  mustered  into  service.  I  therefore  request  all 
of  the  old  members  of  the  Eau  Claire  Badgers  and  as  many  more 
as  wish  to  join  them  to  report  to  me  as  soon  as  possible  that  I 
may  have  my  company  ready  as  soon  as  July  4.  A  meeting  will 
be  held  on  that  day  to  complete  the  roll,  on  the  grounds  where  the 
celebration  is  to  take  place — West  side.  Persons  Avishiug  to  join 
should  apply  immediately,  as  I  wish  to  notify  Governor  Randall 
of  a  full  company  at  the  earliest  possible  moment. 

"The  old  members  will  be  entitled  to  one  month's  pay;  and 
all  who  have  families  will  be  entitled  to  $5  per  mouth  extra  com- 
pensation during  their  service. 

"Patriots  arouse!  Our  country  calls  for  our  services.  Let  us 
answer  with  our  muskets.  Let  the  Chippewa  Valley  be  repre- 
sented in  the  ranks  of  our  country's  defenders. 

"June  21,  1861.  JOHN  TAYLOR,  Captain." 

For  some  reason  the  attempt  to  fill  up  the  ranks  of  the  old 
company  was  a  failure,  but  almost  immediately  steps  were  taken 
to  recruit  a  new  one.  In  the  Free  Press  of  July  19  we  find  this 
announcement : 


' '  We  learn  that  an  effort  is  being  made  by  Judge  Pex'kins  and 
Victor  Wolf,  Esq.,  to  raise  a  company  of  volunteers  for  the  war, 
independent  of  anything  that  has  heretofore  been  done.  Rolls 
for  that  purpose  have  already  been  sent  to  the  different  towns. 
When  the  company  is  made  up  the  volunteers  are  to  meet  and 
choose  their  officers. 


^:        \^  ^ 



^S  --- 




•Al-r.   JOHN   rERKI.XS 


Captor  of  Old  Abe 


"We  hope  and  trust  that  a  company  may  be  raised,  as  Eau 
Claire  might  and  ought  1o  be  represented  in  the  Grand  Army 
of  the  Union.  If  the  matter  is  conducted  -\vith  discretion  it  seems 
to  us  tliat  tliere  ought  to  be  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  full  com- 
plement of  men  in  a  very  little  time."  This  prediction  came  true, 
and  the  "new  company,"  Avhieh  retained  the  name  "Eau  Claire 
Badgers,"  became  Company  C,  Eighth  Wisconsin,  the  Eagle  Com- 
pany of  the  Eagle  Regiment. 

In  the  Free  Press  of  September  12,  1861,  appeared  a  list  of  the 
officers  and  privates  of  tlie  new  eompany  as  given  below : 


"The  following  are  the  names  of  the  officers  and  privates  of 
tliis  noble  company:  Captain,  John  E.  Perkins;  iirst  lieutenant, 
Victor  Wolf ;  second  lieutenant,  Frank  McGuire ;  orderly  sergeant, 
Seth  Pierce;  second  orderly  sergeant,  Myron  Briggs;  third 
orderly  sergeant,  F.  Schmidtmyer,  fourth  orderly  sergeant,  Robert 
Anderson;  fifth  orderly  sergeant,  Thomas  G.  Butler;  first  cor- 
poral. Christian  Scholkopf;  second  corporal,  B.  F.  Cowen;  third 
corporal,  J.  B.  Button;  fourth  corporal,  William  G.  Kirk;  fifth 
corporal,  M.  N.  Goddard;  sixth  corporal,  Charles  J.  Phillips; 
seventh  corporal,  David  Noble;  eighth  corporal,  Walter  Quick; 
William  Buckley,  Charles  Segar,  Nathaniel  Brown,  Silas  M.  Tal- 
meter,  Thomas  West,  Wilber  F.  McCord,  Alphonzo  Beeman,  S.  T. 
Wiggaut,  Nathaniel  Canfield,  Elijah  Prine,  Max.  Worth,  Hugh 
Macaulay,  Thomas  J.  Hill,  C.  F.  Shipman,  John  Hamilton,  William 
Avery,  James  Atwater,  Andrew  B.  Tyrel,  George  Bonell,  Riley 
Hedge,  Charles  W.  Robison,  Edward  Hummiston,  George  W. 
Riley,  Adolph  Stallman,  William  IMonteith,  Albert  Tuttle,  John  F. 
Hill,  B.  F.  Haynes,  John  Woodworth,  Phillip  Emery,  Burnett 
Demarest,  Gabriel  Gebhard,  John  Hawkins,  Adolph  Pitch,  N.  D. 
Randall,  Frederick  More,  F.  R.  Buck,  Paul  Selb,  Milton  Whitney, 
Hovel  Swenson,  Jacob  Hath,  Daniel  A.  Wyman,  David  McClain, 
J.  W.  Phillips,  Edwin  Roberts,  John  Kimbell,  Julius  A.  Hill,  E.  C. 
Wilkins,  Charles  Russell,  A.  Stukbury,  Harry  D.  White,  George 
Murphy,  Charles  Parker,  John  Buckart,  James  McGinnis,  Charles 
Sargent,  David  Farley,  Isaac  Devoe,  George  Brown,  Robert 
Dodge,  Edward  R.  Curtis,  George  W.  Palmer,  Alfred  Thurston, 
Newell  Hanscome,  William  H.  Guppee,  Peter  Ole  Ollen,  Ephraim 
Wilcox,  Phillip  Burk,  Hanson  Dickey,  George  Barber,  J.  W. 
Hooper,  C.  B.  Robinson,  Frank  Barrett,  James  D.  McCauley,  A.  R. 
Barnes,  Thomas  B.  Coon. 

Of  the  above  the  following  do  not  appear  to  have  been  mus- 


tered  into  service,  as  their  names  are  not  found  in  the  official 
roster  of  the  company :  James  Atwater,  George  Bonell,  John 
Hawkins,  Silas  M.  Talmeter,  E.  C.  Wilkins,  George  Murphy  and 
C.  B.  Robinson.  On  the  other  hand,  the  roster  contains  the  names 
of  the  following  who  evidently  joined  the  company  later :  .Jacob 
Aaron,  Henry  Becker,  Andrew  Brown,  Stephen  Canfield,  William 
Connell,  William  Chatwood,  William  Delap,  Martin  Dickerschied, 
Solomon  Fuller,  Dana  S.  Fuller,  Ferdinand  Grasser,  Shipman  W. 
Griffith,  Henry  Grinnell,  George  Hutchings,  George  Leng,  George 
A.  Loomis,  Harrison  B.  Loomis,  Charles  McFait,  Collin  S.  McLeod, 
Christian  Miller,  William  F.  Page,  Silas  M.  Palmeter,  Frank  N. 
Parker,  Nathaniel  P.  Poppel,  David  K.  Reynolds,  Andrew  Ritger, 
Mark  Sibbalds.  Dighton  Smith,  John  Soal,  Charles  Strasburg, 
August  Thiel. 

Editor  Daily  Telegram :  Just  fifty  years  ago  this  com- 
ing summer  Mr.  A.  R.  Barnes,  a  former  printer  in  the  old 
Free  Press  office,  resigned  his  position  to  enlist  in  the  first 
company  of  volunteers  from  this  village.  Editor  Porter 
gave  him  the  following  complimentary  and  humorous 
send-off : 

"Mr.  A.  R.  Barnes,  foreman  of  this  office,  informed  us 
yesterday  that  he  was  off  for  the  war,  and  in  less  than  an 
hour  he  recorded  his  name  and  was  sworn  into  service. 
Mr.  Barnes  is  an  energetic,  industrious  young  man,  small  in 
stature  but  large  in  heart,  and  if  he  uses  his  musket  in 
battle  as  he  uses  his  'shootingstick'  in  the  printing  office 
he  will  not  only  make  his  mark  but  hit  it,  too.  May  all  of 
his  leaded  matter  be  found  in  the  front  column  of  the 
secession  forces  and  may  his  shadow  never  grow  less. 

Mr.  Barnes  survived  the  war,  went  back  to  his  trade  of 
printer,  not  here  but  in  his  former  home  in  Iowa,  and  is 
still  living  there,  a  hale  and  heai'ty  veteran.  Knowing  that 
a  recital  of  his  recollection  of  Eau  Claire  prior  to  and  at 
the  outbreak  of  the  war  would  be  of  interest  to  your  read- 
ers I  dropped  a  line  to  hira  a  few  days  ago,  and  in  response 
received  the  very  interesting  and  breezy  letter  which  fol- 

Albia,  Iowa,  Feb.  23,  1911. 

Mr.  William  W.  Bartlett,  Eau  Claire,  Wisconsin. 

Dear  Sir:     In  compliance  with  your  request  I  give  you  some 

of  my  recollections  of  scenes  and  events  in  Eau  Claire  that  came 

under  my  observation  some  fifty  years  ago. 


In  the  spring  of  1860  I  went  to  Eau  Claire,  going  on  boat  on 
Mississippi  river  from  Burlington  to  the  confluence  of  the  Chip- 
pewa river,  and  thence  by  boat  to  Eau  Claire.  My  purpose  was 
to  study  law  with  an  uncle,  H.  W.  Barnes,  who  had  located  in 
Eau  Claire  biit  a  short  time  before,  and  who  had  hung  out  his 
shingle  as  an  attorney.  My  duties  were  to  sweep  out  the  office, 
emptj^  the  cuspidor,  submit  to  some  grilling  every  day  as  to  com- 
mon law  points  and  answer  all  questions  as  to  the  "Judge"  when 
he  was  away  from  the  office.  I  did  not  take  to  the  work  very 
enthusiastically,  but  my  uncle  was  very  kind  to  me.  One  day 
while  I  was  in  the  rear  room  reading  Blackstone  I  heard  a  gen- 
tleman enter  the  front  room  and  ask,  "Say,  Judge,  haven't  you 
a  nephew  here  who  is  a  printer?  My  printers  went  to  Chippewa 
Falls  last  night  to  attend  a  dance,  and  I  suppose  they  are  drunk, 
and  I  don't  know  when  they  will  come  back,  and  today  is 
publication  day,  and  I  don't  believe  there  is  another  printer  in 
the  Chippewa  Valley."     It  was  Gilbert_E.  Porter. 

My  uncle  called  me  and  I  was  introduced  to  Mr.  Porter.  I 
told  him  I  would  help  him  out.  I  went  with  him  to  the  office — 
upstairs  in  a  long  frame  building  near  the  big  bluff — and  found 
that  the  printers  had  set  the  advertisements  and  the  locals  and 
made  up  the  forms,  leaving  space  on  the  local  and  editorial  pages 
for  a  few  more  locals  or  advertisements  and  editorials.  He  wrote 
an  apology  for  late  appearance  of  the  paper  and  lack  of  local 
and  editorial  matter,  and  I  put  the  same  in  type  and  locked  up 
the  forms  and  put  them  on  the  press — a  Washington  hand  press 
as  I  remember — and  along  in  the  afternoon  we  started  to  "run 
off  the  paper."  The  devil  in  the  office  was  named  Woods,  and 
he  had  not  been  long  enough  in  the  business  to  know  how  to  run 
the  rollers  over  the  type  forms  and  was  really  to  light  for  the 
work.  Mr.  Porter  saw  the  situation  and  said  he  could  roll  if  I 
could  run  the  press.  We  tackled  the  work  and  kept  at  it  till  past 
midnight,  taking  only  time  to  eat  a  bite  of  supper,  and  we 
wrapped  the  papers  for  out-of-town  mail,  and  about  two  o'clock 
in  the  morning  I  went  to  my  uncle's  home  and  went  to  bed.  I 
think  Mr.  Porter  slept  in  the  office  on  a  board. 

I  slept  late  and  did  not  get  up  to  the  office  until  nine  or  ten 
o'clock.  Mr.  Porter  had  gone  to  breakfast  and  preceded  me  only 
a  few  minutes.  The  printers  got  back  from  Chippewa  Falls,  and 
when  they  came  to  the  office  were  surprised  to  find  that  the 
edition  was  printed  and  wrapped  and  addressed  for  the  mails. 
They  took  the  forms  from  the  press,  washed  them  and  put  them 
on  the  imposing  stones  and  were  distributing  the  type  in  the  cases. 


"When  Mr.  Porter  and  I  arrived  we  went  into  the  sanctum,  apart 
from  the  composing  and  press  room.  He  pulled  a  chair  over  next 
to  him  and  asked  me  to  sit  down.  I  did  so  and  he  said :  "I  want 
you  to  take  charge  of  the  mechanical  part  of  this  paper,  and  I 
will  pay  you  $20  a  week,  and  will  get  you  all  the  help  you  need. ' ' 
It  was  goodbye  to  Blackstone  and  the  lawyer's  career  right  then 
and  there.  Twenty  dollars  a  week  was  a  big  sum  way  back  in 
those  days,  and  I  stayed  with  the  job  until  Company  C  was 
organized  and  went  to  war. 

Mr.  Porter  owed  me  more  than  $600  when  the  company  was 
ready  to  start,  and  he  asked  me  if  I  wanted  the  money.  I  told 
him,  "No,  just  give  me  a  note,  and  if  I  never  come  back  pay  to 
my  uncle  and  ask  him  to  send  it  to  my  parents  in  Albia,  Iowa." 
My  uncle  took  care  of  the  note  and  gave  it  back  to  me  when  I 
returned  from  the  war.  Mr.  Porter  paid  off  the  note,  principal 
and  interest,  and  he  did  more,  he  took  me  from  Eau  Claire  to 
Sparta  in  a  buggy,  went  with  me  to  Chicago,  paid  my  railway 
fare  and  hotel  bills  while  in  the  city,  and  bade  me  goodbye  at  the 
depot  as  I  started  for  the  home  of  my  parents  in  this  place.  It 
was  very  fortunate  for  me  that  I  had  saved  the  $600  and  interest, 
as  I  suffered  a  full  year  with  my  chronic  trouble,  and  every  cent 
was  used  in  paying  doctor's  and  other  bills  before  I  was  able 
to  go  to  work. 


I  recall  many  incidents  in  my  experience  in  Eau  Claii-e.  Mr. 
Porter  was  a  typical  gentleman  and  a  splendid  business  man,  but 
he  was  not  a  free  and  easy  writer,  and  the  bent  of  his  mind  ran 
in  business  channels.  He  had  no  knowledge  of  the  printing  busi- 


One  day  I  carried  some  proofs  into  the  sanctum  for  Mr.  Porter 
to  read,  and  a  gentleman  was  present,  and  I  thought  him  the 
homeliest  man  I  had  ever  seen.  It  was  John  E.  Perkins,  wlio  later 
became  the  first  captain  of  Company  C,  and  a  braver  or  better 
man  I  never  knew.  In  the  first  most  important  battle  the  regi- 
ment was  engaged  in  at  Farraington,  Mississippi,  on  May  8,  1862, 
he  was  mortally  wounded,  and  he  died  two  days  later.  He  gave 
his  life  for  the  perpetuity  of  the  Union,  and  no  greater  sacrifice 
was  made  in  a  Wisconsin  regiment. 

Thomas  B.  Coon,  who  came  from  Kelbourn  City  to  work  with 
me  in  the  office,  and  who  became  a  member  of  Company  C,  join- 


ing  the  company  two  weeks  after  I  was  mustered  in,  was  a  genial 
fellow  and  a  comi^etent  workman. 

Coon  and  I  slept  in  the  office  and  took  our  meals  at  the  Sling- 
luff  House,  and  we  got  our  first  view  of  the  sacrifices  that  were 
required  in  saving  the  Union.  We  had  eaten  our  dinner  and  came 
out  onto  the  platform  in  front  of  the  house,  when  a  team  of  horses 
attached  to  a  farm  wagon  and  loaded  with  men  drove  up.  They 
were  from  ChijDpewa  Falls  and  were  the  first  soldiei-s  to  enlist 
from  that  i^lace.  The  men  were  taken  to  the  dining  room  for 
dinner,  and  the  horses  were  sent  to  the  barn  to  be  fed.  The  men 
had  not  more  than  been  seated  when  a  carriage  drove  up  that 
contained  the  man  who  had  recruited  the  squad,  his  girl  and  his 
brother  and  sister.  They  went  to  their  dinner.  When  all  had  had 
dinner  the  teams  drove  up.  The  driver  of  the  farm  wagon  got 
his  load  on  board  and  was  ready  to  start  down  the  river,  but 
was  halted  while  the  captain  bade  his  sweetheart,  brother  and 
sister  good-bye.  He  was  to  go  with  the  crowd,  and  his  brother, 
sister  and  sweetheart  were  to  return  home.  Say,  but  that  parting 
was  awful,  but  the  soldier  was  brave  and  never  shed  a  tear.  He 
won  an  eagle  on  his  shoulder,  but  if  history  is  straight  he  fell  in 
love  with  another  girl  and  married  her. 


The  memory  of  the  march  from  the  Slingluff  House  through 
the  main  streets  and  down  to  the  river,  where  we  boarded  the 
little  boat,  "Stella  Whipple,"  and  the  memory  of  the  kind  Eau 
Claire  ladies  Avho  gave  us  their  blessing  and  little  red  testaments 
with  the  motto  pasted  on  the  fly  leaf,  "The  better  the  man,  the 
better  the  soldier — George  Washington,"  will  never  be  forgotten, 
nor  will  the  boys  who  endured  the  forty-six  days'  march  around 
Vicksburg,  and  sixteen  days  with  only  a  cracker  a  day,  forget  the 
hardships  of  the  trip.  It  is  si^rprising  that  one  is  left  to  tell  the 
story.  Tlie  two  events  were  impressed  upon  my  mind  never  to 
be  erased. 

Note. — The  Slinglufl'  House,  above  referred  to,  was  the  Eau 
Claire  House,  of  which  Mr.  Slinglutt',  a  pioneer,  was  then  pro- 


Some  remarks  in  regard  to  the  eagle  taken  out  by  the 
Perkin's  company  may  not  be  out  of  place  at  this  time.  By 
far  the  best  historv  of  this  bird  ever  written  is  that  of  Rev. 


J.  0.  Barrett,  a  Universalist  clergyman  of  Eau  Claire.  The 
first  edition  of  his  book  appeared  in  1865,  and  a  number  of 
other  editions  since.  As  evidence  of  the  painstaking  care 
exercised  by  Rev.  Barrett  in  the  preparation  of  his  narra- 
tive I  give  below  several  extracts  from  his  book: 

Chippewa  Falls,  Wisconsin,  February  13,  1865. 
J.  O.  Barrett,  Esq. 

Dear  Sir :  Having  been  engaged  for  a  short  time  in  the 
collection  of  information  relative  to  the  capture  and  early 
ownership  of  the  eagle  of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin  Regiment, 
whose  history  you  intend  to  publish,  I  talie  pleasure  in 
submitting  a  few  facts  in  regard  to  the  progress  made. 
Ascertaining,  first,  that  the  eagle  had  been  sold  to  Mr. 
Daniel  McCann,  of  the  town  of  Eagle  Point,  in  this  county, 
by  some  Indians,  you  wished  me  to  discover,  if  possible, 
who  those  Indians  were,  and  to  secure  their  presence  at 
Eau  Claire  at  an  early  day.  I  learned  from  Mr.  McCann 
that  the  Indians  who  had  brought  the  eagle  to  him  in  the 
summer  of  1861  were  of  the  Lake  Flambeau  tribe,  and 
that  the  owner  was  a  son  of  Ali-monse,  chief  of  that  tribe, 
or  band,  of  Chippewa  Indians.  I  proceeded  to  obtain  cor- 
roborative evidence  of  this  account,  and  found,  through  the 
evidence  of  Mr.  John  Brunet,  Mr.  James  Ermatinger,  Mr. 
Charles  Corbine  and  others — all  old  residents  of  the  upper 
Chippewa  and  Flambeau  rivers — besides  the  testimony  of 
dift'erent  Indians  who  were  acquainted  with  the  facts  of 
the  capture  of  the  eagle,  that  it  was  correct.  All  accounts 
agree  that  the  name  of  the  captor  of  the  bird  is  A-ge-mah- 
we-ge-zhig,  or  Chief  Sky,  one  of  the  five  sons  of  the  said 
Ah-monse.  Having  satisfied  myself  by  such  evidence,  and 
by  other  inquiries  made  in  every  direction,  that  there  could 
be  no  mistake  in  the  identity  of  the  captor  of  the  eagle,  I 
have  made  arrangements,  according  to  your  directions,  to 
bring  the  said  A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig  to  Eau  Claire  as  soon 
as  possible.  He  is  now  with  his  band,  hunting  between  the 
head  waters  of  the  Yellow  and  Flambeau  rivers,  and  is 
shortly  expected  at  Brunet 's  Falls,  on  the  Chippewa. 

Wishing  you  full  success  in  the  publication  of  your 
work,  I  remain,  with  much  respect,    Yours  truly, 

Theodore  Coleman. 

Ascertaining  that  A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig,  with  other 
hunters,  would  soon  arrive  at  Brunet 's  Falls  on  their  way 


up  the  river,  Mr.  Coleman  engaged  Mr.  Brunet  to  detain 
him  there  until  a  concerted, movement.  At  length  they 
came,  the  Indian  with  them,  to  whom  was  communicated 
the  wishes  of  the  "white  man  at  Eau  Claire,"  who  desired 
to  talk  with  him  "about  the  eagle  he  caught  a  few  years 
ago."  He  hesitated,  apprehensive  of  a  trick,  for  all  white 
men  had  not  been  true  to  their  red  brethren.  Finally  he 
appealed  to  his  father.  It  was  a  grave  question  indeed; 
they  were  all  afraid  of  being  arrested  for  captm-ing  an 
eagle !  After  a  long  counsel  together  the  old  chief  resolved 
to  go  to  Chippewa  Falls  without  further  waiting,  requiring 
his  boys  to  follow  the  next  day,  and  appear  in  proper  cos- 
tume, should  he  find  it  safe.  Arriving  there  he  had  an 
interview  with  H.  S.  Allen,  Esq.,  a  pioneer  resident,  who, 
being  a  friend  of  the  Indians,  persuaded  him  to  venture. 
Meeting  his  boys,  as  before  arranged,  he  selected  two  of 
them,  A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig  and  A-zha-wasli-co-ge-zhig,  and 
with  Messrs.  Coleman  and  Barrett  and  Elijah  Ermatinger 
for  interpreter,  rode  to  Eaii  Claire,  the  19th  of  February, 
1865,  welcomed  with  a  cordiality  that  at  once  inspired 
mutual  confidence.  The  native  nobility  of  these  sous  of  the 
northern  forests  created  quite  a  sensation.  A-ge-mah-we- 
ge-zhig  related  his  eagle  adventures  in  a  very  intelligent 
manner,  so  simple  and  candid  as  to  assure  every  one  present 
of  their  truthfulness.  His  father,  who  is  much  beloved  as 
chief  of  the  tribe,  was  particularly  loquacious  and  is  prop- 
erly named  Ah-monse,  the  "Thunder  of  Bees."  He  had 
much  to  say  about  his  "Great  Father  Lincoln,"  whom  he 
has  visited  several  times  at  "Washington  in  the  interest  of  his 
tribe,  averring  that  Mr.  Lincoln  gave  him  plenty  of  money, 
and  to  his  children  much  land,  and  let  him  see  a  battle- 
field." Photographs  of  these  "red  brothers"  were  taken 
by  A.  J.  Devor,  of  Eau  Claire,  and  never  did  mortal  appear 
more  proud  than  the  eagle  captor  when  attiring  himself 
in  regal  costume  for  his  carte  de  visite.  A  full-blooded 
Indian  of  consequence — then  about  twenty-five  years  old — 
belonging  to  the  royal  family  of  the  Flambeaux,  it  is  glory 
enough  for  him  to  be  known  among  his  fellows  as  the 
captor  of  the  American  eagle  of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin 
regiment  of  volunteers. 

The  following  letter,  with  a  map,   gives  an  accurate 
description  of  the  infant  home  of  the  Eagle: 


Chippewa  Falls,  "Wisconsin. 
February  25,  1865. 

My  Dear  Brother: — According  to  your  request,  I  will 
give  you  what  information  I  have  obtained  of  the  Chip- 
pewa country,  and  especially  of  the  home  of  your  Pet 
Eagle.  Inclosed  I  send  you  a  map  of  this  country,  being 
a  perfect  copy  from  J.  I.  Lloyd's  New  Map  of  the  United 
States,  with  a  slight  change  in  the  location  of  the  Flambeau 
Lakes  and  tributaries,  which  are  copied  from  a  drawing 
made  for  me  by  Ah-monse  and  the  Eagle  Indian.  I  can 
find  no  maps  representing  the  United  States'  surveys  of 
these  lakes.  Today  I  saw  Israel  Gould,  the  Indian  Inter- 
preter, who  rendered  you  so  valuable  assistance  last  sum- 
mer on  your  Indian  expedition.  At  my  request  he  drew  a 
map  of  the  Flambeau  and  its  lakes,  and  it  agreed  precisely 
with  the  drawing  made  by  Ah-monse  and  his  son.  Mr. 
Gould  is  an  intelligent  Scotchman,  and  has  lived  with  the 
Chippewa  Indians  for  fifteen  years.  He  has  a  good  knowl- 
edge of  Indian  character  and  probably  is  one  of  the  best 
of  Indian  interpreters.  At  one  time  he  lived  one  year  at 
Flambeau  Lake,  or  Ah-monse 's  Lake,  as  it  is  most  gen- 
erally called,  trading  with  Ah-monse  and  his  tribe,  and, 
consequently,  he  is  well  acquainted  with  their  country. 
I  have  much  confidence  in  his  account  of  the  location  of 
these  lakes ;  and  as  all  the  other  Indian  traders  and  trap- 
pers, and  Ah-monse,  and  the  Eagle  Indian  do  agree  with 
him,  I  believe  you  can  rely  upon  my  map  as  being  correct. 
I  will  give  his  description  of  this  country : 

The  whole  Chippewa  country  is  well  watered  with 
innumerable  streams,  swamps,  lakes  and  rivers;  its  surface 
varies  in  hills  and  blufl's,  prairies,  oak  openings  and  mead- 
ows, and  is  covered,  for  the  most  part,  with  every  variety 
of  hardwood,  Norway  and  white  pine. 

The  soil  in  many  places  is  good,  while  many  of  the  hills 
and  bluflfs  are  rocky,  and  in  its  northern  portions  are  to 
be  found  iron,  copper  and  other  minerals.  It  is  inhabited 
by  the  various  tribes  of  the  Chippewa  Indians,  and  abounds 
in  wild  beasts,  fish  and  birds.  The  Flambeau  is  a  wide, 
crooked  stream,  the  longest  tributary  of  the  Chippewa,  and 
its  general  course  is  southwest.  Upon  its  north  fork  are 
the  "rapids,"  at  which  place  the  Eagle  Indian  said  he 
caught  the  eagl,e.  It  is  about  125  miles  from  Eau  Claire, 
70  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Flambeau  River,  and  80 


or  90  miles  from  Lake  Superior.  It  is  three  miles  from  here 
to  Little  Flambeau,  or  Asken  Lake,  which  is  three  miles 
long;  six  miles  further  north  is  Flambeau,  or  Ah-monse's 
Lake — a  stream  uniting  the  two.  This  is  the  largest  of 
the  Flambeau  lakes,  being  three  miles  wide  and  six  long. 
It  is  a  beautiful  stream  of  clear,  pure  water,  where  are 
found  fish  of  many  varieties.  The  meaning  of  its  Indian 
name  is  "Fire-Hunting  Lake."  Near  its  northern  shore 
is  a  fine  island,  Avhere  Ah-monse  frequently  lives.  On  its 
eastern  shore  is  a  pretty  sloping  hill,  nearly  forty  feet 
high,  covered  with  maples.  Here,  overlooking  the  lake,  the 
Indians,  a  few  years  ago,  had  their  villages,  which  are  now 
located  on  the  north  and  northwest  shores,  where  they  had 
cleared  their  land,  leaving  now  and  then  a  shade  tree, 
giving  the  country  a  beautiful  appearance.  The  soil  is 
good,  and  here  they  raise  their  corn  and  potatoes.  Farther 
to  the  north  is  Rice  Lake,  the  Chain  of  Lakes,  the  Big 
Portage,  and  the  Montreal  River.  A  few  years  ago  this 
was  the  route  of  the  Indian  tradei's,  going  from  Lake 
Superior  to  Eau  Claire.  The  country  near  the  lakes,  for 
two  miles  east  and  west  of  the  river,  and  about  four  miles 
in  all  directions  from  the  lakes,  is  low  prairie  land,  cov- 
ered with  hardwoods,  with  here  and  there  a  lonesome 
pine ;  while  beyond,  in  all  directions,  the  country  is  uneven 
and  hilly,  and  wooded  with  the  dark  pine.  In  this  seques- 
tered country,  Ah-monse  and  his  tribe  have  lived  for  many 
years,  subsisting  upon  their  corn  and  potatoes,  rice  and 
sugar,  fish  and  game.  The  Flambeau  tribe  is  the  most 
enterprising  and  intelligent  of  the  Chippewas.  Their  war- 
riors number  from  140  to  150  men,  and  they  kill  more 
game  than  any  other  tribe.  Here  are  found  the  deer  and 
elk,  the  mink  and  marten,  the  bear  and  otter,  and  also 
the  fish  hawk,  the  owl,  the  eagle  and  other  birds. 

Mr.  Gould  says  the  region  of  the  Flambeau  Lakes  is 
an  eagle  country,  he  having  seen  more  there  than  in  any 
other,  and  has  there  found  many  eagles'  nests,  containing 
from  two  to  four  young  birds.  Having  seen  the  War 
Eagle  at  different  times,  he  is  satisfied  it  is  a  bald  eagle, 
and  this  is  the  opinion  of  A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig.  Mr.  Gould 
also  says  Asken  Lake  is  situated  about  five  miles  east  of 
the  fourth  principal  meridian,  which  line  is  well  defined 
upon  the  river  bank ;  and,  if  he  is  correct,  and  I  rely  upon 
his  statement,  then  the  Eagle  must  have  been  caught  in 


Chippewa  county,  in  or  near  township  forty,  north  of  range 
one,  east  of  the  fourth  principal  meridian,  nearly  four  miles 
from  its  eastern  boundary. 

Trusting  my  map  and  letter  may  aid  you  in  obtaining 
a  better  idea  of  the  home  of  the  Eagle, 

I  remain,  your  brother  for  Freedom  and  Union, 

"W.  "W.  Barrett. 

By  examining  the  map,  the  reader  will  notice  the  loca- 
tion of  the  birthplace  of  the  eagle  that  is  now  so  famous  in 
the  world.  His  captor  said  the  nest  was  found  on  a  pine 
tree,  about  three  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Flambeau, 
near  some  rapids  in  a  curve  of  the  river ;  that,  at  the  proper 
time,  just  after  sugar-making,  at  the  Bend,  he  and  another 
Indian  cut  the  tree  down,  and,  amid  the  menaces  of  the 
parent  birds,  caught  two  young  eaglets,  of  a  grayish-brown 
color,  about  the  size  of  prairie  hens,  one  of  which  died  of 
the  effects  of  an  injury;  that  he  preserved  the  old  nest — 
"big  as  a  wash  tub — made  of  sticks,  turf  and  weeds" — 
and  nursed  his  Me-kee-zeen-ce  (little  eagle)  in  it,  as  a 
plaything  for  the  papooses  at  the  Indian  village;  that,  a 
few  weeks  after,  while  en  route  for  Chippewa  Falls  and 
Eau  Claire  with  their  furs,  moccasins  and  baskets,  he  sold 
his  eagle  to  Daniel  McCann  for  a  bushel  of  corn. 

This  statement  of  "Chief  Sky" — quite  a  significant 
name — agrees  with  that  of  Mr.  McCann,  who  subsequently 
tried  to  sell  the  bird  to  a  company  then  just  forming  at 
the  Falls  for  the  First  Wisconsin  battery,  but,  failing, 
carried  it  to  Eau  Claire,  some  time  in  August,  1861,  and 
offered  it  to  a  company  organizing  for  the  Eighth  Wis- 
consin infantry.     It  was  then  about  two  months  old. 

McCann  carried  the  eagle  to  Chippewa  Falls  and 
attempted  to  sell  him  to  a  company  just  recruiting  there 
for  the  First  Wisconsin  battery.  Failing  in  this,  he  pro- 
ceeded a  little  later  to  Eau  Claire  and  offered  the  bird, 
now  nearly  full-grown  and  handsome,  but  spiteful  as  a 
scorpion,  to  the  Eau  Claire  "Badgers,"  that  subsequently 
became  Company  C,  of  the  Eighth  or  Eagle  regiment. 

Captain  John  E.  Perkins  hesitated  at  first  about  accept- 
ing such  a  strange  volunteer,  but  finally  agreed  to  take 
him  to  the  front. 

It  was  mainly  through  the  sagacity  and  foresight  of 
R.  F.  Wilson,  an  influential  resident,  who  argued  "nothing 


could  be  better  chosen,  not  even  the  flag  itself,  to  ensure 
fame  and  success,"  they  looked  upon  it  in  a  favorable  light, 
and  after  a  siu-geonlike  examination  of  the  eyes,  claws, 
beak,  wings  and  plumage,  concluded  by  a  jocose  vote  to 
accept  "the  new  recruit  from  Chippewa."  A  little  flurry 
ensued  about  contributions,  when  S.  M.  Jeffers,  a  civilian, 
purchased  the  bird  for  two  dollars  and  a  half,  and  pre- 
sented it  to  the  company. 

In  due  time  the  eagle  was  sworn  into  the  United  States 
service  by  putting  around  his  neck  red,  white  and  blue 
ribbons,  and  on  his  breast  a  rosette  of  the  same  colors. 

James  McGiunis  craved  the  privilege  of  superintending 
the  eagle,  to  which  all  tacitly  assented. 

In  a  few  days  he  produced  quite  a  respectable  perch 
and  two  patriotic  ladies  made  some  little  flags  to  be  carried 
on  each  side  of  him,  when  on  the  march ;  and  gay  and 
imposing  indeed  did  he  appear  as  he  rode  in  imperial  state 
beneath  those  miniature  "'stars  and  stripes"  through  the 
principal  streets  of  Eau  Claire,  inspired  by  martial  music 
and  cheered  by  the  enthusiastic  people. 


Fredericktown,  Mo October  21 


New  Madrid  and  Island  "10" March  and  April 

Point  Pleasant,  Mo March  20 

Farmington,  Miss May  9 

Corinth,  Miss May  28 

luka,  Miss September  12 

Burnsville,  Miss September  13 

luka.  Miss September  16-18 

Corinth,  Miss October  3-4 

Tallehatchie,  Miss December  2 


Mississippi  Springs,  Miss May  13 

Jackson,  Miss May  14 

Assault  on  Vicksburg,  Miss May  22 

Mechanicsburg,  Miss June  4 


Richmond,  La June  15 

Vieksburg,  Miss June  24 

Surrender  of  Vieksburg July  4 

Brownsville,  Miss October  14 


Fort  Scurry,  La March  13 

Port  De  Russey,  La March  15 

Henderson's  Hill,  La March  21 

Grand  Ecore,  La April  2 

Pleasant  Hill,  La April  8-9 

Natchitoches,  La April  20 

Kane  River,  La April  22 

Clouterville  and  Crane  Hill,  La April  23 

Bayou  Rapids,  La May  2 

Bayou  La  Monre,  La May  3 

Bayou  Roberts,  La May  4-6 

Moore 's  Plantation,  La May  8-12 

Mansura,  La May  16 

Maysville,  La May  17 

Calhoun's  Plantation,  La May  18 

Bayou  De  Glaise,  La May  18 

Lake  Chicot,  Ark June  6 

Hurricane  Creek,  Miss August  13 

Two  battles  were  fought  by  the  regiment  while  the 
eagle  and  veterans  were  home  on  furlough — Carmargo 
Crossroads,  Miss.,  July  13,  and  Tupelo,  Miss.,  July  14 
and  15. 


1.  James  McGinnis,  of  Eau  Claire,  from  Sept.  1,  1861, 
to  May  30,  1862. 

2.  Thomas  J.  Plill,  Eau  Claire,  from  May  30,  1862,  to 
Aug.  18,  1862. 

3.  David  McLain,  of  Menomonie,  from  August,  1862,  to 
October,  1862. 

4.  Edward  Hummaston,  of  Eau  Claire,  from  October, 

1862,  to  September,  1863. 

5.  Johu    Buckhardt,    of   Eau    Claire,    from    September, 

1863,  to  September,  1864. 

6.  John  T.  Hill,  of  Ashland,  during  the  journey  home, 
from  Memphis  to  Madison,  in  September,  1864. 



1.  John  McFarland,  state  armorer. 

2.  Angus  R.  McDonald,  Eleventh  Wisconsin  int'antr\-. 

3.  John  G.  Stock,  Fourth  Wisconsin  cavalry. 

4.  E.  G.  Linderman,  Fifth  Wisconsin  volunteer  infantry. 

5.  William  J.  Jones,  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  volunteer 

G.  George  W.  Baker,  Nineteenth  Wisconsin  volunteer 

7.  L  E.  Troan,  civilian. 

8.  John  F.  Hill,  Eighth  Wisconsin  volunteer  infantry. 

9.  Peter  B.  Field,  civilian. 

10.  Mark  Smith,  Seventh  Wisconsin  volunteer  infantry. 

11.  George  Gillies,  Second  Wisconsin  volunteer  infantry. 

At  the  close  of  his  war  career  ' '  Old  Abe " '  was  presented 
by  the  company  to  the  state  and  a  place  was  provided 
for  him  at  the  state  capitol  at  Madison,  Avhere  he  was 
viewed  by  thotisands.  He  was  also  taken  to  various  parts 
of  the  United  States,  being  in  great  demand  all  over.  He 
attended  national  conventions,  was  taken  to  the  great  cen- 
tennial at  Philadelphia  and  other  noted  gatherings,  where 
he  was  the  center  of  attraction.  Space  forbids  a  more 
detailed  history  of  incidents  and  anecdotes  concerning  this 
famous  war  bird. 

He  was  adored  by  the  members  of  tlie  Eagle  company 
and  the  Eagle  regiment  and  on  the  field  of  battle  he  Avas 
always  able  to  locate  his  regiment  and  company.  The  war 
anecdotes  alone  in  which  this  bird  figured  would  fill  a 
book.     He  also  attended  the  regimental  reunions. 

Toward  evening  of  a  cold  day  in  the  winter  of  1881  a 
fire  started  mysteriously  in  a  quantity  of  paints  and  oils 
stored  in  the  basement  of  the  capitol,  near  Old  Abe's  large 
cage.  The  blaze  created  an  enormous  volume  of  black  and 
offensive  smoke,  which  at  once  filled  the  cage  to  suffocation. 

Abe,  understanding  full  well  the  nature  of  what  was 
going  on  around  him,  sent  forth  such  a  scream  as  had 
never  before  been  heard  in  that  building.  Attendants  and 
watchmen  rushed  below  to  learn  the  cause  of  the  startling 
outcry,  and  before  attacking  the  flames,  opened  the  door 
of  the  perch-room.  The  eagle,  with  another  piercing 
screech,  swept  swiftly  out  and  away  from  the  smudge. 


He  seemed  to  be  either  frightened  or  injured  by  the 
smoke,  for  his  breast  heaved,  his  heart  labored  heavily  and 
his  plumage  was  disheveled.  Nor  was  he  ever  well  there- 
after. He  ate  sparingly  or  not  at  all;  his  eyes  lost  their 
wonderful  luster;  he  sat  around  in  a  half-comatose  condi- 
tion for  a  few  days,  and  on  March  26,  1881,  with  a  slight 
tremor  and  a  few  feeble  flaps  of  his  wings,  expired  in  the 
arms  of  his  stout  keeper,  George  Gillies. 

George  said  that  Abe  seemed  to  know  he  was  about  to 
die,  for  when  he  asked  solicitously,  "Must  we  lose  you, 
Abe?"  the  old  bird  raised  up  his  head  and  looked  wistfully 
into  the  keeper's  face  and  then  sunk  back  into  his  arms 
and  passed  away.  Around  him  were  numbers  of  one-legged 
and  one-armed  veterans  whose  sad  faces  showed  that  they 
had  lost  a  beloved  comrade. 

At  first  the  general  desire  among  the  soldiers  was  to 
have  Abe  buried  in  the  beautiful  Forest  Hill  cemetery, 
where  rest  two  hundred  Union  and  one  hiuidred  and  fifty 
Confederate  dead,  with  appropriate  military  ceremonies 
and  under  a  handsome  monument. 

The  suggestion  that  the  taxidermist's  art  would  pre- 
serve him  to  the  sight  for  an  indefinite  period  dispelled 
those  notions,  and  he  was  turned  over  to  Major  C.  G. 
Mayers,  who,  after  preserving  and  stuffing  the  warrior- 
bird,  fixed  him  firmly  to  a  neat  perch  as  he  stood  for  years 
in  the  war  museum  of  the  capital. 

His  mounted  body  was  destroyed  in  the  second  capital 
fire  some  years  later. 

Thomas  Randall,  in  his  "History  of  the  Chippewa 
Valley,"  credits  the  pioneer  lumberman,  Stephen  S. 
McCann,  as  being  the  man  who  purchased  the  eagle  from 
its  Indian  captor,  and  this  error  has  been  quite  generally 
copied.  From  extracts  given  from  Rev.  Barrett's  book  it 
will  be  seen  that  it  is  Daniel  McCann  to  whom  this  honor 
belongs.  A  cousin  of  mine  who  visited  the  Daniel  McCann 
farm  in  Chippewa  county  shortly  before  the  eagle  was 
brought  to  Eau  Claire  saw  it  tied  to  a  barrel  in  the  door- 
yard.  Little  did  he  realize  how  great  the  fame  of  this 
bird  was  to  become.  I  am  furnishing  you  a  picture  of 
Old  Abe,  the  war  eagle,  also  a  picture  of  its  Indian  captor, 
also  an  extract  from  the  old  Free  Press  confirming  the 
circumstances  connected  with  the  taking  of  the  young 
chief's  picture. 



(Eau   Claire    Free   Press,    Feb.   23,   1865.) 

Last  Suuda}'  about  uooi:,  three  Indians  of  the  Flambeau  tribe 
came  into  town,  taking  up  their  temporary  abode  at  the  residence 
of  Rev.  J.  0.  Barrett.  Through  the  courtesy  of  Theodore  Cole- 
man, editor  of  the  Chippewa  Falls  Union,  Mr.  Barrett  got  track 
of  these  dusky  fellows  far  up  in  tlie  "big  woods,"  and  on  the 
day  they  touched  the  nearest  point  on  the  Chippewa  river,  he 
had  th(  111  fiit;ai;fil  to  visit  him  at  the  earliest  possible  date  for 
the  purpdsc  oi'  -ctting  information  relative  to  the  eagle  of  the 
Eighth  Wiscdiisiii,  M'hich  was  captured  by  one  of  them  in  the 
spring  of  1861. 

These  visitors  were  none  other  than  part  of  the  royal  family. 
Ah-mouse  (The  Bee),  chief  of  the  tribe,  and  two  of  his  sons, 
Ogenia-wee-gee-zhick  (Chief  of  the  Sky)  and  Shaw-wau-ko-gee- 
zhick  (Blue  Sky).  Ah-monse,  the  oldest  chief  of  the  Chippewa 
tribe,  is  a  deliberate  old  man,  prudent  in  his  plans  and  courteous 
in  bearing.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the  others.  He  has  three 
other  sons,  Wau-saa-naa-go-nee-bee  (Light),  Pee-zhee-kanze  and 
E-squaa-bit  (Outside  of  the  Others).  Ah-monse  stated  that  many 
years  ago,  before  Avhite  man  settled  here,  he  was  in  a  battle  with 
the  Sioux,  on  the  west  side,  near  the  village  of  West  Eau  Claire, 
and  that  he  there  killed  "one  Indian."  Of  this  he  spoke  with 
animated  pride.  Ogema-wee-gee-zhick  is  the  Indian  who  captured 
the  eagle,  and  from  him  Mr.  Barrett  obtained  all  the  information 
he  desired,  which  is  peculiarly  interesting.  In  due  time  it  will 
appear  in  his  history  of  the  celebrated  bird.  He  seems  to  be 
conscious  of  his  importance,  and  no  doubt  will  be  recognized  as 
such  by  his  tribe,  as  well  as  by  the  pale  faces  who  have  an 
affection  for  the  American  eagle.  Arrangements  could  not  be 
consistently  made  with  these  Indians  to  remain  until  Monday,  so 
their  likenesses  were  taken  on  the  Sabbath,  that  of  the  Eagle 
Indian  intended  for  a  steel  engraving  for  the  history.  They  can 
be  seen  at  the  Devoe's  photograph  rooms  and  are  very  finely 

(Free  Press,  Sept.  19,  1861.) 

The  Eau  Claire  Badgers  took  their  departure  from  this  place 
for  Madison,  preparatory  to  a  campaign  in  "Secessia,"  last  Friday 
morning  on  board  the  steamboat  Stella  Whipple.     Nearly  every 


community  in  this  county  and  Chippewa  has  its  representative — 
a  volunteer  offering  in  the  cause  of  patriotism — in  the  ranks  of 
the  company,  and  this,  with  the  fact  that  the  company  is  to  go 
off  into  active  service  almost  immediately,  combined  to  make  the 
occasion  one  of  more  than  ordinary  interest  to  people  of  the 
upper  Chippewa  valley.  The  company  formed  in  front  of  the 
Eau  Claire  House  about  10  o'clock,  and  after  a  little  preliminary 
marching,  proceeded  to  tlie  boat,  greeted  on  the  way  by  cheers 
and  good-byes  innumerable.  At  the  boat  a  large  concourse  was 
gathered,  and  the  next  half-hour  was  spent  in  leave-taking.  The 
scene  was  truly  an  effective  one.  Everybody  was  busy  with  the 
"parting  offices"  to  relatives  or  friends. 

"Shout,  sob  and  greeting, 

Love's  deep  devotion  constantly  meeting," 

marked  the  passing  moments.  Hands  were  shaken  time  and 
again,  "good-byes"  repeated  over  and  over,  words  of  blessing, 
encouragement,  cheer  and  advice  passed  reciprocally  many  times. 
At  last,  after  repeated  impatient  importunities  from  the  whistle 
of  the  boat,  and  call  after  call  from  the  officers,  the  company 
was  all  gotten  aboard  and  the  boat  slowly  left  the  shore,  amid 
multiplied  cheers  and  parting  calls  and  adjurations,  succeeded  by 
waving  of  hats  and  handkerchiefs,  till  the  boat  rounded  the  bend 
and  was  out  of  view. 

The  company,  we  understand,  reached  Prairie  du  Chien  on 
Sunday  and  probably  reached  Madison  the  next  day.  The  passage 
to  Prairie  du  Chien  was  attended  by  many  demonstrations  and 
enthusiasm  along  the  river. 

Before  the  completed  Badger  company  had  left  the  village, 
in  the  Eau  Claire  Free  Press  of  September  5,  mc  find  the  fol- 
lowing : 


"We  hear  it  rumored  that  another  company  will  be  gotten  up 
here  forthwith.  The  noble  response  from  every  direction  to  fill 
the  Badger  ranks  demonstrated  that  another  company  could  be 
immediately  raised.  The  present  company  numbers  about  100 
men,  and  within  six  weeks  that  number  can  be  doubled  with  the 
right  kind  of  timely  effort.  We  have  fine  military  ability  left 
yet,  and  we  hope  it  will  come  voluntarily  into  service.  Who  will 
come  forward  and  take  the  initiative?" 

In  the  Free  Press  of  October  10  we  find  a  notice  of  a  war 
meeting  to  organize  this  second  company,  and  in  the  following 


issue  a  statement  that  the  meeting  had  been  held  and  a  good 
start  made.  John  R.  Wheeler,  John  Kelly,  M.  E.  O'Connell  and 
Malcolmn  Reed  are  named  as  prime  movers  in  the  project. 

(Free  Press,  Oct.  31,  1861.) 

What  an  eulogium  upon  the  patriotism  of  the  valley  is  the 
fact  that  such  numbers  have  gone  to  the  wars;  and  yet  the 
number  is  rapidly  increasing.  The  Chippewa  Valley  Guards  are 
daily  adding  to  their  numbers,  and  at  the  present  rate  their 
ranks  will  soon  be  complete.  The  work  of  recruiting  goes  on 
nobly.  M.  E.  O'Connell  is  drilling  the  company  and  is  making 
good  headway. 

(Free  Press,  Dec.  5,  1861.) 

The  members  of  the  Cliippewa  Valley  Guards  met  on  Monday 
evening  and  elected,  without  a  dissenting  vote,  John  R.  Wheeler 
as  their  captain.  This  is  a  high  and  well  deserved  compliment. 
Mr.  Wheeler  has  won  the  confidence  of  all  the  members  of  his 
company,  and  by  his  energy  in  getting  it  up,  the  admiration  of 
our  citizens. 

(Free  Press,  Dec.  19,  1861.) 

On  Monday  evening  a  grand  ball  was  given  at  Reed's  hall 
to  the  Chippewa  Valley  Guards,  at  which  time  a  beautiful  flag, 
a  gift  from  the  patriotic  ladies  of  Eau  Claire,  was  presented  to 
the  company.  The  hall  was  crowded  to  its  utmost  capacity.  At 
about  half  past  nine  o'clock  the  members  of  the  guards  were 
foi-med  in  line  by  M.  E.  O'Connell,  and  after  a  short  exhibition 
showing  what  proficiency  they  had  obtained  in  di-illing,  were 
addressed  by  H.  W.  Barnes,  Esq.,  in  a  neat  and  appropriate 
presentation  speech. 

Mr.  Porter  was  called  upon  to  respond   for  the   guards. 

The  company  here  gave  three  rousing  cheers  for  the  ladies 
of  Eau  Claire.  The  next  morning  an  immense  throng  of  people 
gathered  to  witness  the  departure  of  the  guards.  They  marched 
up  to  the  front  of  the  public  building  to  the  tune  of  "The  Girl 
I  Left  Behind  Me,"  where  blankets  were  furnished  and  vehicles 
were  provided  for  their  conveyance  to  Sparta. 

A  noticeable  feature  in  the  procession  was  a  live  eagle.  This 
is  the  second  bird  of  this  kind  that  has  gone  to  the  war  from 
Eau  Claire;  and  his  imperial  highness  seemed  to  enjoy  it  hugely. 


Note. — I  find  no  further  mention  of  this  eagle,  and  do  not 
know  his  fate.  He  certainly  never  attained  the  fame  of  Old  Abe 
of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin.  W.  W.  B. 

Below  we  give  the  names  of  the  men  who  answered  the  roll 
call  and  took  their  departure :  John  R.  Wheeler,  M.  E.  0  'Coiniell, 
Robert  Corbett,  W.  A.  Wilcox,  0.  H.  Browning,  Edwin  Daily, 
S.  W.  Jennings,  Daniel  E.  Stevens,  Martin  IMiley,  Joseph  Monteith, 
Noah  Barnum,  Russell  Westeott,  Patrick  Redmond,  William  H. 
Mower,  R.  B.  Wall,  H.  M.  Culbertson,  Owen  McGinnety,  Phillip 
Perry,  Jaelcson  P.  Long,  John  McKernon,  James  Corwin,  William 
Lake,  H.  L.  Ames,  James  B.  Drew,  John  Taylor,  John  M.  Jones, 
Charles  C.  Fordice,  David  B.  MeCourtie,  William  Marks,  Sanders 
Cochran,  Thomas  Megillen,  James  Smith,  James  V.  Walker,  Will- 
iam Biss,  John  A.  Hicks,  James  Crawford,  John  Corbett,  Har- 
rison Beebe,  John  Kelley,  Louis  R.  Belknap,  Andrew  Chambers, 
Lucius  P.  Robinson,  W.  W.  Bartlett,  W.  W.  Allen,  Michael 
Meegan,  J.  D.  McViear,  Abijah  B.  Moon,  J.  W.  Clemens,  Horace 
W.  Smith,  William  Sawley,  Thomas  W.  McCauley,  P.  S.  Drew, 
James  Hines,  J.  B.  Vanvieck,  Jacob  S.  Mower,  Horace  A.  Pinch, 
T.  S.  Kilgore,  Thomas  Denny,  Charles  Stewart,  William  Archer, 
William  H.  Pond,  John  Rounds,  James  0.  Hatch,  Charles  Rich- 
ardson, Michael  Megillen,  Alex  McCloud,  John  C.  Beers,  Zachariah 
C.  Riley,  Isab  Jones. 

As  was  always  the  case  in  the  recruiting  of  companies, 
there  are  some  names  to  be  found  on  this  original  list  which 
do  not  appear  in  the  official  roster  of  the  company,  showing 
that  these  persons  were  not  mustered  into  service  in  the 
company,  although  some  or  all  of  them  may  have  gone  out 
in  other  companies  later  on. 

Of  those  enumerated  above  the  following  are  not  found 
in  the  ofBcial  roster  of  the  company:  Owen  McGinnis, 
Phillip  Perry,  James  Corwin,  James  B.  Drew,  John  Taylor, 
William  Marks,  W.  W.  Allen,  Abijah  Moon,  J.  W.  Clemens, 
T.  W.  McCauley,  T.  S.  Kilgore,  Isab  Jones. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  names  given  constitute  but  a 
small  part  of  those  who  were  in  this  company  during  its 
service,  as  the  state  roster  contains  no  less  than  267  names 
of  members  of  Company  G,  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  Volunteers. 

The  offices  of  first  and  second  lieutenant  were  not  filled  until 
the  company  reached  Madison,  where,  on  the  4th  of  January, 
1862,  William  H.  Pond,  of  Eau  Claire,  was  chosen  first  lieutenant 

CAl'T.   .\.    r.   (iRFKK 



and  Cyrus  A.  Allen,  of  North  Pepin,  second  lieutenant.  M.  E. 
O'Connell,  who  went  out  as  first  sergeant,  became  second  lieu- 
tenant in  September,  1862.  The  Chippewa  Valley  Guards  became 
Company  G  of  the  Sixteenth  Wisconsin,  and  before  the  close  of 
the  war  Captain  Wheeler  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major. 


Scarcely  was  the  recruiting  of  the  company  known  as  the 
Chippewa  Valley  Guards  well  begun  before  a  move  was  made  to 
organize  still  a  third  company.  Mr.  Porter  did  not  consider 
this  a  wise  move  and  his  feelings  are  expressed  in  an  editorial 
under  date  of  Nov.  14,  1861.  It  may  be  explained  here  that  the 
third  company  was  being  recruited  by  A.  M.  Sherman,  and  as 
infantry.  It  was  not  until  some  weeks  later  that  the  decision 
was  made  to  change  it  to  a  cavalry  company.  Although  at  this 
time  Mr.  Porter  did  not  think  it  possible  to  recruit  two  com- 
panies, and  favored  the  Wheeler  company  only,  still,  later  when 
it  was  demonstrated  that  both  companies  could  be  made  up,  Mr. 
Porter  heartily  complimented  Sherman  on  his  energy,  persever- 
ance and  success. 

(Free  Press,  Nov.  28,  1861.) 

The  Eau  Claire  Rangers,  Captain  A.  M.  Sherman,  have 
enlisted  forty  men  at  Patch  Grove,  near  Prairie  du  Chien,  and 
are  now  accepted  in  Colonel  Washburn's  regiment  of  cavalry, 
and  will  proceed  at  once  to  Avinter  quarters  at  Milwaukee, 
where  they  are  to  be  furnished  with  horses,  uniforms  and  equip- 
ment. Their  quarters  are  said  to  be  comfortable,  and  attached 
to  them  are  parade  grounds  for  cavalry  drill  and  a  hall  for 
fencing  and  gymnastic  exercises.  If  the  men  who  have  enlisted 
here  come  promptly  to  the  scratch  the  company  will  leave  this 
place  the  first  week  in  December.  A  few  more  are  needed,  and 
as  this  is  the  only  chance  to  join  cavalry  in  the  northwest,  the 
ranks  will  undoubtedly  be  filled  at  once.  We  can  certainly  com- 
mend the  energy  of  Captain  Sherman  in  succeeding  with  the 
company,  and  the  fact  is  a  high  and  well  deserved  compliment. 

(Free  Press,  Dec.  1,  1861.) 

Captain  Sherman's  company  of  cavalry,  the  Eau  Claire 
Rangers,  left  this  place  for  Milwaukee  Tuesday  and  Wednesday 
of  last  week.  Including  those  that  went  yesterday  it  numbered 
seventy  men,  and  without  disparagement  to  any  other  we  may 


safely  say  that  in  point  of  size  and  muscular  development  they 
were  the  finest  body  of  men  that  will  probably  leave  this  state. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the 
rangers :  Captain,  A.  M.  Sherman ;  first  lieutenant,  Israel  H.  Bur- 
banks;  second  lieutenant,  Thomas  J.  Nary;  orderly  sergeant,  E.  J. 
Meyers;  camp  quartermaster  sergeant,  Byron  Wells;  sergeants, 
James  LeRoy,  Pierre  Hartman,  Benjamin  T.  Buck,  Alex  McNaugh- 
ton ;  corporals,  Phillip  Haug,  Malcomb  Reed,  L.  L.  Lancaster, 
B.  F.  Lockwood,  A.  H.  Ilolstead,  George  W.  S.  Hyde,  Milo  B. 
Wyman,  George  Murphy;  privates,  Hiram  Larrabee,  J.  L.  Daven- 
port, Phil.  Hutchins,  "William  Chatwood,  Daniel  D.  Ellis,  Joseph 
Z.  Black,  Milton  Toffelmire,  Josh  T.  Thompson,  Truman  Edwards, 
Henry  Armstrong,  George  Swan,  John  Lang,  August  J.  Fox, 
Otis  N.  Cole,  Claus  Torgenson,  Hiram  Chamberlin,  J.  S.  Hastings, 
Pliny  D.  Rumrill,  John  J.  Whi^glfi,  Charles  Baird,  Andrew  Poller, 
Christ  McDonald,  Edwin  L.  Andrews,  Michael  Johannis,  Hugh 
Fitzpatrick,  William  H.  Stowe,  HaiTison  Beeman,  John  0.  Gates, 
Joy  H.  Chase,  Albert  Dunbar,  Charles  Swan,  M.  F.  Stevens,  Danii'l 
Gillinore,  Daniel  Robbins,  Isaac  0.  Stephens,  Jerome  B.  Evans, 
James  T.  Livermore,  J.  B.  Bateman,  George  P.  Moses,  Romeo 
Bostwick,  Levi  F.  Decker,  George  Robinson,  Davis  Houck,  W.  F. 
Hall,  Michael  Egan.  W.  E.  Knight,  George  E.  Bonell,  M.  M. 
Persons,  Elbridge  C.  Pride,  G.  F.  Bannister,  William  H.  Vasey, 
G.  A.  Fiddler,  Chapin  Cutting,  John  Vaugh,  Isaac  K.  Knight, 
Asigal  Wyman,  George  Manchester,  Henry  Hartman,  George  Bur- 
pee, Marquis  L.  Coon,  Oscar  A.  Dunbar,  Abijah  Moon,  Martin 
Sebald,  Thomas  Powell,  George  W.  Holstead,  Alphonso  Hulbert, 
Jacob  Richtman,  Darius  Craig,  John  Reddle,  Joseph  W.  Root, 
Charles  Loomis,  George  W.  Groom,  H.  W.  Cartwright,  John 
Seaver,  Orin  0.  Olur,  John  Bloom,  Ransom  Wilkes,  William 
Chatwood.  The  Eau  Claire  Rangers  subsequently  became  Com- 
pany L  of  the  Second  Wisconsin  cavalry. 

Editor  Telegram: — After  much  effort  I  have  finally  prevailed 
upon  Captain  A.  M.  Sherman  to  tell  the  story  of  his  company, 
Company  L  of  the  Second  Wisconsin  cavalry,  the  only  cavalry 
company  recruited  in  this  section. 


I  reached  Eau  Claire  in  18-57,  and  besides  being  engaged  in 
the  sawmill  and  lumber  business,  was  for  a  time  engineer  on 
some  of  the  Chippewa  river  steamboats.  I  was  running  the  Stella 
Whipple  when  it  took  Company  C,  Captain  Perkins'  company, 



to  LaCrosse,  and  well  remember  the  ovation  given  to  the  company 
on  its  arrival  there.  About  this  time  a  letter  was  received  from 
my  father  asking  if  any  of  his  sons  had  buckled  on  their  armor 
in  defense  of  their  country.  If  not  he  would  have  to  set  an 
example  for  us.  I  was  anxious  to  take  a  hand  in  the  struggle, 
and  different  ones  had  suggested  that  I  raise  a  company.  Among 
those  making  this  suggestion  was  John  Kelly,  later  Captain 
Kelly,  who  had  charge  of  a  crew  of  rivermen  for  Chapman  & 
Thorp.  I  started  to  Madison  to  make  arrangements  for  raising 
the  company,  but  on  my  return  found  Kelly  had  been  persuaded 
to  join  forces  with  John  Wheeler,  who  was  then  raising  a  com- 
pany, and  whose  project  had  the  support  of  the  leading  news- 
paper of  the  place,  while  my  own  efforts  in  that  direction  were 
criticised  and  discouraged.  My  company  was,  as  Wheeler's,  to 
be  an  infantry  company. 

I  soon  got  about  forty  men  on  my  list.  Then  for  a  time 
recruiting  was  nearly  at  a  standstill  in  both  t-ompanies.  At  this 
point  a  suggestion  came  to  me,  which,  although  it  did  not  fully 
solve  the  problem,  went  far  toward  doing  so.  This  was  to  change 
from  an  infantry  to  a  cavalry  company.  I  had  found  quite  a 
number  who  stood  ready  to  enlist  in  cavah-y,  but  who  would  not 
enlist  in  an  infantry  company.  The  change  was  brought  about 
as  follows:  Having  decided  that  it  would  be  advisable  to  change 
to  a  cavalry  company,  I  immediately  wrote  a  letter  to  Cakmel 
Washburn,  who,  I  heard,  had  just  been  commissioned  to  raise  a 
second  cavalry  regiment.  Just  as  I  was  about  to  put  the  letter 
in  the  mail  I  met  a  Lieutenant  Luxton,  who  had  come  to  the 
village  to  pick  up  recruits  and  I  confided  my  whole  plan  to  him. 
He  said  I  had  struck  the  right  person;  that  it  would  not  be 
necessary  to  send  the  letter  to  Washburn,  as  Washburn  had 
authorized  him  to  get  recruits.  Also  said  I  could  go  on  and  make 
up  my  company  and  I  could  go  out  as  captain  of  same.  I  then 
told  Luxton  that  I  thought  he  ought  to  withdraw  from  the  ter- 
ritory and  leave  it  to  me.  He  consented;  said  he  would  go  up 
to  Chippewa  Falls  and  pick  up  a  few  men  who  had  already 
promised  to  go,  and  then  would  leave.  I  started  down  to  Durand 
and  around  in'  that  vicinity,  was  gone  some  days,  and  on  my 
return  was  surprised  to  find  Luxton  still  there  picking  up  recruits. 
I  asked  him  what  he  meant  by  this,  but  he  assured  me  that  it 
would  be  all  right;  that  he  thought  that  he  could  get  some  of 
these  men  better  than  myself,  but  that  the  recruits  would  be 
divided  and  I  would  get  my  men  just  the  same.  I  soon  realized 
that  this  man  Luxton  was  a  very  unreliable  man  to  do  business 


with,  so  I  interviewed  Colonel  Washburn  personally  and  made  a 
trip  to  Milwaukee  for  that  purpose.  Colonel  Washburn  was 
pleased  and  said  the  matter  could  be  arranged.  He  explained  liis 
plan  and  gave  me  a  letter  to  a  Mr.  Wood,  of  Patch  Grove,  near 
Milwaukee,  which  read  about  as  follows: 

"Dear  Sir: — This  will  introduce  to  you  Mr.  A.  M.  Sherman, 
of  Eau  Claire,  who  is  raising  a  company  of  cavalry  Avith  the 
intention  of  not  being  brigaded  with  another  company.  Yourself 
and  Captain  Dale,  of  Racine,  have  received  commissions  from 
me  to  raise  two  companies  to  be  brigaded,  he  to  take  the  senior 
captaincy  and  you  the  junior  captaincy.  I  find  that  Captain  Dale 
is  guilty  of  double  dealing  in  having  accepted  this  commission 
from  me  and  being  now  engaged  in  recruiting  for  the  Barstow 
regiment.  I  therefore  now  throw  Captain  Dale  over  entirely  and 
would  ask  you  to  turn  your  recruits  in  with  A.  M.  Sherman, 
and  when  the  company  is  made  up  he  will  be  the  captain  of  the 
same  and  yourself  first  lieutenant.  The  balance  of  the  officers 
will  be  elected  alternately  from  .your  own  and  Captain  Sherman 's 

I  went  to  Patch  Grove,  found  Wood  sick  in  bed,  considerably 
discouraged  and  well  pleased  to  fall  in  with  the  new  plan.  Up 
to  this  time  I  had  been  working  at  a  great  disadvantage  in 
getting  recruits,  for  those  who  were  backing  the  Wheeler  company 
asserted  that  there  was  no  show  for  me  making  up  the  requisite 
number  for  the  company,  and  even  if  I  made  it  up  there  was 
no  assurance  that  a  cavalry  company  could  be  gotten  into  service. 
Now  the  acquisition  of  the  recruits  from  Patch  Grove  nearly 
made  up  the  required  number,  and  I  had  Colonel  Washburn's 
word  that  the  company  would  be  accepted.  I  came  back  to  the 
village,  announced  the  success  of  my  mission,  and  started  in 
enthusiastically  to  recruit  the  number  more  needed  to  make  up  a 
full  company.  But  recruits  came  slowly  both  for  myself  and 
Wheeler.  When  matters  were  at  nearly  a  standstill  Lieutenant 
Luxton  again  appeared  on  the  scene.  Meeting  me,  he  said: 
"Hello  Sherman,  how  are  j'ou  making  't?''  "Pretty  ?low,''  T 
said.  "A  few  more  recruits  are  needed  yet  and  they  are  hard  to 
find."  "Why  don't  you  go  over  to  Black  River  Falls?  A  com- 
pany has  gone  to  pieces  there  and  I  could  have  gotten  twenty 
men  there  yesterday  if  I  had  wanted  them. ' '  Forgetting  my  pre- 
vious experience  with  Luxton,  I  quickly  engaged  a  livery  team 
and  drove  to  Black  River  Falls;  found  there  Avas  not  a  word  of 
truth  in  Luxton 's  statement,  and  no  men  to  be  had.  One  of 
the  first  persons  I  met  there  was  Captain  Wheeler,  who  had  come 


on  tlie  same  fool's  errand  as  myself.  We  went  back  together, 
better  friends  than  ever,  and  found  that  during  our  absence 
Luxton  had  been  trying  his  best  to  get  Wheeler's  and  my  men 
to  leave  and  go  with  him.  Notwithstanding  the  discouragement 
and  Luxton 's  treachery,  I  persevered,  and  finally  got  the  requisite 
number  of  recruits  enrolled.  Just  then  I  received  perhaps  the 
most  bitter  disappointment  of  my  life.  A  letter  was  received 
from  Washburn  stating  that  the  recruits  a-t  Patch  Grove  had  held 
a  meeting  and  decided  that  they  would  not  consolidate  Avith  mine, 
but  would  go  ahead  and  fill  up  their  own  ranks,  and  Wood  had 
sent  word  to  Washburn  that  they  would  soon  appear  in  camp 
with  a  fuU  company.  This  left  me  without  the  requisite  number 
of  men,  and  no  assurance  of  acceptance  if  the  company  was  filled. 
I  did  not  dare  tell  the  boys  of  the  condition  of  affairs.  Here 
were  some  sixty  odd  of  the  best  men  of  the  Chippewa  valley  or  of 
the  country,  who  were  fully  expecting  to  be  sworn  into  service 
without  delay,  and  I  alone  knew  that  there  were  no  grounds  for 
that  belief.  It  was  a  forlorn  hope,  but  I  went  on  with  my  prepa- 
rations to  start  for  camp  near  Jlilwaukee,  trusting  that  in  some 
way,  I  knew  not  how,  a  solution  of  the  difficulty  would  be  found. 
Having  no  governmental  authority,  there  was  no  financial  backing 
for  the  venture,  except  myself.  The  boys  did  not  know  it,  but  I 
personally  paid  the  entire  expenses  of  the  company  to  Sparta  and 
at  that  place.  At  Sparta  we  took  the  train  for  .Mihvaulvi-e.  The 
boys  were  going  to  war,  so  they  thought,  and  wci'c  running  over 
■with  animal  spirit.  At  one  or  two  of  the  stations  a  supply  of  a 
different  kind  of  spirits  was  taken  on  board,  and  this  added  to 
their  hilarity.  The  conductor  came  around  and  asked  for  cer- 
tificates of  transportation.  I  told  him  I  had  none.  He  was  sur- 
prised and  said  that  I  must  pay  their  fare  or  they  would  be  put 
off  the  train.  I  told  him  I  could  not  pay  their  fare  if  I  would, 
and  as  for  putting  them  off  the  train,  I  suggested  that  it  might 
not  be  a  very  safe  thing  to  try  with  tliose  lumberjacks ;  and  the 
sounds  which  came  from  the  other  car  added  emphasis  to  my 
words.  Then  he  said  that  at  the  next  junction  he  would  have 
to  uncouple  the  car  and  leave  it  on  the  switch.  I  replied  that 
this  would  not  work  either,  for  we  had  started  for  Milwaukee 
and  were  going  there,  and  on  the  least  show  of  uncoupling  the 
car  we  would  take  possession  of  the  train.  I  was  a  railroad  man 
myself  and  could  run  the  engine,  and  I  knew  I  could  make  up 
the  balance  of  a  train  crew  from  my  company.  That  put  an 
end  to  objections  on  his  part,  and  we  continued  on  our  journey, 
finallv  reaching  Milwaukee.     But  what  was  I  to  do  now  that  I 


was  there?  I  had  a  magiiifieeiit  body  of  men  much  above  the 
average  height  and  firmly  built.  I  had  taken  pains  to  niimber 
and  rank  them  in  order  of  height,  and  this  added  much  to  their 
military  appearance.  Getting  them  in  line  after  leaving  the  cars, 
they  made  a  showing  to  be  proud  of.  Just  then  a  man  in  the 
undress  uniform  of  an  oificer  of  the  regular  army  drove  vip  and 
stopped  to  look  at  them.  .He  then  inquired  of  a  bystander  where 
they  were  from.  "From  Eau  Claire,"  was  the  answer.  "Who 
is  their  captain?"  I  was  pointed  out.  "Well,"  said  he,  "I 
have  seen  every  regiment  of  the  regular  army  and  every  regiment 
that  has  gone  out  from  this  state,  but  this  is  the  finest  looking 
body  of  men  that  I  ever  saw  in  line."'  Getting  into  his  carriage 
beside  him,  I  quietly  asked  him  to  drive  a  little  distance  away, 
and  then  1  told  him  the  awful  fix  I  was  in.  "Don't  worry," 
said  he.  "I  can  assure  j'ou  that  Washburn  will  be  very  glad 
to  get  those  men.  March  them  around  to  headquarters."  With 
a  lighter  heart  than  I  had  carried  for  weeks,  I  marched  the 
boys  around  and  stood  them  in  line  on  the  walk  across  the 
street  from  Washburn's  headquarters.  I  was  then  led  into  the 
hotel,  where  I  met  Colonel  Washburn.  He  came  out  and  looked 
at  the  boys  across  the  street.  There  was  no  further  question  in 
regard  to  their  acceptance.  He  wanted  those  boys — and  more 
like  them  if  they  could  be  obtained. 

Washburn's  first  suggestion  was  that  my  company  be  con- 
solidated with  another  company,  with  a  division  of  officers.  I 
told  him  that  my  boys  had  been  promised  that  they  should  elect 
their  own  officers,  and  this  was  acceded  to.  We  found  Captain 
Wood  there.  Instead  of  a  full  company  as  promised,  he  had 
not  much  more  than  half  the  required  number.  We  were  given 
quarters  and  at  last  were  actually  sM-orn  into  the  service  of 
the  government. 

I  got  my  men  into  quarters,  drew  rations,  blankets  and  fuel 
and  then  took  the  train  back  to  Eau  Claire  to  get  a  few  more 
recruits  who  were  not  ready  to  go  when  the  company  left. 
Returning  to  Milwaukee  a  few  days  later  I  found  the  strife 
between  Washburn  and  ex-Governor  Barstow  redhot.  The  occa- 
sion for  this  rivalry  was  that  an  order  had  been  received  from 
the  war  department  stating  that  but  one  cavalry  regiment  would 
be  received,  and  this  would  be  the  first  one  ready  to  take  the 
field.  There  were  at  this  time  three  cavalry  regiments  in  process 
of  formation :  That  of  Prof.  Edward  Daniels,  of  Ripon,  with  ren- 
dezvous on  the  lake  shore  above  Milwaukee;  C.  C.  Washburn's 
regiment,  with  rendezvous  at  Milwaukee,  and  ex-Governor  Bar- 


stow's  regiment,  with  rendezvous  at  Janesville.  I  found  that 
during  my  absence  at  Eau  Claire  I  had  lost  four  of  my  men, 
who  had  been  induced  to  go  into  the  Barstow  regiment,  among 
them  being  my  Rank  1  man,  who  stood  six  feet  four.  It  appears 
that  an  agent  of  Barstow  had  been  treating  the  boys  pretty 
liberally  to  liquor,  and  when  in  a  somewhat  mellow  condition  had 
spirited  them  off  to  Janesville.  I  immediatelj'  took  the  train  and 
went  after  those  boys.  Arriving  at  Janesville,  I  hunted  up  Bar- 
stow and  told  him  my  errand.  The  ex-governor  was  very  cordial. 
Said  he  liked  my  style.  .  Pointing  to  a  half-barrel  of  whisky  and 
a  glass  on  top  of  same,  he  said:  "Help  yourself.  Let's  take 
a  drink,"  which  we  did.  Then,  coming  back  to  my  request  for 
the  return  of  my  men,  he  said  that  was  out  of  the  question, 
and  emphasized  it  with  some  strong  profanity,  in  which  the 
ex-governor  was  an  expert.  Said  that  those  men  should  never 
go  back,  as  anything  he  got  from  Colonel  Washburn  he  intended 
to  keep.  After  a  few  minutes  spent  in  conversation  at  the  ofSce, 
Barstow  ordered  a  horse  for  himself  and  another  one  for  me 
and  said,  "Let's  go  down  to  the  barracks  and  see  the  troops. 
I  want  to  show  you  my  regiment."  After  another  drink  we 
started.  As  we  rode  along  I  again  insisted  on  the  return  of 
those  men ;  told  him  I  could  not  muster  in  without  them.  Barstow 
continued  firm,  declaring  those  men  could  not  go,  but  that  he 
would  "loan"  me  as  many  more  to  assist  me  in  mustering.  As 
may  be  inferred,  this  "loaning"  of  recruits  was  not  a  strictly 
regular  procedure,  but  was  sometimes  resorted  to  by  those  who 
lacked  a  few  of  the  required  number  of  recruits,  and  was  winked 
at  by  those  higher  in  authority. 

We  rode  out  to  the  barracks.  I  found  the  regiment  enclosed 
in  a  stockade  built  of  sixteen-foot  planks  set  vertically.  After 
we  had  been  there  a  short  time  Barstow  became  engaged  in 
conversation  with  some  of  his  regimental  officers  and  I  remarked 
that  I  would  look  around  for  a  while,  to  which  the  ex-governor 
replied,  "All  right,  captain;  go  ahead."  I  soon  ran  onto  my 
boys.  They  were  glad  to  see  me  and  anxious  to  get  back.  One 
of  the  boys  was  on  patrol.  I  planned  with  him  that  he  should 
pry  one  plank  loose  at  the  bottom,  and  then,  as  opportunity 
offered,  the  boys  were  to  slip  through  and  take  the  railroad 
track  for  Milwaukee,  my  rank  man  having  both  feet  badly  frozen, 
as  he  had  on  only  a  pair  of  tight  boots.  Nothing  of  unusual 
interest  occui-red  during  our  stay  in  Milwaukee,  only  regimental 
and  sword  drill,  etc.  It  may  be  proper  to  state  here  that 
eventually  all  three  of  the  cavalry  companies  were  accepted. 


We  left  Milwaukee  in  early  spring  and  went  to  Benton  Bar- 
racks, St.  Louis,  where  we  drew  our  horses.  I  assisted  in  the  pur- 
chase of  10,000  horses.  Trainloads  were  brought  from  all  direc- 
tions. The  test  was  to  race  each  horse  straightaway  forty  rods 
and  back.  The  rider  would  then  dismount,  a  man  would  grab 
the  horse  by  the  bridle  with  whip  in  hand  and  circle  the  horse 
at  full  speed  in  as  short  turns  as  possible.  This  to  test  the  wind. 
If  the  wind  was  found  all  right  the  horses  were  further  examined 
for  other  defects.  If  accepted  the  buyer  announced  "Inside" 
and  if  not  accepted  "outside."  That  ended  the  matter.  It 
was  useless  for  the  seller  to  say  a  word.  Twelve  regiments  were 
mounted,  eleven  in  solid  colors,  mostly  bays.  Two  battalions 
of  the  second  Wisconsin  were  mounted  and  the  balance  on  mixed 
colors.  I  conceived  the  idea  that  each  company  should  have  a 
distinct  color.  There  were  enough  of  each  to  mount  a  company 
of  blacks,  grays,  red  roans  and  "clay  banks,"  These  last  were 
a  breed  imported  from  Europe  and  raised  mostly  in  Missouri. 
They  had  black  manes,  tails  and  legs  and  a  black  stripe  down 
the  spine.  The  body  color  was  about  that  of  yellow  clay,  from 
which  they  took  their  name. 

About  this  time  the  rebel  General  Stuart's  Black  Horse  Cavalry 
had  been  making  some  of  its  dashing  raids  and  blacks  were  much 
in  favor  and  considered  the  ideal  cavalry  horse.  All  the  com- 
panies wanted  the  blacks  so  the  choice  of  colors  was  settled  by 
ballet.  Captain  Richmond  got  the  blacks,  Capt.  Von  Heyde  the 
red  roans,  Capt.  Whytoek  the  grays  and  I  got  the  claybanks. 
I  was  so  disappointed  that  I  offered  Captain  Richmond  all  the 
money  I  had  if  he  Avould  exchange,  but  he  laughed  at  me.  I 
considered  the  claybanks  the  poorest  of  all,  and  tried  to  trade 
for  the  grays  or  red  roans,  but  with  no  better  success.  The  red 
roans  Avere  a  pony  built  horse  with  round  quarters,  strong  loins 
and  sloping  shoulders,  and  as  many  of  my  men  were  the  heaviest 
in  the  regiment  I  thought  the  roans  would  be  more  suitable,  but 
I  had  to  content  myself  with  the  claybanks.  It  was  now  early 
summer.  My  brother  Stanton  visited  me  on  a  furlough,  he  be- 
longing to  the  First  Iowa  Cavalry,  a  regiment  where  each  man 
furnished  his  own  horse.  I  was  glad  to  see  him  for  he  had 
already  had  some  experience  in  the  cavalry.  I  was  relating  to 
him  my  disappointment  in  the  matter  of  horses  when  he  replied, 
"you  have  the  best  cavalry  horse  in  the  world."  "How  so?" 
said  I.  He  replied  "The  claybank  is  the  most  tractable,  docile 
and  yet  fearless,  and  will  learn  the  bugle  call  before  his  rider 
does.    We  have  some  of  them  in  our  regiment  and  they  excel  all 


others.  You  let  me  take  j'Oiir  company  into  the  amphitheater  for 
a  few  days  and  I  will  drill  them  for  you,  and  then  I'll  show 
you,"  which  he  did  more  or  less  for  two  weeks. 

At  the  first  call  for  regimental  drill  for  the  sword,  mounted, 
there  was  a  great  surprise  in  store  for  the  regiment.  We  were 
formed  in  line,  swords  with  metal  scabbard  and  steel  chains 
hanging  at  the  left  side,  bridle  rein  in  the  left  hand,  right  arm 
hanging  down  by  the  right  side.  Now,  we  were  all  lined  up,  as 
perfect  as  we  can  get  our  horses,  waiting  for  the  first  command, 
which  is  "Draw-sabers."  At  the  command  "Draw"  each  man 
throws  his  right  arm  across  his  body,  grasps  his  sword,  and  draws 
it  up  six  inches  in  the  scabbard,  and  as  he  gets  the  word  "saber" 
it  leaps  from  the  scabbard,  passes  the  body  to  the  right  with  its 
point  skyward,  straight  with  the  arms  aud  at  an  angle  of  about 
thirty  degrees.  Now  notice  what  happens.  A  thousand  arms 
swinging  together  on  to  the  hilts  of  a  thousand  sabers  and  rais- 
ing them  six  inches  in  their  metal  scabbards  with  a  rattling  of 
steel  chains  and  then  the  flash  of  a  thousand  blades  in  the  sun- 
light, and  where  are  you  at?  Every  company  stampeded  except 
the  claybauks.  The  scene  was  picturesque,  and  somewhat  tragic, 
for  a  few  riders  were  thrown  from  their  mounts.  Horses  Avere 
rearing  and  plunging  in  great  confusion.  This  ended  the  drill 
for  that  day,  aud  claybauks  stock  was  at  a  premium.  A  feeling 
of  envy  was  shown  by  some  of  the  officers  of  the  other  companies, 
and  on  the  part  of  company  L  there  was  a  greater  pride  in  their 
horses  and  from  that  time  on  they  received  the  best  of  care.  My 
brother  Stanton  was  induced  by  Col.  Washburn  and  myself  to 
act  as  scout  for  our  regiment,  being  attached  to  my  company, 
he  having  been  promised  a  transfer  from  the  Iowa  cavalry  to 
which  he  belonged. 

After  the  expiration  of  a  few  weeks  spent  at  Benton  Barracks 
we  received  marching  orders  for  Springfield,  Mo.  Nothing  of 
special  interest  occurred  on  the  way,  except  that  I  might  relate 
a  little  incident  which  occurred  at  the  small  village  of  RoUa. 
There  was  a  company  of  "Home  Guards"  in  charge  of  this  place. 
Now  from  my  own  experience  and  observation  I  have  no  very 
high  opinion  of  these  Home  Guards.  Doubtless  some  of  them  were 
entirely  true  and  loyal  but  on  the  other  hand  many  of  them 
seemed  to  have  joined  these  organizations  to  prevent  themselves 
from  being  drawn  into  field  service,  on  either  side,  and  their 
attitude  was  that  of  Good  Lord  or  Good  Devil  to  which  ever  of 
the  two  opposing  forces  might  seem  to  be  in  the  ascendancy  at 
anv  particular  time.     Several  of  my  boys  in  taking  in  the  town 


had  conimitted  some  minor  offense  and  had  been  lodged  by  these 
Home  Guards  in  a  guard  house  or  calaboose.  Word  was  brought 
to  me  of  this  by  some  of  the  other  boys.  That  day  I  was  mounted 
on  a  horse  which  was  the  private  property  of  one  of  my  company, 
Philip  Hanck.  Old  residents  will  remember  the  man  well.  He 
and  another  man  kept  a  hotel  on  the  corner  opposite  the  Galloway 
House.  The  liorse  was  a  "leopard"  stallion,  or  part  Arabian 
blood,  a  splendid  animal,  perfectly  fearless  and  would  carry  its 
rider  anywhere.  I  went  to  the  commander  of  the  Guards,  told 
him  my  company  was  to  leave  in  the  early  morning,  that  I  would 
see  to  the  conduct  of  my  men,  and  asked  their  release.  The  man 
was  very  pompous  and  insolent  and  no  satisfaction  could  be  ob- 
tained from  him.  Different  action  on  my  part  was  necessary. 
Turning  to  the  boys  who  had  accompanied  me  I  ordered  them  to 
break  open  the  guard  house.  This  was  done  in  short  order  and  my 
boys  released.  The  Home  Guard  commander  stood  there  fuming 
and  vowing  vengence  and  after  one  particular  offensive  remark 
addressed  to  me  I  wheeled  my  horse  and  made  straight  at  him. 
He  started  on. the  run  and  soon  being  hard  pressed  run  up  the 
steps  of  the  leading  hotel  and  disappeared  through  the  large 
entrance,  but  my  horse  could  climb  steps  as  well  as  he  and  I  fol- 
lowed. By  ducking  my  head  I  was  able  to  ride  through  the 
entrance  and  right  into  the  hotel  lobby.  As  may  be  imagined 
it  caused  some  excitement  and  there  was  screaming  from  the  lady 
guests,  but  ray  man  got  away  from  me,  slipping  out  the  back 
door  where  I  could  not  follow.  I  then  turned  my  horse,  reached 
down  and  picked  up  a  rocking  chair  and  with  that  in  my  hand 
rode  out  of  the  entrance  and  down  the  steps.  The  guard  officers 
gave  me  no  further  trouble  and  with  my  full  compliment  of  men 
the  next  morning  we  started  on.  We  reached  Springfield  where 
a  regimental  conference  was  held  between  our  officers  and  the 
command  there,  which  resulted  in  our  regiment  being  sent  south 
to  the  town  of  Ozark,  under  command  of  Major  Sterling.  The 
balance  of  the  regimental  officers  remained  in  Springfield.  A 
large  train  of  wagons  was  supplied  and  we  were  to  gather  corn 
and  grind  it  in  a  gristmill  at  Ozark,  also  procure  forage  for 
the  horses.  These  supplies  were  to  be  sent  to  the  relief  of  Gen- 
eral Curtis,  who  was  hemmed  in  and  surrounded  by  the  enemy 
down  on  White  River,  near  Batesville.  There  had  been  a  previ- 
ous effort  made  to  relieve  this  general,  but  it  proved  disastrous, 
the  train  being  captured  and  the  supplies  burned. 

Early  the  first  morning  after  reaching  Ozark  some  boys  of 
Co.  L  went  down  the  Forsythe  road,  foraging  for  chickens,  when 


they  discovered  some  rebel  cavalry  coming  up  the  road.  Con- 
cealing themselves  in  the  brush  they  counted  the  cavalrymen  as 
they  rode  i)ast.  There  were  225.  The  report  was  brought  to  me 
and  I  immediately  carried  it  to  Ma.jor  Sterling  in  command  and 
asked  the  privilege  of  going  after  them  with  Co.  L.  The  major 
did  not  approve  this  on  the  ground  of  the  absence  of  all  the  other 
regimental  officers  at  Springfield  and  our  expedition  to  Ozai'k 
being  for  the  securing  of  supplies  and  not  for  the  purpose  of 
entering  into  any  engagement  with  the  enemy.  I  urged  my  re- 
quest strongly  and  finally  was  told  I  could  follow  them  up  for 
a  short  distance,  "But  don't  be  gone  over  an  hour."  Learning 
of  the  permission  given  by  Ma.jor  Sterling,  Captain  De  Forrest 
requested  me  to  let  him  make  up  half  of  the  pursuing  force  with 
men  from  his  company,  to  which  I  assented.  Ozark  was  gar- 
risoned by  about  forty  infantry.  I  secured  one  of  these  as  guide 
on  account  of  his  knowledge  of  the  country,  mounted  him  and 
then  we  started  down  the  road  toward  Forsythe  in  pursuit  of  the 
enemy.  It  proved  that  the  rebel  cavalry  had  ridden  up  to  the 
brow  of  the  liill  overlooking  Ozark,  expecting  to  capture  the 
place,  but  discovering  our  regiment  encamped  there  had  quietlj'' 
countermarched  back  toward  their  encampment  at  Cowskin  Prai- 
rie, on  the  south  side  of  White  River.  Had  we  not  arrived  at 
Ozark  the  day  before  it  would  have  been  an  easy  matter  for  them 
to  capture  the  garrison,  and  so  sure  were  they  of  doing  this  that 
they  had  brought  along  a  six  mule  team  to  take  back  their  ex- 
pected plunder.  We  had  gone  only  a  mile  or  so  when  we  ap- 
proached a  cloud  of  dust  which  filled  the  roadway  neai'ly  to  the 
tops  of  the  trees.  I  immediately  ordered  my  men  to  a  gallop 
expecting  to  soon  overtake  the  rebels.  After  riding  perhaps  for 
three  quarters  of  a  mile  further  we  came  to  a  fork  in  the  road 
and  the  dust  was  down  both  roads.  I  called  a  halt  and  con- 
ferred with  my  guide.  The  right  hand  road  was  the  direct  route 
to  Pea  Ridge  and  the  left  hand  road  to  Forsythe,  but  on  account 
of  the  dust  in  both  roads  we  could  not  tell  which  way  they  had 
gone.  The  guide  was  of  the  opinion  that  the  rebel  cavalry  were 
from  Cowskin  Prairie  and  would  probably  take  the  left  hand 
road.  I  cautiously  advanced  expecting  every  minute  to  run  into 
the  rear  guard,  but  we  traveled  on  and  on,  but  always  dust  in 
the  road  ahead  of  us,  until  we  had  passed  the  summit  of  the 
Ozark  mountains  and  were  on  the  southern  descent,  to  White 
River.  My  brother  Stant  was  all  the  time  alone  in  advance.  We 
had  gone  probably  twenty  miles  when  he  returned  with  a  pi-isoner 
mounted  on  a  mule  with  a  young  negro  wench  behind  him,    Stant 


said, ' '  Put  this  man  in  the  ranks. "  "  Why  no,  he  is  not  a  soldier, ' ' 
I  replied.  "He  is  a  spy  sent  back  in  this  guise  to  find  out  if 
they  are  being  followed;"  and  he  wheeled  his  horse  and  galloped 
ahead  out  of  sight.  I  interrogated  the  man,  but  he  assured  me 
that  he  was  a  preacher  going  to  preach  a  funeral  sermon,  so  I 
let  him  go  and  started  the  command  ahead,  but  had  gone  only 
a  short  distance  when  I  heard  rapid  firing  ahead. 

Stant  had  I'un  into  the  rear  guard  and  opened  fire  on  them. 
I  immediately  ordered  a  charge  which  the  boys  made  with  a  will. 
Within  a  mile  we  ran  into  dozens  of  the  rebels,  most  of  whom 
threw  up  their  hands  and  cried  "donf  shoot,  I  surrender," 
many  dismounting,  holding  up  their  bridle  rein  and  throwing 
down  their  arms.  We  passed  all  such  leaving  it  to  Captain  De- 
Forrest's  men,  who  were  behind  us,  to  take  care  of  those  who  had 
surrendered,  while  we  kept  on  after  those  who  would  not  halt 
or  surrender.  While  riding  along  at  a  furious  pace  Len  Lancas- 
ter's horse  slipped  on  a  ledge  of  slate  that  extended  across  the 
road  when  horse  and  rider  fell  to  the  ground,  Lancaster  being 
caught  under  the  horse  and  severely  injured.  I  detailed  two 
men  to  take  him  to  the  rear,  and  on  we  started  again.  Presently 
we  ran  across  their  six-mule  team  and  wagon,  but  on  we  went, 
the  fastest  horses  in  front.  Every  man  taking  the  initiative,  some 
following  far  into  the  woods  those  of  the  rebels  who  left  the  road. 

I  had  seen  nothing  of  Stant  yet,  and  feared  he  was  killed. 
After  running  past  perhaps  a  hundred  men  who  had  thrown  down 
their  weapons  and  offered  to  surrender  we  emerged  out  of  the 
timber  on  the  level  bottom  of  White  River.  Here  there  was  no 
dust  to  speak  of,  and  there  were  several  farm  houses  in  sight.  I 
will  take  time  here  to  describe  our  own  shooting  irons,  which 
were  somewhat  out  of  the  usual  order.  Each  man  was  furnished 
with  a  Savage  revolver,  having  a  nine  inch  barrel,  a  heavy 
weapon,  provided  with  a  lever  which  dropped  down  in  front  of 
the  ti'igger,  with  a  loop  in  the  lower  end  for  the  middle  finger. 
When  this  lever  was  pulled  back  it  would  cock  the  revolver  and 
turn  the  cylinder,  but  if  not  let  go  forward  again  pulling  the 
trigger  would  not  discharge  the  weapon.  Lieut.  Tom  Nary  was 
riding  by  ray  side.  He  was  a  splendid  specimen  of  physical  man- 
hood and  with  no  lack  of  courage.  As  we  were  dashing  along  we 
overtook  a  rebel  officer.  I  was  on  one  side  and  Nary  on  the  other. 
Nary  was  on  the  left,  pointing  his  revolver  at  the  officer,  com- 
manding him  to  halt  or  he  would  shoot,  but  the  officer  kept  right 
on.  Probably  through  failure  to  release  the  lever  before  men- 
tioned Nary's  revolver  would  not  go  off.     In  the  meantime  I  had 


dropped  back  to  keep  out  of  the  range.  Finally  there  was  a 
sharp  report  and  the  rebel  officer  fell  dead,  shot  through  the  heart. 
Just  at  the  elose  of  our  what  was  our  surprise  to  run  across 
a  young  woman  in  riding  habit  standing  beside  the  road  patting 
her  pony  on  the  neck,  the  pony  gushing  blood  from  its  nostrils 
with  every  breath.  We  stopped  and  looked  in  amazement.  Just 
then  the  pony  reeled  over  and  fell  dead.  I  rode  up  to  her  with 
the  question  "what  have  we  here?"  There  was  a  look  of  scorn 
and  no  reply.  "Where  is  your  gallant?"  I  added.  She  turned 
and  looked  southwest  across  the  field  and  pointed  out  a  lone  horse- 
man half  a  mile  away,  evidently  mounted  on  a  thoroughbred,  for 
his  tail  was  straight  out  and  liis  gatherings  rapid.  "There  he 
goes,"  said  she,  "and  you  can't  catch  him."  "Well,"  said  I, 
"I  think  I  will  have  to  take  you  prisoner."  "I  reckon  you 
won't."  As  she  said  this  she  went  into  her  pocket  and  brought 
out  a  document.  It  proved  to  be  a  permit  for  her  to  go  in  and 
out  of  the  lines  at  pleasure,  and  signed  by  Colonel  Boyd,  who 
M'as  a  federal  officer  living  in  Missouri,  and  this  was  his  daughter, 
who  had  been  down  to  Cowskin  Prairie  and  married  a  rebel 
officer,  the  one  in  command  of  the  expedition  against  Ozark.  Her 
husband  was  one  of  the  very  few  in  the  rebel  command  who  had 
not  laid  down  arms,  surrendered  or  been  killed.  This  expedi- 
tion was  their  wedding  tour,  and  the  comtemplated  capture  of 
the  garrison  and  supplies  at  Ozark  was  expected  to  add  spice  to 
the  trip. 

Our  horses  by  this  time  were  tired  and  their  riders  were  dust 
covered,  hot  and  thirsty.  As  the  boys  began  to  gather  in  from 
the  woods  and  elsewhere  we  stopped  at  a  farm  bouse  where  there 
was  a  well  with  an  old-fashioned  sweep.  The  thirst  of  men  and 
horses  was  quenched,  the  horses  being  allowed  to  take  only  a 
few  swallows  at  a  time  until  cooled  off.  The  boys  continued  to 
come  in,  brother  Stant  the  last  to  show  up.  He  had  been  led  a 
long  chase  deep  in  the  woods.  A  count  was  taken  and  every  man 
found  safe  and  Avhole.  We  then  started  back  to  Ozai'k.  The 
six-mule  team  belonging  to  the  rebels  was  made  use  of  in  hauling 
the  guns  and  equipment  of  all  descriptions  which  they  had  sur- 
rendered or  dropped  in  their  flight.  There  were  110  pieces,  all 
told,  including  a  considerable  number  of  carbines,  with  bayonets 
which  slid  down  into  a  casement,  and  had  been  furnished  by  the 
government  for  the  protection  of  camel  trains  which  carried  mail 
across  the  plains.  There  were  also  squirrel  rifles,  shot  guns,  der- 
ringers and  dueling  pistols,  also  some  bowie  knives. 

The  body  of  the  rebel  officer  mentioned  was  put  into  the  wagon 


with  the  equipment  and  after  dark  left  at  a  farm  house  where 
we  had  noticed  a  number  of  women  while  on  the  chase.  The  full 
benefit  of  our  raid  was  not  realized  on  account  of  the  failure 
of  the  squad  from  the  other  compay  who  were  in  the  rear  of  Co. 
L,  to  take  charge  of  those  who  had  thrown  down  their  arms  and 
offered  to  surrender.  Further  jealousy  in  the  regiment  was 
caused  by  this  encounter,  and  later  I  learned  there  was  even 
talk  of  a  court-martial  for  me  for  having  been  gone  more  than 
the  hour  allotted  to  me  by  my  superior  officer.  Had  the  chase 
not  been  so  successful  and  without  loss  to  my  company  there  is  no 
telling  what  might  have  liappened. 


It  was  impossible  to  know  the  full  extent  of  casualty  to  the 
enemy.  The  dust  was  so  thick  it  was  hard  to  distinguish  between 
the  grey  and  the  blue.  Sixteen  prisoners  and  three  killed  were 
all  we  were  sure  of.  In  a  few  days  our  train  of  supplies  and  forage 
was  ready  and  our  command  with  the  forty  infantrymen  of  Ozark 
as  riding  wagon  guards,  we  started  traveling  the  same  road  we 
had  chased  the  enemy  over  for  the  first  twenty-five  miles.  It  was 
an  undisturbed  march  thus  far  but  ever  after  that  we  were  fol- 
lowed by  McBride  and  Coleman  for  100  miles  with  their  bush- 
whacking guerilla  system  of  firing  upon  us  from  dense  cover  and 
instantly  fleeing ;  picking  up  any  stragglers  momentarily  absent 
from  the  ranks.  Their  system  was  to  fire  into  the  advance  and 
rear  ranks  and  then  skidoo.  Washburn  was  anxious  to  learn 
the  strength  of  the  encampment  at  Cowskin  Prairie  so  brother 
Stant  was  rigged  out  in  butternut  garb  and  furnished  with  leave 
of  absence  purporting  to  belong  to  a  rebel  of  Price's  command, 
mounted  on  an  old  picked  up  horse,  to  spy  out  the  rebel  force  at 
Cowskin  Prairie  on  the  south  side  of  White  River,  while  we 
marched  down  on  the  north  side.  He  left  us  one  morning  before 
we  broke  camp.  We  marched  that  day  with  but  little  annoyance 
and  all  the  next  day  without  any  and  we  began  to  think  the 
enemy  were  massing  somewhere  in  our  front  for  the  final  coup 
and  our  fate  might  be  the  same  as  the  one  captured  before,  in 
their  attempt  to  reach  General  Curtis.  After  our  camp  for  the 
night  was  settled,  Washburn  sent  for  me  to  come  to- his  quarters, 
he  was  very  anxious  to  hear  from  his  scout  and  spy  sent  to  Cow- 
skin and  I  thought  he  must  be  killed  for  he  had  told  me  he  would 
never  surrender.  Just  at  the  time  I  was  telling  this  to  Wash- 
burn, there  was  a  loud  vocal  discord  ringing  in  our  ears  and  I 


started  for  Company  L  quarters.  When  I  got  tliere  I  saw  Stant 
and  two  confederates  surrounded  by  Co.  L  and  Stant  was  going 
through  the  garments  of  his  two  prisoners,  ripping  open  coat 
collars,  vest  linings,  pants  bottoms,  boot  tops,  as  tliey  disrobed 
one  garment  after  another,  and  he  was  so  stoically  silent  and 
indiii'erent  to  tell  us — not  even  answering  or  recognizing  my 
greeting,  or  the  many  questions  of  the  boys.  So  I  stood  there  in 
mute  silence,  confiicting  emotions  struggling  for  the  mastery,  and 
I  really  had  some  misgivings  of  the  19  year  old  boy's  sanity. 
After  he  had  finished  searching  his  prisoners  he  asked  the  lieu- 
tenant to  care  for  these  men,  "I  reckon  they  are  hungry." 

We  then  went  to  Washburn  and  Stant  reported  that  the  rebel 
camp  was  intact,  and  thought  they  had  no  designs  to  engage  us. 
The  night  before  he  had  played  cards  with  some  of  the  boys  in 
the  rebel  camp  until  2  o'clock  in  the  morning,  then  went  and  laid 
down  by  his  horse  for  a  feigned  sleep.  But  instead  of  sleeping  he 
planned  to  exchange  his  poor  horse  for  a  better  one  that  was 
picketed  near  his  and  leave  camp  before  daylight,  which  he  suc- 
cessfully did  without  discovery,  traveling  northeast.  Crossing 
White  River  he  espied  the  heads  of  tAvo  horsemen  at  the  crest 
of  a  sharp  hill.  They  were  coming  toward  him.  He  immediately 
spurred  into  the  bush  at  the  roadside  and  dismounting,  hitched 
his  horse  and  crawled  back  to  the  roadside,  where,  with  revolver 
in  hand,  he  awaited  their  coming.  They  were  walking  leisurely 
and  talking,  and  when  they  were  nearly  opposite  him,  he  leaped 
into  the  road,  and  covering  them  with  his  revolver,  commanded 
them  to  "ground  arms."  They  instantly  obeyed,  and  then  he 
gave  the  order,  "about  wheel,"  which  they  also  obeyed.  He 
then  picked  up  their  arms,  adjusted  them  to  himself,  stepped  for 
his  horse,  mounted,  and  marching  the  two  in  front  of  him  nearly 
all  day,  overtook  us  after  we  had  bivouacked  for  the  night.  I  felt 
so  proud  of  hira,  that  if  I  had  had  the  power  to  give  my  place  of 
Captain  of  Co.  L  I  should  have  done  so. 

The  prisoners  were  a  private  and  lieutenant,  belonging  to  the 
same  regiment,  and  were  returning  from  the  private's  Avedding, 
where  the  lieutenant  acted  as  best  man.  They  became  the  charge 
of  Co.  L  through  to  Helena,  and  when  they  were  shipped  north 
with  a  boatload  of  prisoners,  this  lieutenant  went  to  Washburn 
and  begged  the  privilege  of  presenting  his  fine  horse  to  his  young 
captor.  When  Washburn  told  him  the  horse  belonged  to  the 
United  States,  and  it  could  not  be  done,  I  led  him  away  and  his 
eyes  filled  with  tears.  He  told  me  he  had  brothers  he  did  not 
revere  as  he  did  this  young  captor.    He  said  further  that  tlie  cool. 


self-assured  tone  and  action  of  Stant,  convinced  him  that  there 
was  a  company  of  ambushed  guns  behind  him.  A  few  days  later 
an  incident  occurred  which  I  will  now  relate. 

Having  lost  a  valuable  trooper,  wounded  and  taken  prisoner 
by  what  I  considered  a  silly  requirement,  I  was  not  in  humor  to 
receive  complacently  what  followed  the  next  day.  We  went  into 
camp,  roll  call  revealed  the  absence  of  Milton  Tollfelmire  of 
Menomonie,  a  Swede,  and  absolutely  fearless.  I  learned  from  his 
comrades  he  had  dropped  out  of  the  ranks,  our  company  being 
in  the  rear,  and  had  foraged  a  bundle  of  oats  for  his  horse  from  a 
sliock  by  the  road  side  and  was  there  feeding  his  horse  a  short 
way  back  and  out  of  sight.  The  circumstances  were  reported  to 
Washburn  by  his  orderly,  and  I  was  sent  for  and  reprimanded  by 
the  colonel  and  told  to  dismount  that  man  and  that  he  should  walk 
the  next  day  and  keep  up  with  the  command.  I  transmitted  the 
order  to  ToUef elmire,  and  in  the  afternoon  we  had  to  cross  a  stream 
belly  deep  to  our  horses  and  ToUefelmire  sat  down  on  its  bank 
and  refused  to  wade  the  stream  and  said  to  his  comrades  he  woTild 
die  fighting  the  enemy  before  he  would  wade  the  stream.  The 
circumstance  Avas  reported  to  me  and  I  was  as  indignant  over  the 
sillyness  of  the  order  as  ToUefelmire  could  be.  I  rode  hastily  to 
the  front,  related  the  facts  to  Washburn  with  some  heat,  giving 
my  view  of  the  fallacy  of  marching  300  miles  with  a  relief  train 
through  the  enemy's  country  followed  by  Guerillas  ambiishing  us 
every  day  and  living  off  the  country  and  me  with  sword  sheathed 
and  carrying  the  olive  branch  in  our  right  hand  and  perhaps  our 
train  of  supplies  as  well ;  and  an  order  against  foraging  (to  the 
enemy).  He  said  in  reply,  "Mount  him  and  bring  him  over." 
When  over  I  told  him  to  take  his  place  in  the  ranks.  He  did  and 
rode  the  balance  of  the  day.  After  going  into  camp  I  was  told 
by  the  Colonel's  orderly  to  report  to  headquarters.  Washburn 
said  to  me,  "Didn't  I  order  you  to  dismount  your  man  for  the 
day?"  I  replied,  "You  certainly  did."  The  only  instance  during 
my  army  experience  where  red  tape  and  a  strict  compliance  with 
the  letter  of  the  order  brought  justice  and  relief  to  an  exhausted 
soldier.  "I  obeyed  your  order,  he  was  dismounted  and  walked 
until  he  came  to  the  river  where  he  sat  down  and  refused  to  come 
over.  I  reported  the  circumstance  to  you  and  you  ordered  him 
mounted  and  brought  over."  "And  how  come  it  that  he  has  been 
riding  this  afternoon?"  "Because  you  failed  to  order  him  dis- 
mounted again." 

In  a  day  or  two  I  was  ordered  to  take  the  advance  witli  Co.  t, 
and  to  advance  several  miles  ahead  of  the  train  to  scoiit  the  cross 


roads.  We  came  to  a  small  clearing,  log  house  and  an  old  couple. 
I  was  inteiTogating  the  old  man  whether  he  had  seen  any  of  the 
enemy  that  morning.  He  had  not.  I  inquired  how  far  to  the  next 
town,  giving  the  name.  He  repeated  it  several  times  and  replied: 
"I  reckon  he  must  have  moved  away  'fore  I  came."  I  had  called 
in  my  flankers  as  I  approached  this  clearing  and  we  started  ahead, 
intending  to  throw  out  the  flankers  as  soon  as  we  got  through 
the  clearing.  As  we  got  near  the  timber  a  half  dozen  shots  came 
from  the  timber,  one  striking  Lieutenant  Ring  of  Co.  I  who  was 
by  ray  side,  in  the  left  elbow  and  the  bushwhackers  fled,  one  horse 
wounded.  Nothing  of  special  interest  occurred  during  the  re- 
mainder of  our  march.  The  enemy  continued  their  bushwhack- 
ing tactics  but  we  arrived  safely  at  our  destination  at  Batesville. 
Of  course  we  were  graciously  received  by  General  Curtis  and  his 
troops  who  were  much  in  need  of  the  supplies  we  had  brought. 
A  day  or  two  later  we  continued  our  march  to  Helena,  Ark.,  which 
was  our  objective  point.  At  Bayou  Cache  the  enemy  disputed 
our  passage.  The  advance  that  day  was  led  by  the  11th  Wiscon- 
sin Infantry.  The  Second  Cavalry  asked  permission  to  assist  the 
11th  and  the  request  was  granted.  We  were  somewhat  in  the  rear 
half  of  the  column,  and  were  marching  over  a  corduroy  road 
through  a  cypress  swamp  with  the  road  in  front  of  us  densely 
packed  with  the  infantry,  artillery,  wagon  trains,  etc.,  of  our 
force.  These  were  at  a  halt  and  as  usual  in  such  eases  had  spread 
out  so  that  to  pass  through  them  was  a  difficult  matter.  Some 
of  us  attempted  to  get  past  by  leaving  the  corduroy  road  and 
taking  our  chances  in  the  mud  and  mire  of  the  swamp.  I  killed 
my  horse  in  the  attempt,  but  we  finally  got  to  the  front  only  to 
find  that  after  a  sharp  engagement  the  11th  Infantry  had  driven 
the  enemy  before  them,  in  such  haste  that  they  had  not  been  able 
to  destroy  the  bridge  as  intended. 

We  arrived  at  Helena  at  last,  every  man  of  the  2ud  Cavalry 
in  the  saddle,  in  perfect  condition,  well  hardened  by  the  trip.  We 
went  into  camp  a  short  distance  outside  the  city  in  a  shady  grove 
with  a  clear  stream  of  water  flowing  through  it.  We  thought  we 
had  an  ideal  camp.  For  the  first  four  weeks  we  did  very  little 
scouting  or  other  active  service.  A  laughable  incident  occurred 
one  day  at  drill.  Colonel  Stevens,  of  our  regiment,  was  an  Eng- 
lishman with  the  proverbial  English  habit  of  handling  his  h's. 
He  had  been  a  member  of  the  Queen's  Guard,  was  sis  feet  tall, 
weighing  two  hundred  forty  pounds,  a  good  sword  man,  and  could 
fence  with  either  hand.  We  were  at  regimental  drill  when  the 
Colonel  noted  that  Companies  E  and  I  were  only  fragments  of 


companies,  the  details  for  pickets  that  day  having  been  drawn 
from  these  companies.  The  Colonel  conceived  the  idea  of  con- 
solidating the  two  companies  for  the  drill  so  gave  the  following 
order.  It  may  be  remarked  that  he  had  a  peculiar  way  of  ending 
his  orders  with  a  rising  inflection  to  his  voice,  which  peculiarity 
was  well  known  to  the  troops.  Turning  to  Lieutant-Colonel  East- 
man he  said:  "Colonel  H-Eastman,  you  will  h-observe  for  the 
h-operations  of  the  day  that  Companies  h-E  and  h-L  will  h-operate 
together.    Co.  h-L  may  go  to  h-E  or  Co.  h-E  may  go  to  h-L. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  campaign  our  company  was 
known  in  the  regiment  as  "Company  Hell."  The  regiment  had 
not  remained  long  in  Helena  before  the  health  of  the  troops  began 
to  fail  and  in  a  few  weeks  scarcely  a  man  was  able  to  appear  at 
drill.  I  was  quartered  at  the  house  of  a  widow  in  the  town  and 
remarked  to  her  about  the  sickness  of  our  men.  Said  she:  "You 
will  all  be  dead  if  you  stay  in  that  camp  long.  We  would  not 
think  of  drinking  that  water  as  it  seeps  through  from  a  cypress 
swamp."  I  reported  her  statement  to  our  Colonel  and  the  result 
was  that  the  camp  was  moved  to  higher  ground  in  a  slashing  made 
by  the  Confederates  for  the  purpose  of  allowing  better  use  of  their 
artillery.  Our  water  was  brought  from  the  Mississippi.  Whether 
or  not  the  woman's  explanation  of  the  poisonous  nature  of  the 
water  was  correct,  true  it  was  that  the  health  of  the  boys  began 
immediately  to  improve  and  soon  all  were  again  fit  for  duty. 

An  expedition  ordered  to  Clarendon  was  hailed  with  delight 
by  Co.  L.  A  pioneer  corps  was  sent  some  days  in  advance  to 
bridge  a  bayou.  The  command  (cavalry)  followed.  We  met  the 
corps  returning  to  Helena  reporting  there  was  not  material  enough 
available  to  bridge  it.  The  command  went  on  to  the  bayou  for 
dinner,  where  we  could  find  water  for  our  horses.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Eastman  dined  with  me  and  while  at  dinner  we  were  dis- 
cussing the  disappointment  of  the  expedition's  failure.  Espe- 
cially the  lumberjacks  of  Co.  Hell  were  cursing  mad,  declaring 
they  could  swim  it.  I  had  been  looking  at  a  long  row  of  slave 
quarters  of  flattened  logs,  about  one  foot  in  diameter.  The  cabins 
were  in  size  about  14  by  18  and  all  alike,  located  upon  an  eleva- 
tion of  15  or  20  feet  above  and  parallel  to  the  water  and  but  a 
rod  or  so  away.  I  told  the  colonel  that  was  the  best  material  in 
the  world  and  plenty  of  it  to  bridge  this  stream  and  Co.  Hell 
could  do  it  in  four  hours,  pointing  to  the  row  of  cabins  and  the 
frame  of  an  q}d  grist  mill,  dismantled  of  its  covering  and  ma- 
chinery, lie  immediately  left  me  and  went  to  the  commanding 
officer  and  reported  that  there  was  a  man  in  his  regiment  who 


says  that  this  stream  can  be  bridged  in  four  hours.  "Is  he  an 
engineer?"  inquired  the  officer.  "No."  "Bring  him  up  here,  I  have 
a  curiosity  to  see  the  man  who  can  bridge  this  stream  after  the 
pioneer  failure."  I  went  with  the  colonel  and  briefly  explained 
the  process  of  using  the  negro  cabins  by  alternately  using  a 
long  and  then  a  short  log  side  by  side  and  about  eight  logs  wide 
as  a  section  and  then  intersecting  section  2  with  logs  all  the 
same  length  and  so  on  for  the  entire  length  of  the  boom,  except 
the  last  section,  which  should  alternate  lengths,  with  binder  poles 
across  the  section  joints  and  band  splits  and  lock  downs  of  wild 
grape  vine,  of  Avhich  there  were  miles  in  length  along  the  banks, 
and  water  beech  for  poles.  Tlie  commander  said  he  would  spend 
the  afternoon  here  and  witness  my  creation  and  give  me  all  the 
men  I  wanted.  Inside  of  fifteen  minutes  twenty  horsemen  were 
seeking  every  auger,  big  and  little,  and  every  hatchet  and  ax  with- 
in a  radius  of  three  miles  and  a  continuous  stream  of  timber  was 
dashing  down  the  banks  bordering  the  stream.  In  ten  minutes 
more  there  were  a  dozen  augers  being  turned  with  all  the  energy 
the  borers  possessed  and  relays  standing  ready  to  grab  those 
handles  as  soon  as  there  were  the  least  signs  of  lagging.  Now, 
there  were  plenty  of  axes,  hatchets  and  augers  and  the  material 
consisting  of  holes,  poles,  bands,  pins  and  grapevines  was  simply 
marvelous  under  the  direction  of  members  of  Co.  L  as  bosses. 

At  the  end  of  four  hours  tlie  400  feet  of  eight  timbers  wide  of 
boom  with  her  down  stream  end  fastened  to  the  shore  with  a 
heavj^  grapevine  and  one  fifty  feet  long  plugged  fast  to  the  upper 
end  to  serve  as  cable  to  fasten  to  the  opposite  shore,  she  lay 
serene  and  self-assured  at  attention,  awaiting  orders.  After  a 
hasty  inspection  by  Sergeant  Lancaster,  in  the  absence  of  pins  in 
the  lock-down  holes,  the  order  was  given  to  shove  her  out  and  she 
was  gracefully  swung  by  the  current  to  the  opposite  shore  and 
cabled  fast  with  the  grapevine  about  12  degrees  diagonal  from 
a  right  angle  with  the  shore.  And  Co.  Hell  had  the  honor  of  first 
tramping  slave  quarters  under  their  horses'  feet.  The  command 
passed  over  dry  shod  and  the  lumber-jacks  wore  a  smile  all 
through  a  pelting  snow  iintil  Ave  reached  Clarendon  late  at  night. 
The  little  town  was  dark  and  silent,  having  been  vacated  several 
days  before  our  arrival.  This  converted  the  smile  of  Co.  L  boys 
into  a  grim-visaged  scowl,  accentuated  by  some  strong  words  by 
way  of  emphasis.  I  quartered  my  men  in  a  billard  room  with  a 
large  old  fashioned  fireplace  wide  enough  to  reo^ve  the  legs  of 
the  tables  as  back  logs  and  foresticks,  and  so  we  spent  the  night, 
speculating  as  to  what  would  be  the  orders  and  move  tomorrow. 


On  account  of  sickness  in  Captain  Sherman's  family 
his  Civil  War  narrative  closed  very  abruptly,  with  his 
company  of  the  2nd  Cavalry  located  at  Helena,  Ark.  This 
was  in  the  fall  of  1862.  The  2nd  Cavalry  formed  a  part  of 
a  large  force  under  'command  of  General  Hurlbut  which 
went  out  from  Helena  to  destroy  the  line  of  communications 
in  the  rear  of  General  Pemberton  who  had  marched  out  of 
Vicksburg  with  a  part  of  his  army.  During  the  Hurlbut 
expedition  Captain  Sherman  was  detailed  at  the  head  of 
two  companies  of  cavalry  to  destroy  railroad  bridges  and 
tracks  which  was  successfully  accomplished.  After  return- 
ing to  Helena  and  remaining  there  a  short  time  the  troops 
moved  to  Memphis,  where  on  request  of  the  citizens  the  2nd 
cavalry  was  assigned  to  garrison  the  city.  Feeling  assured 
that  they  would  remain  for  a  considerable  time  in  Memphis 
Captain  Sherman,  after  consulting  with  some  of  his  superior 
officers,  sent  to  New  York  state  for  the  young  lady  who 
had  promised  to  be  his  wife.  Accompanied  by  her  father 
she  came  to  Memphis,  the  wedding  taking  place  in  the  home 
of  a  southerner,  whose  family  insisted  on  taking  charge  of 
all  the  arrangements,  which  were  on  an  elaborate  scale, 
with  the  army  officers  present  in  full  uniform. 

Scarcely  had  the  wedding  taken  place  before  an  order 
was  received  from  tlie  war  department  that  the  2nd  Cavalry 
should  proceed  to  Vicksburg  to  take  part  in  the  operations 
against  that  place. 

For  a  considerable  time  a  feud  had  existed  between 
Colonel  Stephens  of  the  2nd  Cavalry  and  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Eastman.  This  had  culminated  in  a  personal  en- 
counter. Captain  Sherman  was  one  of  the  ofScers  who  had 
separated  the  combatants,  and  having  taken  sides  with  the 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  he  was  not  in  the  good  graces  of  Col- 
onel Stephens.  Wishing,  if  possible,  that  his  bride  should 
accompany  him  to  Vicksburg,  Captain  Sherman  put  in  a 
petition  to  his  superior  officers  to  tliat  effect.  The  Major 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  gave  their  approval  but  when  pre- 
sented to  Colonel  Stephens  that  officer  promptly  handed  it 
back  with  his  disapproval  attached  to  same.  Feeling  that 
under  the  circumstances  his  request  was  a  reasonable  one 
Captain  Sherman  decided  to  take  the  matter  up  to  General 
Hurlbut.  When  the  General  saw  the  Colonel's  disapproval 
he  was  very  angry  at  Captain  Sherman  for  presenting  the 
petition  to  him,  but  when  the  matter  was  fully  explained 



M  la.  1     ()    C    H\I  r 


he  wrote  "approved"  across  the  face  of  the  petition,  and 
signed  his  name.  Armed  with  this  precious  document  Cap- 
tain Sherman  made  arrangements  on  the  steamboat  for  his 
bride,  and  on  the  day  set  for  departure  rode  up  the  gang 
plank  onto  the  boat  with  her  by  his  side.  Colonel  Stephens, 
wholly  in  ignorance  of  the  action  of  General  Hurlbut  saw 
them  come  on  the  boat  and  angrily  approached  Captain 
Sherman,  and  said  that  his  bride  Avould  be  put  off  at  the 
next  wood  lauding.  The  captain  quietly  took  the  petition 
from  his  pocket  and  held  it  up  so  that  the  Colonel  could  see 
General  Hurlbut 's  signature.    The  table  had  been  turned. 

After  the  fall  of  Vicksburg  the  2nd  Cavalry  was  sta- 
tioned at  Red  Bone  Church,  16  miles  east  of  Vicksburg  for 
nearly  a  year. 

In  the  fall  of  '64  Captain  Sherman  resigned  his  commis- 
sion and  was  succeeded  as  captain  by  First  Lieut.  Jas.  L. 
Leroy,  who  had  enlisted  in  the  company  from  Chippewa 
Falls.  Captain  Leroy  continued  at  the  head  of  the  company 
until  it  was  mustered  out  of  service  in  the  fall  of  1865. 

Among  the  names  of  the  privates  who  went  out  in  Co.  L 
of  the  2nd  Cavalry  will  be  found  that  of  Leonard  L.  Lan- 
caster, and  Captain  Sherman  frequently  mentions  him  in  his 

This  man  Lancaster  was  an  experienced  woods  and  river 
man  and  fearless  to  a  degree.  His  soldierly  qualities 
brought  him  well  merited  promotion,  and  by  the  spring  of 
1865  he  had  attained  the  rank  of  2nd  Lieutenant.  It  was  in 
the  summer  of  1865  that  Lieutenant  Lancaster  had  one  of 
the  most  thrilling  experiences  that  fell  to  the  lot  of  any 
soldier  during  the  civil  war.  A  friend  of  the  Lancaster 
family  has  published  the  story  in  pamphlet  form,  of  which 
only  a  brief  outline  can  here  be  given. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Dale  was  at  this  time  at  the  head  of 
the  regiment,  and  by  all  accounts  was  wholly  unfit  for  the 
position  he  held.  While  stationed  at  Alexandria,  La.,  in 
July  1865  conditions  under  Dale  had  became  so  intolerable 
that  some  six  or  seven  hundred  privates  and  some  fifteen 
commissioned  ofScers  signed  a  petition  asking  Dale  to 

It  became  necessary  for  some  one  to  present  the  petition 
and  Lancaster  volunteered  for  the  task.  It  is  hardly  neces- 
sary to  state  that  from  a  military  point  of  view  the  signing 
and  presenting  of  such   a  petition  was  a  serious  offense. 


Lancaster  was  arrested  and  put  in  jail  for  violating  the 
articles  of  war.  The  other  officers  were  deprived  of  their 
insignia  of  rank,  all  hut  four  of  whom  made  retraction  and 
were  restored  to  rank.  One  of  these  was  tried  and  acquitted 
and  the  others  never  came  to  trial.  It  was  upon  Lancaster 
alone  that  the  punishment  fell.  Refusing  to  retract  he  was 
court-martialed  and  sentenced  to  be  shot,  and  his  death 
warrant  signed  by  General  Custer.  He  was  confined  in  a 
dungeon  for  some  days  and  while  there  was  offered  an  op- 
portunity to  escape  but  the  offer  was  declined.  On  the 
evening  of  the  26th  of  July  he  was  taken  out  with  another 
man,  a  deserter,  bound  and  seated  on  their  coffins,  to  be 
shot.  Just  as  the  word  "fire"  was  to  be  pronounced  a 
reprieve  was  received,  releasing  him  from  the  death  sen- 
tence, but  with  a  dishonorable  discharge  and  sentenced  to  a 
military  prison  in  the  Dry  Tortugas  for  a  term  of  three 
years.  Friends  interceded  for  Lancaster  and  in  February, 
1866,  he  was  released  and  after  much  hardship  reached  his 
home  at  Eau  Claire.  Through  the  infiuence  of  Congressman 
Michael  Griffin  and  others  an  honorable  discharge  was  se- 
cured, and  now  after  fifty  years  have  elapsed  since  Lieu- 
tenant Lancaster's  terrible  experience  he  is  still  with  us  al- 
though in  feeble  health.  That  he  may  be  spared  many 
years  to  come  is  the  earnest  desire  of  his  old  comrades  and 


"We  have  traced  the  formation  and  breaking  up  of  the  first,  or 
Taylor  Company,  also  the  recruiting  and  departure  of  the  Perkins 
Company,  the  Wheeler  Company  and  Captain  Sherman's  Cavalry 
Company.  Recruiting  was  kept  up  continually,  both  to  fill  up 
the  thinning  ranks  of  the  companies  that  had  gone  out  from  Eau 
Claire,  also  for  outside  companies,  whose  recruiting  officers  found 
the  Chippewa  Valley  a  fruitful  field  for  their  labors.  Before  the 
war  was  over  several  more  full  companies  were  sent  out  from 
Eau  Claire,  but  before  considering  these  we  will  follow  those 
already  sent  to  the  front,  some  of  which  were  quickly  in  the 
thick  of  the  fight. 

As  stated  in  the  Sherman  article,  this  cavalry  company  went 
into  camp  at  Milwaukee.  The  infantry  companies  of  Perkins  and 
"Wheeler  went  to  Madison  where  they  were  quartered  at  Camp 
Randall.  It  is  unfortunate,  but  never  the  less  true,  that  the  "Wis- 
consin Historical  Society  itself  has  satisfactory  histories  of  only 


a  small  proportion  of  the  regiments  which  went  out  from  this 
state.  The  eighth  Wisconsin  or  Eagle  Regiment  is  much  more 
fortunate  than  the  average  of  Wisconsin  regiments  in  the  matter 
of  the  preservation  of  its  civil  war  history.  Several  books,  of 
varying  degrees  of  value  covering  all  or  part  of  its  regimental 
history,  have  been  published.  In  addition  to  these,  which  we  will 
consider  later,  the  company  from  Eau  Claire  had  its  own  corre- 
spondent for  a  considerable  time  and  we  have  his  letters.  In  the 
A.  R.  Barnes'  article  he  mentions  a  fellow  printer,  by  the  name 
of  T.  B.  Coon,  who  also  enlisted  in  the  first  company.  Editor 
Porter  chronicles  his  departure  in  the  following  manner. 

"Free  Press,  September  19,  1861.  Thos  B.  Coon,  who  has  been 
connected  with  the  mechanical  department  of  this  paper  for 
nearly  a  year,  left  the  place  on  Thursday  last,  to  .join  the  'Eau 
Claire  Eagles'  at  Madison.  Mr.  Coon  is  a  yoimg  man  of  unqual- 
ified merit  in  every  respect,  sober,  industrious  and  intelligent; 
these  are  the  qualifications  that  have  Avon  him  troops  of  friends 
in  this  place,  whose  best  wishes  go  with  him.  He  is  a  keen  ob- 
server of  men  and  things  and  a  writer  of  no  mean  ability.  The 
readers  of  the  Free  Press  will  be  glad  to  know  that  his  pen  will 
be  employed  in  giving  them  one  letter  per  week  from  the  'Eighth 
Wisconsin'  during  his  stay  in  the  army.  His  intelligence  and 
candor  as  an  observer  and  writer  will  add  an  interesting  feature 
to  the  paper." 

As  promised  by  Mr.  Porter  to  his  readers  this  T.  B.  Coon  sent 
weekly  letters  from  camp  which  were  printed  in  the  Free  Press, 
over  the  signature  "Quad,"  and  from  which  extracts  will  be 
given  later.  P^'rom  the  beginning  of  the  war  until  near  its  close, 
Captain  Green,  of  Co.  F  of  the  8th  regiment,  wrote  some  very 
interesting  letters  to  his  wife,  describing  passing  events  very 
fully,  which  were  later  published  in  book  form,  some  extracts  of 
which  we  take  pleasure  in  quoting  here.  When  we  remember 
that  the  Eagle  regiment  almost  without  exception,  during  the 
entire  war  acted  as  a  unit  and  that  its  total  fighting  strength  Avas 
seldom  over  five  or  six  hundred  men,  we  can  see  that  Captain 
Green's  description  of  the  services  of  Co.  F  would  apply  almost 
equally  as  well  to  our  own  Eau  Claire  company. 

T.  B.  Coon's  first  letter  to  the  Free  Press  read  as  follows: 
"Camp  Randall,  September  22,  1861.  We  have  been  considerably 
disappointed  in  not  being  assigned  to  the  company  at  the  right 
of  the  regiment.  Being  the  heaviest  company  on  the  ground  and 
taking  the  position  for  a  week  and  a  half  after  our  arrival,  we 
supposed  we  were  to  have  it  '  for  good, '  but  the  person  in  author- 


ity  decided  otherwise  and  oiir  place  in  the  regiment  is  the  second 
from  the  right.    Signed  'Quad.'  " 

His  next  letter  says:  "Camp  Randall,  September  20.  I  was 
led  into  quite  a  serious  error  in  my  last  in  giving  the  position 
of  our  company  in  the  regiment.  Instead  of  being  the  second 
from  the  right,  we  are  the  center  or  Color  company,  of  the  regi- 
ment, a  distinction  which  almost  compensates  us  for  the  loss  of 
the  regimental  right.    Signed  'Quad.'  " 

Captain  Green  arrived  at  Camp  Randall  a  few  days  before  the 
Perkins  Company  arrived  from  Eau  Claire.  Prom  the  first  he 
was  a  great  admirer  of  "Old  Abe,"  the  war  eagle,  and  frequently 
mentions  him  in  letters  to  his  wife.  In  view  of  the  later  fame 
of  this  eagle,  some  of  Captain  Green's  comments,  made  at  the 
time,  seem  almost  prophetic.  Prom  one  of  his  first  letters  after 
reaching  Camp  Randall,  we  quote  the  following: 


"Camp  Randall,  September  10,  1861.  We  have  a  new  recruit 
— a  live  eagle.  Co.  C,  Captain  Perkins  brought  him  from  Eau 
Claire,  where  they  bought  him  of  some  Chippewa  Indians.  He 
is  a  fine  specimen  of  our  National  bird,  and  the  boys  have  named 
him  'Old  Abe.'  A  perch  is  made  with  a  shield  and  the  bundle 
of  darts  underneath,  and  a  perch  on  top  on  which  'Old  Abe'  is 
carried  on  a  pole  by  a  member  of  Co.  C,  next  to  the  colors.  If 
he  stands  it  to  go  through  the  war,  he  will  be  a  noted  bird." 

Another  letter  from  Captain  Green,  dated  "Camp  Randall, 
September  30,  1861.  We  have  just  heard  good  news.  Our  regi- 
ment is  ordered  to  Missouri.  We  will  start  in  a  few  days.  Great- 
est joy  prevails  in  camp.  The  Governor  goes  with  us  to  Chicago. 
He  says  the  Eighth  is  the  finest  regiment  he  ever  saw.  I  never 
could  understand  before  this  how  a  soldier  became  so  attached, 
but  now,  even  for  the  short  time  I  have  been  here,  I  would  not 
be  willing  to  go  into  another  regiment.  We  have  a  fine,  gentle, 
manly  set  of  officers,  both  regimental  and  company." 

Captain  Green  writes  from  St.  Louis.  "Benton's  Barracks, 
near  St.  Louis,  October  14,  1861.  We  left  Madison  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  12th.  What  a  time  we  had  getting  on  board  the  cars. 
Everybody's  friends  were  on  hand  to  see  us  off,  and  there  were 
last  embraces,  kisses,  tears  and  partings  sad  enough  to  witness. 
Gaily  beat  the  drum  as  our  columns  marched  to  the  depot. 
Handkerchiefs  fluttered  and  voices  broken  with  emotion,  tear- 
fully said  'Good-bye'  to  hundreds  of  our  boys  as  the  train  moved 


off.  It  was  a  time  to  try  to  peer  into  the  future — to  try  to  see 
what  it  had  in  store  for  us.  How  long  would  it  be  before  we 
would  return  1  Will  we  come  back  with  our  ranks  as  full  as  they 
are  now,  or  will  there  be  some  missing  at  final  roll  call?  But 
I  confess  I  had  too  many  other  things  to  think  of  to  indulge  in 
such  thought.  The  way  it  looks  now  the  fighting  will  be  over 
before  we  get  to  the  front.  We  had  a  nice  run  to  Chicago,  and  a 
fine  lunch  spread  by  the  good  people  of  that  city.  Changed  cars 
for  St.  Louis,  where  we  arrived  this  morning. 

"I  must  tell  you  of  an  exploit  of  Old  Abe,  our  eagle.  After 
we  had  disembarked  and  when  the  regiment  was  forming  in  line 
ready  to  march  to  Benton's  Barracks,  out  in  the  suburbs  of  the 
cit}',  the  eagle  somehow  got  loose  from  his  perch,  and  literally 
soared  aloft.  We  marched  on  up  to  the  city,  giving  up  Old  Abe 
as  lost ;  but  every  square  or  so  as  we  progressed,  we  noticed  him 
flying  over  the  housetops,  and  keeping  his  course  along  with  ours. 
Sometimes  he  would  take  a  wide  circuit,  and  for  the  time  dis- 
appear, but  sooner  or  later  he  would  return  and  hover  over  us, 
and  when  we  reached  the  Barracks,  the  flew  down  to  the  ground 
and  took  his  place  in  the  center  of  the  regiment  in  Co.  C,  by  the 
colors.  We  gave  him  three  hearty  cheers,  and  he  raised  himself 
on  his  perch  and  flapped  his  wings.  We  all  think  Old  Abe  will 
make  a  good  soldier." 

Captain  Green  described  the  Eagle  regiment's  first  appearance 
on  the  battlefield.  "Predericktown,  Mo.,  October  22,  1861.  We 
have  had  our  first  fight.  You  will  have  heard  before  this  reaches 
you  of  the  battle  of  Frederiektown  yesterday.  The  rebels  were 
cleaned  out.'  AVe  were  in  Benton's  Barracks  only  one  day  when 
we  had  orders  to  move  out  to  the  Iron  Mountain  Railroad  where 
Jeff  Thompson  had  been  destroying  bridges.  We  marched  to  the 
depot  and  were  put  on  board  cattle  cars.  You  ought  to  have 
heard  the  boys  swear  at  the  accommodations — as  if  'Uncle  Sam' 
ought  to  furnish  parlor  cars.  Well,  we  went  to  Pilot  Knob,  and 
in  the  afternoon  started  on  the  mareli  for  Frederiektown.  Our 
force  consisted  of  two  Illinois  regiments,  one  Missouri  and  the 
8th  Wisconsin,  and  several  companies  of  cavalry.  Jeff  Thompson 
was  reported  intrenched  at  Frederiektown  with  a  force  anywhere 
from  three  thousand  to  eight  thousand.  We  marched  all  night. 
The  roads  were  hilly  and  rocky,  but  smooth.  The  full  moon  made 
it  light  and  the  frosty  air  was  as  good  as  a  tonic.  Our  knapsacks 
and  overcoats  in  addition  to  forty  rounds  of  ammunition,  muskets 
and  accoutrements  and  two  days'  rations  in  haversacks  was  no 


light  load  to  carry,  and  when  we  reached  here  at  nine  o'clock 
yesterday,  we  were  pretty  nearly  used  up.  The  citizens  said  that 
Jeff  Thompson  had  left  the  day  before,  going  to  Arkansas.  So 
we  stacked  arms  in  the  middle  of  the  street  and  broke  ranks  to 
get  dinner  and  rest.  About  two  o'clock  firing  was  heard  in  the 
outskirts  of  town,  and  the  drums  beat  to  'fall  in.'  We  fell  into 
rank  and  marched  double  quick  toward  the  firing.  Our  cavalry 
were  out  scouting  and  came  upon  the  enemy's  whole  force  posted 
in  the  corn  field  just  out  of  town.  The  enemy  opened  fire  on 
them  and  killed  three  and  wounded  a  good  many.  Two  Illinois 
regiments  just  coming  from  Cape  Girardeau  to  form  a  junction 
with  us  arrived  at  the  grounds  at  this  moment  and  opened  fire 
on  the  rebs  with  cannon  and  musketry,  and  had  just  charged  them 
as  the  head  of  our  regiment  reached  the  line  of  battle.  An  aide 
galloped  up  to  our  colonel  and  ordered  the  8th  Wisconsin  to  hold 
itself  in  reserve  at  the  courthouse.  Some  of  the  boys  had  already 
fired  without  orders,  and  were  all  excited  and  anxious  to  go  into 
the  fight.  But  we  had  to  countermarch.  The  colonel's  voice  was 
husky  with  anger  as  he  gave  the  order.  So  we  stood  in  line  of 
battle  in  the  rear  while  the  fighting  was  going  on  in  front,  almost 
in  plain  sight.  The  wounded  were  carried  to  the  hospital  through 
our  lines.  Some  forty  or  fifty  were  brought  in,  of  both  sides.  I 
cannot  describe  the  feeling  that  comes  over  one  when  he  sees  the 
bleeding  men  carried  from  the  battlefield  on  stretchers.  It  is 
a  peculiar  sensation.  The  musicians  are  expected  to  perform  their 
duties,  but  we  noticed  several  soldiers  who  had  left  the  ranks  to 
assist  the  wounded  to  the  rear.  The  enemy  broke  and  ran  when 
they  were  charged,  but  made  another  stand,  from  which  they  were 
soon  driven.  They  ran  through  a  meadow,  up  a  hill  and  broke 
for  the  woods,  leaving  three  cannons,  several  horses  and  any 
number  of  old  shotguns,  muskets  and  squirrel  rifles.  At  dark  our 
troops  camped  all  'round  town.  I  went  over  the  battlefield  early 
this  morning ;  the  dead  rebels  were  laying  thick  in  places.  They 
were  small,  skinny  men,  looking  half  starved,  of  all  ages,  dressed 
in  the  butternut  colored  clothes  worn  by  the  natives.  The  wounded 
had  been  take  care  of  by  our  surgeons.  Our  forces  here  are  under 
the  command  of  Colonel  Carlin  of  the  regular  army,  those  from 
Cape  Girardeau  under  Colonel  Plumber  of  an  Illinois  reginient, 
while  the  expedition  which  has  proven  so  successful  was  planned 
by  a  brigadier  general,  U.  S.  Grant,  Avho  has  charge  of  this  de- 
partment with  his  headquarters  at  Cape  Girardeau." 

T.  B.  Coon  also  described  the  engagement  at  Fredericktowu. 


Although  seen  from  a  somewhat  diiJerent  viewpoint,  it  does  not 
differ  materially  from  the  account  given  by  Captain  Green. 

We  have  followed  the  Perkin's  Company  of  the  8th  or  Eagle 
regiment  from  Camp  Randall  to  their  first  appearance  on  the  bat- 
tlefield at  P^redericktown.  We  will  now  follow  the  fortunes  of  the 
Wheeler  Company  of  the  16th  regiment.  Winter  had  set  in  be- 
fore the  Wheeler  Company  reached  Camp  Randall.  Tlie  16th 
regiment  did  not  remain  long  at  Madison  but  were  rushed  South 
in  early  Spring  and  within  a  few  weeks  as  raw  troops  they  took 
a  prominent  part  in  the  great  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing. 

The  battle  of  Pittsburgh  Landing  or  Shiloh,  was  fought  on 
the  6th,  7th  and  8th  of  April,  1862.  The  first  name  is  taken  from 
a  landing  on  the  Tennessee  river  near  which  the  battle  took 
place,  and  the  name  "Shiloh"  from  a  log  meeting  house  some 
two  or  three  miles  from  the  landing,  and  which  formed  the  key 
of  the  position  of  the  Union  army.  General  Grant  in  an  article 
on  this  battle  says:  "Shiloh  was  the  severest  battle  fought  in 
the  west  during  the  war,  and  but  few  in  the  east  equaled  it  for 
hard,  determined  fighting.  I  saw  an  open  field  in  our  possession  on 
the  second  day  over  which  the  confederates  iiiade  repeated  charges 
the  day  before,  so  covered  with  dead  that  it  would  have  been 
possible  to  walk  across  the  clearing  in  any  direction,  stepping  on 
dead  bodies,  without  a  foot  touching  the  ground."  He  also  says: 
"The  confederate  assaults  were  made  with  such  disregard  to 
human  life  that  our  line  of  tents  soon  fell  in  their  hands.  The 
national  troops  were  compelled  several  times  to  take  positions  in 
the  rear,  nearer  to  Pittsburg  Landing.  In  one  of  these  backward 
moves,  on  the  6th,  the  division  commanded  by  General  Prentiss 
did  not  fall  back  with  the  others.  This  left  his  flank  exposed  and 
enabled  the  enemy  to  capture  him  with  about  2,200  of  his  officers 
and  men."  Space  will  not  allow  any  general  review  of  this  great 
battle.  But  I  feel  fortunate  in  being  able  to  present  an  account 
of  it,  as  given  at  the  time  by  a  member  of  Captain  Wheeler's 
Company  antl  tlir  Kith  ifi;iment. 

Pittsburg  Laiidiug,  April  16,  1862.  Editor  Free  Press.  I  wish 
you  to  find  room  in  the  Free  Press  for  a  few  lines  from  the 
"Chippewa  Valley  Guards"  and  the  gallant  sixteenth  regiment 
of  Wisconsin  Volunteers.  We  arrived  at  Pittsburg  Landing 
March  20,  1862,  encamped  on  the  river  until  the  23rd,  when  orders 
came  to  strike  tents  and  move  forward,  which  we  did,  and  en- 
camped on  a  beautiful  slope  about  two  miles  from  the  river,  south- 
west.   On  the  1st  of  April  we  received  orders  to  strike  tents  and 


move  forward  on  the  frontier  in  General  Prentiss'  division — 
Colonel  Peabody's  Brigade.  Saturday  afternoon  we  were  re- 
viewed by  General  Prentiss  and  staff  and  he  told  the  boys  they 
composed  as  good  a  regiment  of  men  as  he  ever  saw.  The  general 
looked  pleased,  and  his  compliments  filled  the  minds  of  the  boys 
with  such  heroism  as  none  but  heroes  can  feel.  But  all  this  time 
we  little  thought  that  across  this  small  field,  in  the  thicket,  stood 
the  renowned  Beauregard,  Hardee  and  Bragg,  watching  our  move- 
ments and  looking  up  all  the  weak  points  in  our  line  but  never- 
theless such  was  the  case.  Sunday  morning  our  pickets  encoun- 
tered the  enemy  about  one  mile  from  our  camp.  The  alarm  was 
given — the  long  roll  sounded  and  our  boys  fell  into  line  in  double 
quick.  General  Prentiss  rode  along  our  lines  telling  us  to  use  all 
speed  for  God's  sake,  for  the  enemy  were  advancing  in  force. 
Accordingly  we  hastened  forth  to  the  sons  of  chivalry.  We 
-crossed  the  field  before  mentioned,  entered  the  woods  for  a  few 
rods,  and  there  beheld  the  foe  advancing  in  columns,  eight  deep, 
and  lines  extending  five  miles;  and  behind  this  column  came  the 
second,  third  and  fourth  columns  in  battle  array  and  behind  this 
mass  of  human  beings,  came  ten  thousand  more  detailed  to  gather 
up  the  wounded  and  as  fast  as  a  man  fell,  to  seize  his  gun  and  rush 
forward  to  battle.  Our  brigade  struck  bold  and  defiant  as  if 
inviting  the  enemy  to  come  on.  On  they  came,  with  overwhelm- 
ing forces,  determined  to  drive  all  before  them  and  when  within 
forty  rods  of  our  lines  the  16th  opened  fire,  which  swept  them 
down  in  great  numbers.  The  second  fire  from  the  16th  killed  their 
chief,  S.  A.  Johnson,  who  rode  a  beautiful  white  charger  in  front 
of  his  men,  accompanying  them  to  what  he  supposed — victory. 
"We  were  not  within  supporting  distance  of  any  other  regiment, 
but  appeared  to  be  fighting  the  whole  southern  army  on  our  own 
account.  When  our  colonel  perceived  that  they  were  flanking 
us  right  and  left,  then  came  the  order  to  fall  back  and  take  a 
new  position.  This  was  the  time  we  suffered  our  first  loss,  Wil- 
liam Archer,  James  Walker,  John  Francisco  and  Louis  R.  Belknap 
fell  dead,  pierced  by  rebel  bullets;  it  was  there  M.  E.  O'Connell, 
James  (Crawford,  and  John  Jones  fell  badly  wounded.  In  our 
retreat  we  brought  off  our  woimded  and  drew  up  in  line  of  battle 
in  front  of  our  tent.  On  they  came,  and  in  crossing  the  field  be- 
fore mentioned,  we  poured  volley  after  volley  into  their  midst 
that  slaughtered  them  terribly.  It  was  here  that  Oliver  H.  Brown- 
ing and  John  Hanegan  fell  dead.  At  the  same  time,  our  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel was  badly  wounded,  shot  through  the  thigh,  and 
was  carried  off  the  field.     Andrew  Chambers  and  Thomas  Gilfin 

EAU  CLAIRE  COUNTY  IN  THE  CIVIL  WAii         109 

were  wounded  here — shot  through  the  legs;  also  Jason  P.  Long, 
who  was  shot  through  the  knee.  Poor  fellow,  I  fear  he  will  lose 
his  leg.  We  then  had  orders  to  fall  back  again  through  our  camp. 
On  this  third  retreat  it  began  to  resemble  an  Indian  fight.  It  was 
every  man  for  himself — behind  trees  and  logs — contesting  the 
ground  inch  by  inch  against  twenty  times  their  numbers.  Our 
regiment  fought  on  the  retrograde  movement  about  one  mile  when 
we  made  another  stand,  which  told  fearfully  on  the  enemies  side 
with  no  loss  to  ourselves.  When  our  colonel,  who  stood  firm  as 
a  rock  of  adamant  saw  we  were  likely  to  be  flanked,  and  in  fact, 
we  were  in  the  enemy's  cross  fire — gave  the  orders  to  face  back 
again.  About  this  time  there  came  reinforcements  who  had  not 
yet  been  engaged — Avho  took  the  enemy  in  hand  and  gave  us  a 
chance  to  fall  back  and  rest  for  a  time.  In  a  short  time  we 
rallied  again  and  went 'into  the  fight,  refreshed  by  the  short 
respite  we  had  had.  It  was  on  this  fourth  and  last  stand  that 
the  battle  raged  the  fiercest.  All  along  our  lines  for  two  hours 
we  were  held  in  reserve  engaged  only  a  part  of  the  time.  This  was 
a  trying  time,  the  bullets  flying  thick  as  hail — bombs  bursting  in 
all  directions — grape  and  canister  in  profusion.  Here  we  lost  some 
of  our  best  officers.  Colonel  Allen  was  shot  through  the  arm  and 
was  obliged  to  leave  the  field.  The  command  then  fell  on  Major 
Thomas  Reynolds — who,  by-the-way,  is  as  brave  a  man  as  ever 
drew  a  sword — who  was  ordered  to  fall  back  to  the  river  bank  to 
recruit,  to  give  a  chance  to  Buell's  men  who  had  began  to  arrive. 
Our  line  had  been  gradually  driven  toward  the  river  up  to  the 
time  of  Buell's  reinforcement,  and  would  have  been  whipped 
and  taken  prisoners,  had  it  not  been  for  Buell.  He  was  the 
Blucher  of  the  day  that  saved  us  from  defeat. 

We  encamped  on  the  river  bank  for  the  night,  supperless,  in 
a  drenching  rain,  without  tents  or  blankets.  Monday  morning, 
after  a  hasty  meal  on  hard  bread,  we  took  up  our  march  for  the 
enemy  again.  We  felt  disposed  to  settle  a  final  account  with 
them  for  driving  us  from  our  tents  with  nothing  but  what  was 
on  our  backs.  We  tramped  all  day  through  the  woods,  held  as 
reserve,  first  in  one  place  and  then  in  another,  in  sight  of  the 
battle,  but  could  not  get  a  chance  to  "go  in."  Buell  was  deter- 
mined to  do  all,  or  as  much  of  the  fighting  as  possible  with  his 
own  troops  and  only  called  on  General  Grant  when  much  needed. 
About  3  o'clock  the  rebels  began  to  fall  back  before  the  mudsills 
of  the  North  and  at  4  o  'clock  were  at  full  retreat  towards  Corinth. 
Then  presented  itself  to  view  a  most  sublime  sight  that  ever  fell 
to  the  lot  of  man  to  see,  it  was  about  8,000  of  our  cavalry  that 


filed  up  through  a  large  field  and  charged  across  into  the  woods 
upon  the  retreating  foe.  The  shout  that  went  up  from  our  Union 
throats — say  50,000  of  them — it  must  have  been  harsh  music  to 
the  traitors'  ears.  We  then  were  ordered  back  to  the  river  to 
lay  on  our  arms  for  the  night,  which  we  did  in  the  midst  of  a 
drenching  rain.  Tuesday  morning  the  fight  being  over  and  all 
quiet  except  an  irregular  fire  from  Buell's  artillery,  which  sent 
Uuion  compliments  in  the  shape  of  twenty-four  pound  shot  and 
shell  toward  Corinth,  which  our  ungallant  friends  did  not  conde- 
scend to  reply  to.  At  10  o'clock  a.  m.  we  received  orders  to  march 
out  and  encamp  on  our  old  grounds.  Then  came  the  most  trying 
part  of  the  whole  drama.  The  dead  lay  scattered  around  us — 
the  groans  of  the  wounded  that  had  lain  on  the  field  through  a 
most  terrible  rain,  with  no  companions  but  the  slain  to  cheer 
them  through  the  lonely  hours.  We  arrived  on  our  old  grounds 
at  10  o'clock  p.  m.  and  immediately  commenced  to  work  with 
mercy,  removing  our  Avounded,  many  of  whom  had  lain  in  the 
woods  unable  to  arise  or  assist  themselves  in  the  least  from  Sun- 
day morning  until  Tuesday  noon  without  food  or  water.  In  some 
cases  the  rebels  had  brought  our  wounded  into  our  tents,  which 
they  had  left  standing,  and  treated  them  as  well  as  they  could 
under  the  circumstances.  The  Alabama  troops  were  especially 
very  kind  to  our  wounded.  Beauregard  honored  some  of  the 
wounded  of  Company  G  with  his  presence  and  wished  them  in 
hell  before  they  came  to  Tennessee.  We  have  gathered  the  dead 
and  buried  them  as  well  as  circumstances  will  permit,  friend  and 
foe  alike.  We  are  now  comfortably  settled  again  and  are  receiv- 
ing calls  from  friends  and  acquaintances.  Governor  Harvey  was 
here  yesterday  and  made  a  short  and  appropriate  speech.  He 
complimented  the  Sixteenth  on  the  part  they  took  in  the  att'air. 
He  told  us  the  proudest  feeling  he  ever  had  was  when  he  was  in 
Savannah.  He  there  found  some  of  the  wounded  of  the  Sixteenth, 
conversed  with  them  and  found  every  man  full  of  patriotism  and 
ready  for  the  fight  as  soon  as  they  are  able  to  take  the  field.  He 
saj'S  Wisconsin  shall  hear  when  he  returns  how  her  sons  fought 
the  proud  foe  and  was  instrumental  in  winning  the  most  impor- 
tant victory  of  the  whole  campaign.  I  suppose  it  would  be  proper 
for  me  to  mention  a  few  of  the  brave  heroes  of  the  Chippewa 
Valley  guards.  We  will  head  the  list  with  Captain  Wheeler,  who 
was  as  cool  as  a  cucumber  and  fought  like  a  tiger.  "Old  Pap" 
was  a  host  in  himself;  he  took  deliberate  aim  every  time  and 
when  he  pulled  down  went  a  secesh.  Brave  Kelly  kept  the  Stars 
and  Stripes  floating  in  the  thickest  of  tlie  fight.    Willard  Bartlett, 


M.  MeGillin  and  scores  of  others  were  as  cool  and  determined  as 
men  could  be,  and  seemed  to  fight  as  if  they  rather  liked  the  busi- 
ness. Our  captain  was  slightly  wounded  and  fell  on  his  knees, 
but  regained  his  feet  and  went  at  it  stronger  than  ever.  Now  I 
have  to  relate  what  is  worst  of  all :  That  is  the  accursed  rebels 
stole  the  flag  that  was  presented  by  the  fair  ladies  of  Eau  Claire 
to  our  company.  We  may  be  favored  with  a  chance  to  retake  it 
before  many  days,  or  at  least  have  a  try  for  it.  General  Halleck 
has  command  in  person.  There  will  be  no  more  surprise  parties 
with  us.  We  hear  Governor  Harvey  wants  the  Sixteenth  to  go 
back  to  Madison  and  guard  prisoners  on  account  of  the  loss  of 
officers  and  men,  and  the  good  reputation  the  regiment  bore  when 
in  Camp  Randall.  It  would  suit  the  feeling  of  the  regiment  bet- 
ter to  go  forward  to  the  little  town  called  Corinth  and  see  what 
they  keep  to  sell.  The  casualties  of  our  regiment  will  sum  up 
three  hundred  or  more.  Beauregard  in  a  speech  to  his  men  before 
the  attack  told  them  he  would  water  his  horse  in  the  Tennessee 
river  that  night  or  he  would  M-ater  him  in  hell,  so  the  prisoners 
say  that  were  captured. 

We  left  Captain  Perkins"  company  of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin 
or  Eagle  regiment  just  after  their  first  appearance  on  the  battle- 
field at  Frederiektown,  October  21,  1861.  They  were  kept  in  that 
vicinity  for  several  months  guarding  railroads  and  bridges  and 
kindred  duties.  Late  in  the  fall  Captain  Green  writes  to  his  wife 
as  follows:  "November  22,  1861.  As  an  offset  to  the  discour- 
aging news  from  the  army  of  the  Potomac  comes  news  of  the 
decisive  victory  gained  by  General  Grant  at  Belmont  on  the  7th. 
It  gives  courage  to  every  soldier  in  the  west ;  it  shows  that  the 
western  army  is  commanded  bj'  generals  who  are  not  afraid  to 
fight.  We  are  enthusiastic  over  the  man  Grant,  and  are  glad  we 
are  in  his  district,  for  now  Ave  believe  we  shall  have  something 
to  do." 

In  the  Free  Press  of  January  23  we  find  Correspondent  Coon 
writing  as  follows : 

Camp  Curtis,  Sulphur  Springs,  Mo.,  January  10,  1862.  Dear 
Free  Press:  Company  C  is  once  more  back  in  its  old  quarters 
here  after  two  weeks'  absence  down  the  railroad  doing  duty, 
guarding  bridges  and  learning  the  mysteries  of  the  art  of  cam- 
paigning with  comfort  in  the  middle  of  a  Dixie  winter.  The  camp 
is  full  of  rumor  tonight  of  an  immediate  movement  from  here,  but 
how  soon  it  will  take  place,  or  whether  it  will  be  to  Cairo,  or  to 
take  part  in  the  tilt  against  Columbus,  or  to  Rolla  to  have  a  chase 
after  the  pugnacious  Price,  or  still  further  west  to  accompany 


Jim  Lane  in  his  swoop  upon  the  rebels  of  Arkansas  and  Texas  are 
matters  that  time  alone  will  tell.  Yours,  * '  Quad. ' ' 

P.  S. — January  12,  the  destination  of  the  regiment  is  now  fixed 
as  Cairo,  and  we  shall  start  tomorrow  or  next  day.  Everytliiug 
is  now  all  preparation  for  departure. 

Early  in  1862  Captain  Green  came  in  i^ersonal  eontaet  witli 
General  Grant  for  the  first  time  and  reported  to  him.  Because 
Grant  did  not  show  quite  as  much  interest  in  the  minor  matters 
which  Captain  Green  presented,  as  he  thought  proper  for  a  time, 
there  was  a  feeling  of  disappointment  on  the  captain's  part,  but 
this  soon  passed  ofl:',  and  we  soon  find  Captain  Green  enthusiastic 
over  General  Grant. 

Cairo,  January  26,  1862. — General  Grant  has  been  in  command 
here  up  to  this  time,  but  now  he  is  gone,  or  about  starting,  with 
a  corps  up  the  Cumberland  river.  I  reported  to  him  as  officer  of 
the  day.  He  did  not  impress  me  favorably;  he  apparently  had 
no  interest  in  giving  me  orders,  and  seemed  to  care  very  little 
about  what  was  going  on  at  the  post,  but  referred  me  to  a  staff 
officer  in  the  next  room.  I  felt  disappointed  in  him,  for  we  had 
all  formed  a  good  opinion  of  him  for  his  part  in  the  battle  of 
Predericktown,  and  for  his  victory  at  Belmont.  Certain  it  is  that 
he  is  the  only  general  thus  far  who  has  shown  that  he  knows  how 
to  handle  men  and  is  not  afraid  to  fight. 

Cairo,  January  26,  1862.— Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman  was  on  the 
same  boat.  They  say  he  is  crazy  and  there  is  much  about  him  to 
confirm  that  opiaiou.  He  is  never  still  a  moment.  Talks  rapidly, 
asks  a  dozen  questions  without  waiting  for  an  answer  to  any  one. 
Walks  back  and  forth  on  the  boat,  his  sword  dangling  on  the 
floor  and  his  eyes  scanning  every  object  down  stream.  He  has 
bright,  piercing  eyes  that  seem  to  look  right  through  you.  I  was 
on  deck  watching  him  and  looking  around  generally  when  he 
stopped  in  one  of  bis  Avalks  and  began  firing  questions  at  me 
about  as  follows:  "What  command  do  you  belong  to?"  "Who 
is  yoixr  colonel?"  "How  long  have  you  been  in  the  service?" 
"What  fights  have  you  been  in?"  "Do  you  know  what  to  do  in 
case  this  boat  is  attacked?"  and  several  more  questions  without  a 
pause.  I  kept  track  of  them  and  replied:  "Eighth  Wisconsin." 
"Nearly  six  months."  "Fredericktown. "  "Colonel  Murphy." 
"We  would  shoot  back."  He  smiled  very  pleasantly  and  walked 
away.  Another  letter  from  Captain  Green,  dated  New  Madrid, 
Mo.,  April  10. — Island  No.  10  was  captured  on  the  8th.  We  were 
immediately  ordered  to  this  place.     In  a  few  hours  we  boarded 


transports  and  landed  on  the  Tennessee  side  to  cut  off  the  retreat 
of  tlie  Island  No.  10  forces,  which  we  did,  and  took  3,000  prisoners 
without  firing  a  shot.  Yesterday  we  returned  here  with  the 
prisoners.  April  11. — Orders  to  cook  four  days'  rations  and 
start  for  Memphis.  We  have  been  brigaded.  We  are  in  the  First 
brigade.  Fifth  division.  General  Pope's  army.  The  brigade  con- 
sists of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin,  Fifth  Minnesota,  Eleventh  Missouri, 
Forty-seventh  Illinois  and  Spoor's  Second  Iowa  Battery,  Colonel 
Plummer  commanding.  On  board  United  States  transport  "Moses 
McClellan,"'  flotilla  of  fifty  boats,  down  the  Mississippi,  April  14. 
We  are  steaming  down  the  Mississippi  at  the  rate  of  twelve  miles 
per  hour.  While  I  write  we  are  far  below  Point  Pleasant  (the 
scene  of  rifle-pit  experience),  with  Arkansas  on  one  side  and  Ten- 
nessee on  the  other.  Our  flotilla  numbers  fifty  steamboats,  all 
loaded  with  troops,  cannon,  horses  and  stores.  The  gun  and  mor- 
tar boats  are  ahead  of  us.  I  suppose  our  destination  is  Memphis. 
The  fleet  is  a  grand  sight,  worth  living  an  age  to  see.  The  river 
is  a  mile  and  a  half  wide,  is  full  of  boats  as  far  up  and  down  as 
we  can  see. 

April  17. — Yesterday  we  received  northern  papers  with  an 
account  of  the  battle  of  Shiloh.  Important  orders  of  some  kind 
have  come,  judging  from  the  movements  of  our  fleet.  Our  boat 
is  steaming  down  stream  while  others  are  going  up  stream.  I 
suppose  we  are  measuring  red  tape.  It  would  not  be  strange 
if  we  were  ordered  up  river. 

April  19. — Verily  the  ways  of  the  "milingtary"  are  past  find- 
ing out.  We  are  going  up  stream  this  morning.  I  never  looked 
at  a  more  magnificent  sight  then  presented  itself  last  night  just 
before  we  rounded  to  and  stopped.  We  were  going  round  a  bend 
in  the  river  when  one  by  one  headlights  of  steamers  became  visible 
below  us,  increasing  in  number  and  rapidity  as  we  cleared  the 
point,  until  it  seemed  as  if  bj'  magic  a  thousand  red  and  white 
lights  and  a  thousand  bright  furnace  fires  glittered  and  blazed 
on  the  water,  making  the  darkness  around  us  blacker  than  ever. 
All  at  once,  as  if  to  complete  the  scene,  the  bands  and  drum  corps 
of  the  whole  fleet  struck  up  tattoo,  filling  the  air  with  a  perfect 
medley  of  music.  Gradually  the  notes  of  the  bugle  could  be  dis- 
tinguished, then  of  other  iustrumeuts  and  soon  the  medley  of  an 
entire  band  would  come  over  the  water.  Our  men,  noisy  and 
rough  as  they  are,  ciuieted  down,  scarcely  whispering,  subdued 
and  fairly  entranced  by  the  beautiful  sight  and  the  music  from 
the  darkness,  for  the  boats  themselves  were  invisible.  The  lights 
looked  as  if  suspended  on  nothing  in  the  air,  but  the  spell  was 


soon  broken,  for  the  fleet  rounded  to  the  shore  and  tied  up  for 
the  night.  The  loud  call  of  human  voices,  especially  of  steam- 
boat captains  and  mates,  has  a  coarseness  that  dispels  fancy  and 
makes  reality  as  real  and  rough  as  it  is. 

New  Madrid,  Mo.,  April  19. — Just  as  I  commence  to  Avrite  our 
boat  is  putting  out  into  the  stream,  bound  up  river.  The  orders 
now  are,  as  popularly  understood  on  board,  though  not  definitely 
known,  that  we  are  to  go  up  the  Tennessee  river  to  reinforce 
Grant's  army.  I  hope  it  may  be  true.  The  reason  of  the  failure 
of  this  down-river  expedition  is  on  account  of  the  high  water. 
The  river  is  higher  than  it  has  been  since  1844.  Land  forces  can- 
not operate  with  any  effect  below.  They  say  another  battle  is 
imminent  at  Corinth  and  that  we  shall  be  there. 

Pittsburg  Landing,  Tenn.,  April  22. — Here  we  are  at  last  on 
the  battlefleld  of  the  great  struggle  of  the  7th.  There  are  one 
hundred  and  twenty  thousand  troops  here.  Our  camps  are  in  a 
string  six  or  seven  miles  up  the  Tennessee  river.  Governor  Har- 
vey was  starting  home  with  a  cannon  which  the  Fourteenth  Wis- 
consin regiment  captured  from  a  New  Orleans  battery  at  Shiloh 
when  he  fell  overboard  and  was  drowned.  I  never  felt  so  bad  in 
my  life  over  any  news  as  I  did  at  this.  Governor  Harvey  was  one 
of  nature's  noblemen.  His  death  was  as  much  a  sacrifice  on  the 
altar  of  his  country  as  if  he  had  fallen  on  the  field  of  battle. 


May  10. — I  am  alive  and  Avell.  I  went  through  the  battle  of 
Farmington  without  being  seriously  hurt,  but  to  an  account  of  it : 
On  the  morning  of  the  8th,  General  Pope's  corps  marched  out  of 
camp  and  towards  Corinth  and  formed  in  line  of  battle  on  the 
hills  near  Farmington,  driving  the  enemy's  pickets  in  and  making 
a  successful  reconnoisance  to  within  three  miles  of  Corinth.  At 
8  o'clock  in  the  evening  our  troops  were  ordered  back  to  camp. 
Company  A,  Captain  Redfield,  and  several  other  companies 
from  the  brigade  were  left  at  Farmington  on  picket.  Our 
brigade  was  ordered  to  take  up  position  about  a  mile  in  the  rear 
of  the  pickets,  to  sleep  on  our  arms.  We  laid  down  in  the  open 
air  with  one  blanket  each  and  slept  soundly  until  daylight.  At 
6  o'clock  in  the  morning — yesterday — we  heard  firing  on  the 
picket  line,  which  was  kept  up  steadily  for  two  hours,  when  our 
pickets  were  driven  in.  A  rebel  battery  in  front  and  to  the  right 
of  us  began  throwing  shells.  We  were  on  the  side  of  a  hill  out  of 
sight.  Their  shells  fell  short  of  us.  We  knew  we  would  soon  be 
engaged  for  we  saw  the  enemy  advancing.    They  came  forward 



MAJ.  J.  R.  WIIEF.r-ER 


2_  -^4    ^    Ovi  tV| 



in  line  of  battle,  their  flags  flying  over  them  and  their  bayonets 
glittering  in  the  sunshine.  Hiscox's  (Wisconsin)  battery  was 
right  in  front  of  ns  and  doing  good  execution,  but  the  advance 
line  of  the  enemy  was  now  so  near  and  their  musket  balls  began 
to  rain  on  the  battery  so  fast  that  it  rapidly  limbered  up  and 
went  to  the  rear.  Seeing  this  the  rebels  gave  one  of  their 
unearthly  yells  and  started  on  the  double  quick.  My  heart  was 
in  my  throat.  Why  don't  we  get  orders?  Where  are  field 
officers"  "P^ire!  Fire!"  I  gave  orders  to  my  men,  and  simul- 
taneously General  Loomis,  riding,  said  at  the  top  of  his  voice: 
"Now,  Eighth  boys,  go  in."  With  a  grand  hurrah  our  regiment 
advanced  and  poured  a  deadly  volley,  and  another  and  another, 
in  at  the  rebels,  now  within  a  hundred  yards  of  us,  which  checked 
them.  In  a  moment  more  they  turned  and  fled.  We  started  after 
them,  firing  as  we  ran.  Just  then  a  squad  of  our  cavalry  came  up 
from  the  rear  and  charged  ahead,  passing  around  our  right.  They 
rode  into  a  clump  of  timber  and  immediately  were  repulsed  and 
sent  back  in  all  directions.  The  enemy's  battery  opened  on  us 
hotter  than  ever,  and  half  a  dozen  regiments  poured  out  of  the 
timber  on  all  sides  of  us,  raking  us  with  a  cross  fire.  We  retreated 
in  good  order  to  our  first  position,  and  there  made  a  stand  and 
delivered  several  volleys,  but  only  for  a  few  minutes,  the  order 
coming  to  fall  back  to  the  woods  directly  behind  us.  We  fell 
back,  keeping  our  line  straight,  loading  and  stopping  to  fire  every 
few  steps.  By  the  time  we  reached  the  woods  a  rebel  force  had 
got  on  our  right  flank  and  poured  the  shot  into  us  hot  and  heavy, 
which  considerably  hastened  our  retreat.  During  this  time  the 
Forty-seventh  Illinois  passed  us  in  disorder  to  the  rear,  and  the 
Twenty-seventh  and  Fifty-flrst  Illinois,  which  had  been  sent  as 
reinforcements,  after  making  a  charge  similar  to  ours  on  the  left 
and  being  repulsed,  broke  ranks  and  fled,  apparently  every  man 
for  himself.  We  were  thus  left  the  last  regiment  on  the  field  and 
brought  up  the  retreat  in  something  like  good  order.  This  was 
due  alone  to  the  company  ofiieers  and  men.  The  lieutenant- 
colonel  in  command  had  been  disabled  early  in  the  action  and  the 
major  was  well  on  his  way  to  camp.  The  company  officers  and 
men  behaved  with  great  coolness  and  bravery.  There  was  natu- 
rally more  or  less  confusion,  owing  to  the  lack  of  orders  from  the 
fields  officers,  but  this  never  grew  into  anything  like  a  panic.  We 
carried  ofi:  the  dead  and  also  some  wounded  of  other  regiments. 
The  enemy  did  not  follow  us  into  the  woods,  but  shelled  the  woods 
fearfully.  The  bursting  of  the  shells  over  our  head  and  the 
crackling  of  the  tree  branches  made  a  terrible  noise.    It  was  with 


an  inexpressible  feeling  of  relief  tliat  we  finally  struck  the  road 
leading  to  canap.  There  we  found  the  whole  corps  in  line  of 
battle,  Avith  the  officers  chafing  because  they  were  not  permitted 
to  march  out.  But  it  was  against  Halleck's  orders.  He  had  for- 
bidden the  corps  commanders  to  bring  on  a  general  engagement. 
But  for  this  I  verily  believe  that  if  Pope 's  corps  had  been  brought 
out  today  we  could  have  whipped  the  rebels  and  taken  Corinth. 
Our  regiment  had  ten  killed  and  forty  wounded.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Robbins  had  his  horse  shot  and  was  disabled.  Your  old 
friend,  Captain  Perkins,  of  Company  C,  was  mortally  wounded 
and  has  just  died,  since  I  commenced  writing  this  letter ;  Lieu- 
tenant Beamish,  of  Captain  Britton's  Company  G,  was  killed.  A 
rebel  soldier  gave  himself  up;  he  says  he  was  in  the  Louisiana 
Zouave  regiment  that  started  to  capture  Hiscox's  battery  when 
the  Eighth  "Wisconsin  repulsed  them;  that  seventeen  of  his  regi- 
ment fell  dead  at  our  first  fire,  seven  killed  in  the  color  company. 
He  saw  our  eagle  and  says  the  rebels  did  not  know  "what  in 
thunder  it  meant."  The  eagle  deserves  special  praise.  He  stood 
up  on  his  perch,  with  his  wings  extended  and  flopping  violently 
during  the  whole  time.  The  noise  excited  him,  and  if  he  could 
have  screamed  I  have  no  doubt  we  would  have  wakened  the 
echoes.    His  bearer  was  wounded :  so  was  the  color  bearer. 


Free  Press,  May  22,  1862. — We  are  called  upon  to  announce 
the  death  of  Capt.  John  Perkins,  of  the  Eau  Claire  Eagles,  Eighth 
"Wisconsin  regiment.  The  sad  news  reached  this  place  on  Tuesday 
by  a  private  letter  to  Mrs.  H.  P.  Graham  by  her  brother,  Benjamin 
P.  Cowen,  who  was  a  member  of  Captain  Perkiu"s  company.  lie 
died  on  the  11th,  some  fifteen  miles  from  Pittsburg  Landing,  from 
the  effects  of  a  wound  received  in  a  fight  on  the  8th.  His  wound 
was  in  the  hip,  and  we  believe  was  caused  by  the  explosion  of  a 
shell  during  a  brisk  engagement  in  which  our  forces  under  Gen- 
eral Pope  were  repulsed  by  greatly  superior  numbers.  Captain 
Perkins  had  been  sick  for  a  long  time  and  confined  to  hospital 
quarters  at  Cairo,  and  immediately  after  joining  his  company  the 
Eighth  regiment  formed  a  part  of  General  Plummer's  brigade 
in  Pope's  division,  which  constituted  the  left  wing  of  the  grand 
army  under  General  Halleck.  If  we  mistake  not,  the  fight  was 
the  first  time  the  Eau  Claire  Eagles  had  been  brought  under  fire 
since  they  left  this  place  in  September  last. 

Captain  Perkins  Avas  born  in  St.  Lawrence  county.  New  York, 
and  was  about  forty-five  years  of  age.    He  remained  in  his  native 


county,  filling  various  position  of  public  trust,  until  about  six 
years  ago,  when  he  came  west  and  settled  in  Bridge  Creek,  in  this 
county.  Here  he  lived  a  prominent  and  honored  citizen  of  his 
town  and  county,  until  two  years  ago,  \vhen  he  was  appointed 
receiver  of  the  United  States  land  office,  and  he  became  a  resident 
of  this  village.  Last  spring  he  was  elected  county  judge,,  but 
resigned,  raised  a  company  of  volunteers,  enlisted  and  was  elected 
captain  by  a  handsome  vote.  This  company  has  given  the  Eighth 
regiment  a  national  reputation.  The  noble  eagle  that  accom- 
panied the  Eau  Claire  boys  to  the  field  of  glory  and  whose  perch 
is  tlie  staff  that  hears  the  Stars  and  Stripes  has  given  the  Eighth 
the  name  of  the  "Eagle  Regiment"  all  over  the  country. 

Captain  Perkins  was  succeeded  by  First  Lieutenant  Victor 
Wolf,  who  had  helped  to  recruit  and  drill  the  company.  His 
practical  military  experience,  both  in  Germany  and  in  this  coun- 
try, had  made  him  a  valuable  officer  in  the  company  and  well  fitted 
him  to  assume  command.  lie  continued  as  captain  of  Company  C 
until  June,  1865,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Lieut.  Thomas  6. 
Butler,  who  continued  at  the  head  of  the  company  until  it  was 
mustered  out  in  September. 

In  the  spring  of  1862  the  following  news  item  appeared  in  the 
Free  Press: 

Eau  Claire  Jackson  Guards,  Free  Press  March  27,  1862. — Capt. 
Thomas  Carmiehael  and  Lieut.  J.  F.  McGrath  have  been  engaged 
in  getting  up  a  company  of  volunteers  for  the  Nineteenth  (or 
Irish)  regiment,  and  have  now  some  forty  names  on  the  rolls. 
They  have  worked  so  modestly  and  efficiently,  too,  that  this  com- 
pany is  over  half  full,  and  but  little  has  been  said  about  it.  We 
are  assured  that  there  is  a  prospect  of  filling  it  immediately,  and 
Lieutenant  McGrath  has  gone  to  Madison  to  make  arrangements 
for  the  company.  The  men  thus  far  are  a  hale  and  hearty  set 
of  fellows,  wlio  will  never  turn  their  backs  to  the  foes  of  their 
country.     We  wish  the  company  success. 

Free  Press  April  3,  1862. — Captain  Carmichael's  company 
paraded  the  streets  today  under  charge  of  James  Robinson,  ot 
North  Eau  Claire,  who  has  been  for  some  time  instructing  it  in 
company  drill.  They  are  making  fine  progress  under  Mr.  Robin- 
son's instructions.  The  company  is  succeeding  finely  and  is 
bound  to  fill  its  ranks. 

Free  Press  April  10,  1862. — Lieutenant  McGrath  returned 
from  Madison  on  Tuesday  noon.  He  arranged  to  have  the  mem- 
bers of  Carmichael's  company  enter  Captain  Beebe's  Tenth  Artil- 
lery company,  now  in  St.  Louis,  and  they  are  to  start  for  Mil- 


waukee  or  St.  Louis  this  week.  This  will  be  good  news  to  the 
boys,  who  have  been  chafing  for  active  service  for  some  time. 

The  first  item  in  the  Free  Press  states  that  some  forty  names 
had  already  been  secured.  All  of  these  did  not  join  the  Tenth 
Battery,  as  the  state  roster  of  Wisconsin  troops  lists  only  eighteen 
who  gave  Eau  Claire  county  as  their  place  of  residence,  and  three 
from  Menomonie  as  their  home.  Among  those  from  Eau  Claire  is 
the  name  of  Thomas  Carmichael,  whose  name  appears  in  the  Free 
Press  article.  He  Avent  out  as  a  private  in  this  artillery  company, 
but  was  later  promoted  to  the  rank  of  first  lieutenant  and  was 
assigned  to  Company  H  of  the  Twenty-seventh  Wisconsin  Infan- 
try. I  give  below  the  names  of  those  in  the  Tenth  Battery  who 
gave  Eau  Claire  county  or  Menomonie  as  their  residence.  Those 
from  Eau  Claire  are:  John  Craig,  Charles  Bohn,  Thomas  Car- 
michael, James  Cronin,  William  Cronin,  Burton  Gray,  John  Gray, 
William  H.  Lemon,  William  F.  Manning,  Florence  McCarty,  Chris- 
topher Mormon,  Daniel  Murphy,  Hiram  Prescott,  Levi  Prescott. 
Horace  Prescott,  John  Stanley,  William  Wherman,  Thomas  Yar- 
gan.  Those  from  Menomonie :  Frank  Plean,  Joseph  Uuselt, 
Adam  Wanzell. 

You  will  note  among  the  above  the  name  of  Florence 
McCarty.  He  lost  his  right  arm  at  Red  Oak  Station,  Georgia. 
He  made  his  home  in  Eau  Claire  after  the  war,  and  very  appro- 
priately was  chosen  to  fire  the  old  brass  cannon  at  Fourth  of  July 
celebrations  here  for  many  years. 

The  war  meetings  held  at  the  commencement  of  the  war  were 
mostly  for  the  purpose  of  getting  recruits  and  were  mostly  local 
in  the  village.  On  August  7,  1862,  a  call  was  made  for  a  county 
meeting  for  the  purpose  of  raising  funds  to  help  the  families  of 
the  soldiers  who  had  enlisted  or  would  later  enlist.  In  the  Free 
Press  of  August  14,  1862,  we  find  the  folloM'iug:  "On  Tuesday 
afternoon  one  of  the  largest  and  most  enthusiastic  meetings  ever 
held  in  this  county  took  place  in  the  grove  on  the  west  side.  Not- 
withstanding our  farmers  were  in  the  midst  of  the  harvest,  that 
class  of  our  citizens  turned  out  nobly,  and  although  only  four 
days'  notice  had  been  given  for  the  meeting,  all  parts  of  the 
county  were  fully  represented.  Mr.  N.  B.  Boyden  was  chosen 
chairman,  and  set  the  ball  in  motion  by  a  good  speech.  Rev. 
Bradley  Phillips,  of  Chippewa  Falls,  and  Mr.  A.  Meggett,  of  this 
place,  then  addressed  the  meeting  at  lengtli.  Their  speeches  were 
able,  eloquent,  eminently  patriotic  and  full  of  force.  Many  short 
talks  were  made  during  the  afternoon  by  various  gentlemen 
present,  but  the  most  encouraging  and  patriotic  feature  of  the 


occasion  was  the  liberal  manner  in  which  subscriptions  were 
raised.  Money  was  offered  without  stint  or  reserve.  Everyone 
seemed  desirous  to  contribute,  and  ahnost  every  one  did  con- 
tribute. A  large  fund  was  made  up  by  voluntary  subscriptions, 
which  is  to  be  appropriated  as  follows:  Every  volunteer  is  to 
receive  a  cash  bonus  of  $10  on  enrolling  his  name,  the  balance  to 
be  disbursed  to  the  family  of  each  volunteer  at  the  rate  of  $5 
per  month ;  and  in  case  of  wants  and  necessities  of  any  family  to 
require  more  a  central  committee  will  attend  to  them,  and  decide 
upon  tlie  additional  amounts  to  meet  the  necessities  of  each  par- 
ticular case." 


From  Eau  Claire  Free  Press,  August  28,  1862. — "The  Eau 
Claire  Ladies'  Soldiers'  Aid  Society  has  been  organized  for  the 
purpose  of  supplying,  as  far  as  possible,  the  wants  of  our  sick  and 
wounded  soldiers.  The  articles  most  needed  in  the  way  of  cloth- 
ing are  slippers,  shirts,  drawers,  dressing  gowns,  woolen  socks, 
towels,  handkerchiefs,  etc.  In  the  way  of  eatables  and  delicacies 
the  following  articles  are  always  useful:  Dried  fruits,  fresh 
fruits,  canned  tomatoes,  tomato  catsup,  canned  fresh  meat,  beef 
tea  in  cakes,  jellies,  pickles,  Indian  meal,  spices,  especially  cap- 
sicum, essence  of  ginger,  onions,  fresh  butter  (in  small  stone  jars), 
etc.  A  liberal  supply  of  these  articles  will  save  the  lives  of  thou- 
sands of  our  brave  soldiers.  If  we  are  to  have  an  army  of  a 
million  men  we  must  make  provision  for  at  least  one  hundred  and 
sixteen  thousand  sick.  Shall  we  not  do  what  we  can  in  the 
benevolent  and  patriotic  work  of  taking  care  of  these  sick  and 
wounded  ?  Do  they  not  deserve  this  at  our  hands  ?  Let  each 
town  and  community  organize  at  once  a  'Ladies'  Soldiers'  Aid 
Society'  auxiliary  to  the  county  society,  and  as  fast  as  articles 
are  made  or  gathered  together  send  them  to  the  officers  of  the 
county  society  at  Eau  Claire,  who  will  attend  to  their  being 
packed  and  forwarded.  We  expect  next  week  to  send  some  boxes 
to  the  Eighth  Wisconsin  Regiment,  and  probably  to  the  Sixteenth 
by  Sergeant  Schmidtmeyer.  All  articles  intended  for  these  boxes 
must  be  in  before  Saturday  next. — Mrs.  Charles  Whipple,  presi- 
dent ;  Mrs.  n.  P.  Graham,  treasurer ;  Miss  Augusta  Kidder,  secre- 

Probably  no  company  that  went  out  from  Eau  Claire  during 
the  Civil  War  was  recruited  more  quietly  or  quickly  than  the 
"Eau  Claire  Stars,"  which  later  became  Company  I  of  the  Thir- 
tieth Wisconsin  Infantry.     Three  full  companies  had  already  left 



the  village  aud  recruiting  officers  were  constantly  busy  picking 
up  recruits  to  fill  up  the  ranks  of  earlier  companies,  making  the 
task  of  making  up  a  new  company  a  more  than  usually  difficult 
matter.  The  history  of  the  "Eau  Claire  Stars"  Avas  different 
from  that  of  the  other  companies  from  Eau  Claire.  Instead  of 
being  sent  south  to  fight  the  Confederates  they  were  sent  up  into 
the  Dakotas  to  hold  the  Indians  in  check,  who  were  threatening 
trouble.  In  the  Free  Press  of  August  28,  1862,  was  the  following : 
"The  new  company  is  nearly  full  and  it  will  be  one  of  the  best 
that  ever  went  from  this  county.  It  contains  men  of  muscle,  will, 
talent  and  military  experience.  A  few  more  men  will  be  accepted 
if  application  is  made  immediately.  Fill  up  the  ranks."  The  Free 
Press  of  September  11,  1862,  stated:  "The  election  of  officers  in 
the  new  company,  'The  Eau  Claire  Stars,'  took  place  on  Monday 
afternoon  and  resulted  in  the  choice  of  N.  B.  Greer  for  captain, 
Charles  Buckman  for  first  lieutenant  and  J.  H.  Hutson  second 
lieutenant.  The  two  former  were  with  General  Scott  all  through  r\L^ 
Mexico  and  are  admirably  calculated  to  command  the  esteem  and 
confidence  of  the  noble  fellows  of  the  company.  The  following 
are  the  names  of  the  volunteers :  Peter  Anderson,  August  Back, 
Edward  P.  Buck,  Norman  L.  Buck,  William  Bell,  J.  M.  Bernis,  wyr^ 
John  A.  Bride,  Philo  Baldwin,  Charles  Buckman,  John  L.  Ball,  (j 
Peter  Berry,  Ira  G.  Bills,  Edwin  Brown,  Charles  J.  Branch, 
Ephraim  Crockett,  Sanders  Cochran,  Charles  Coats,  Almeron  F. 
Ellis,  Oilman  Goodman,  Charles  Goodwin,  Ira  F.  Goodwin,  N.  B. 
Greer,  Michael  Garland,  J.  S.  Huston,  Israel  Ilerrill,  John  Hona- 
del,  Charles  Hale,  Ephraim  Herrick,  William  Hanley,  Henry  W. 
Howard,  George  E.  Jones,  Aaron  C.  Hall,  John  Jones,  James  S. 
Jones,  C.  C.  Knox,  Thomas  M.  Kennedy,  Michael  Lawler,  S.  B. 
Luther,  Erastus  P.  Livermore,  Thomas  N.  McCauley,  John  W. 
Merrill,  Richard  Masters,  W.  F.  Page,  Philip  Perry,  Andrew  M. 
Patrick,  Isaac  Palmer,  Samuel  Pitchard,  Samuel  Paul,  George  D. 
Olin,  Ernest  Roach,  Lester  Reynolds,  William  Ralph,  Carl 
Roehrig,  L.  Howland,  II.  W.  Roberts,  William  H.  Rolf,  R.  L. 
Sumner,  Thomas  N.  Sargent,  Fred  Sargent,  Henry  Spaulding, 
George  Sibit,  Stephen  Skinner,  Adrian  Smith,  Robert  Winegar, 
Alexander  Watson,  Michael  Weircle,  John  Yost."' 

On  the  22nd  of  September  the  ladies  of  the  village 
presented  a  flag  to  this  company  at  a  meeting  held  in  Reed's 
Hall.  Each  member  of  the  company  was  given  a  copy  of 
the  New  Testament.  The  flag  presentation  address  was 
given  by  Miss  Anna  Wells,  and  was  as  follows : 


"Soldiers  of  the  Eau  Claire  Stars: 

"The  ladies  of  Eau  Claire  present  you  this  emblem  of 
liberty,  wrought  by  their  own  hands,  as  an  evidence  of  the 
faith  they  cherish  in  your  patriotism,  your  courage  and 
your  fidelity  to  your  country,  and  of  their  confidence  that 
when  called  upon  to  uphold  and  defend  it  upon  the  field 
of  battle  you  will  do  it  with  a  valor  and  heroism  that  will 
overwhelm  with  destruction  and  defeat  any  domestic  or 
foreign  foe  who  shall  seek  to  trample  it  in  the  dust  or  over- 
throw the  government  of  which  it  is  the  fit  and  historic 
insignia.  Accept  it,  not  as  a  trivial  and  meaningless  com- 
pliment, but  as  a  sacred  gift,  to  be  upheld  and  defended 
as  you  would  j'our  lives  and  your  honor.  Let  it  be  the 
cynosure  in  the  hottest  moment  of  conflict  and  in  the  dark- 
est hour  of  peril.  Never  let  it  fall  before  the  foe.  Should 
the  fortunes  of  war  require  it  let  its  graceful  folds  envelop 
the  patriotic  dead,  and  when  the  clouds  of  dissension  shall 
have  passed  away  we  cherish  the  hope  that  you  may  be 
spared  to  bring  it  back  in  triumph,  without  one  stripe 
erased  or  a  star  obscured.  We  bid  you  farewell  and  God- 

The  "Eau  Claire  Stars,"  sixty-three  strong,  with  fifty-eight 
of  tlie  Chippewa  Falls  company  left  here  October  11,  1862,  on 
board  the  steamer  Chippewa  Falls,  and  reached  Reed's  Landing 
in  time  for  supper.  Here  they  boarded  the  steamer  Key  City 
and  reached  Prairie  du  Chien  Monday  morning.  After  reaching 
Madison,  the  company  not  being  full,  about  the  first  of  December 
Captain  Greer  came  back  to  Eau  Claire  from  Camp  Randall  to 
pick  up  some  twenty  more  recruits.  Although  the  Whipple  com- 
pany was  being  recruited  at  that  time  Captain  Greer  had  no 
difficulty  in  getting  the  desired  number  and  early  in  December 
took  them  back  with  him  to  Madison.  The  following  are  the 
names  of  the  recruits  Avho  went  to  Madison  with  Captain  Greer 
to  join  the  "Eau  Claire  Stars":  Alexander  Andrews,  Orin  S. 
Blin,  Alexander  Boyer,  David  A.  Boynton,  Charles  E.  Brown, 
John  W.  Close,  Frank  Griffin,  Clark  B.  Hadley,  Horace  S.  Hadley, 
Henry  F.  Hadley.  Elpha  J.  Horton,  Friend  H.  Hull,  Charles  John- 
son, John  S.  Rodd,  Richard  A.  Reynolds,  William  L.  Taylor,  John 
A.  Taylor,  Andrew  G.  Thorp,  George  P.  Vaux,  Henry  J.  Way, 
William  Merrick.  The  trip  as  far  as  Sparta  was  made  by  team. 
Among  the  recruits  taken  to  Madison  at  this  time  we  find  that  of 
C.  E.  Brown,  who  served  as  a  private  in  the  Greer  company,  and 


I  have  prevailed  upon  Jiim  to  relate  his  recollections  of  the  "Eau 
Claire  Stars"  in  the  Indian  country. 

Mr.  Brown's  Story.  "I  was  twenty-three  years  of  age  at  the 
time  the  Greer  company  was  recruited.  Had  always  been  accus- 
tomed to  lumbering  operations  and  for  several  years  had  worked 
in  the  logging  camps  on  the  drives  of  the  Chippewa  Valley.  I 
had  planned  to  go  into  the  woods  again  that  winter,  and  well 
remember  how  strongly  my  old  employer  opposed  my  enlistment. 
At  that  time  the  felling  of  trees  was  done  with  an  axe,  and  as 
head  axeman  it  was  my  job  to  chop  down  the  pine  trees  in  such 
a  way  as  to  break  them  up  the  least,  and  also  to  be  convenient 
for  .skidding.  Early  in  December  we  left  Eau  Claire  for  Camp 
Randall,  at  Madisou.  The  weather  was  extremely  cold,  that  being 
the  coldest  winter  ever  known  in  the  Chippewa  Valley.  We 
remained  at  Camp  Randall  until  the  spring  of  1864,  then  left  for 
St.  Louis.  While  there  it  was  decided  that,  our  company  should 
be  sent  up  the  Missouri  river  to  Fort  Union,  in  the  extreme  north- 
eastern part  of  North  Dakota.  As  soon  as  the  water  was  high 
enough  in  the  spring  we  started.  There  were  two  steamboats, 
our  own,  the  Fort  Union,  and  the  Fort  Benton,  bound  for  the  fort 
of  that  name  still  farther  up  the  Missouri.  There  were  about  100 
soldiers  on  each,  besides  perhaps  as  many  more  other  passengers, 
also  supplies,  etc. 

"We  were  nearly  six  weeks  on  the  trip.  One  week  of  this  time 
was  spent  at  Kansas  City,  building  a  flat  boat  or  barge,  as  the 
steamboat  was  found  to  be  overloaded.  It  was  at  this  place 
that  I  had  my  first  buffalo  hunt.  Two  of  us  got  permission  to 
go  out.  The  country  was  a  succession  of  ridges  and  ravines,  mak- 
ing it  difficult  for  us  to  keep  within  sight  of  each  other,  and  we 
soon  separated.  I  had  not  hunted  long  before  I  saw  three  buffalo 
bulls  some  distance  away,  and  making  right  toward  me.  They 
were  so  much  bigger,  and  more  savage  looking  than  anything 
I  had  expected  that  I  was  thoroughly  scared  and  started  for  the 
boat,  and  not  content  with  the  speed  I  was  making  I  hurriedly 
pulled  off'  my  heavy  boots  and  ran  in  my  stocking  feet,  regardless 
of  the  prickly  pears  which  covered  the  ground.  When  I  got  to 
the  boat  and  ventured  to  look  around  1  saw  the  buffaloes  leisurely 
going  off  in  an  opposite  direction.  My  buffalo  hunt  made  sport 
for  the  boys. 

"As  we  went  farther  up  the  river  buffalo  became  more  plenti- 
ful. At  one  place  a  herd  of  perhaps  five  hundred  stopped  our 
steamboat  for  several  hours.  They  filled  the  stream  in  front  of 
the  boat,  and  also  got  under  the  paddle  wheels.    The  boys  shot  at 


thein  from  the  steamer  decks.  They  killed  some.  Occasionally 
they  M'ould  hit  a  big  bull,  who  would  start  for  the  bank,  and  then, 
shaking  his  long  mane,  would  charge  back  at  the  boat,  but,  of 
course,  we  were  beyond  their  reach.  At  one  point  in  the  river 
the  boat  passed  under  some  high  overhanging  cliffs.  We  were 
told  that  here  the  Indians  were  likely  to  heave  rocks  down  on 
the  boats.  To  guard  against  this  we  disembarked  below  the  cliffs 
and  marched  to  the  summit.  We  found  no  Indians,  but  the 
ground  was  piled  with  the  bones  and  skulls  ol'  those  who  had  been 
killed  there.    It  was  an  old  Indian  battle  ground. 

"Fort  Union  was  situated  on  a  high  open  ridge  near  the  river. 
About  a  half  mile  up  the  river  the  ground  was  lower,  and  covered 
with  small  timber,  cottonwoods,  etc.  A  similar  piece  of  timber, 
only  larger  and  heavier,  lay  about  a  mile  down  the  river,  and 
there  was  also  timber  on  the  opposite  bank.  Close  to  the  river 
the  brush  was  so  dense  and  thick  one  could  see  but  a  few  feet 
ahead  of  him.  Tliere  were  a  number  of  Indian  tribes  near  us,  but 
only  the  Sioux  M'ere  troublesome.  The  Crows  were  especially 
friendly.  Their  camp  was  about  sixty  miles  north,  but  some  of 
them  stayed  around  the  fort  or  pitched  their  wigwams  inside  of 
the  stockade.  Some  of  our  company  were  granted  the  privilege 
of  visiting  the  Crows  at  their  camp,  spending  several  days  with 
them,  and  we  were  treated  with  all  the  liospitality  their  means 
Avould  allow.  We  also  hunted  buffalo  wi1h  tlicm.  but  none  of  us 
were  experts,  and  our  awkwardness  in  atteiiiptiiig  to  chase  buf- 
falo on  their  pones  gave  the  Indians  a  great  deal  of  amusement. 
The  orders  were  that  the  men  should  only  leave  the  fort  to  go  any 
consideral)lc  distauci'  except  in  companies  of  ten  or  more.  As 
weeks  Mould  pass  without  any  signs  of  hostile  Indians  the  men 
would  becoiiic  HKuc  careless  and  would  often  go  hunting  singly. 
One  day  I  took  a  light  gun  and  went  across  the  river  in  a  skiff 
to  hunt  rabbits.  I  left  the  skiff  and  returning  to  it  only  a  few 
minutes  later  found  the  tracks  of  a  big  grizzly  bear  by  the  skiff 
made  in  my  absence.    I  lost  no  time  in  getting  out  of  that  vicinity. 

"In  our  company  were  several  of  the  boys  who  were  just  ach- 
ing to  run  across  a  grizzly,  and  often  told  how  they  would  fix  him 
if  opportunity  offered.  At  last  they  got  their  chance.  Under 
charge  of  First  Sergeant  Orrin  S.  Hall  six  of  them  went  some  dis- 
tance from  the  fort  for  several  days  of  elk  hunting.  One  day 
they  had  shot  two  elk,  had  strung  one  up  and,  it  being  late,  had 
left  the  other  on  the  ground.  In  the  morning  they  went  to  look 
for  the  one  left  on  the  ground  but  it  had  disappeared,  and  the 
tracks  of  a  big  grizzly  showed  what  had  become  of  it.    Hall  was 


a  brave  and  fearless  man,  and  I  will  have  more  to  say  of  him  later. 
With  him  in  the  lead  the  boys  cautiously  followed  the  grizzly's 
trail,  and  before  long  came  upon  him  standing  over  the  dead  elk. 
Hall  told  the  boys  that  the  only  show  was  to  kill  the  grizzly  at 
the  first  fire,  otherwise  some  of  the  company  would  very  likely 
be  killed  by  the  grizzly.  Telling  the  boys  to  take  careful  aim  and 
to  fire  when  he  counted  three,  the  boys  raised  their  guns,  but  their 
hands  shook  so  that  Hall  told  them  to  put  down  their  guns.  After 
a  few  moments  he  told  them  to  try  again,  but  their  hands  shook 
worse  than  ever.  Seeing  it  would  be  foolhardy  to  allow  them  to 
shoot  under  the  circumstances  a  retreat  was  ordered,  and  tlie 
grizzly  was  left  in  undisturbed  possession  of  the  field. 

"Wolves  were  plentiful  around  the  fort.  We  had  in  our  com- 
pany a  man  by  the  name  of  Blin,  who  made  quite  a  business  dur- 
ing the  winter  of  poisoning  the  wolves,  with  the  intention  of 
skinning  them  later  and  selling  the  pelts.  An  old  buifalo  would 
be  shot  and  while  still  warm  poison  would  be  put  into  it,  which 
would  spread  throughout  the  carcass.  The  wolf  pelts  would  bring 
only  a  dollar,  and  it  was  worth  more  than  that  to  skin  them.  P>y 
spring  there  were  a  hundred  carcasses  piled  up  outside  the  fort, 
but  Blin  put  otf  the  skinning  job  so  long  that  warm  weather 
struck  him,  the  carcasses  began  to  smell  to  high  heaven  and  th.^ 
poor  fellow  had  to  tote  them  all  to  the  river  and  throw  them  in. 

"On  New  Year's  day,  1865,  we  had  a  grand  ball.  Each  of  the 
boys  had  invited  a  squaw  for  a  partner  weeks  in  advance,  and  tlie 
way  those  squaws  bought  gay  ribbons  and  finery  for  the  occasion 
was  a  sight  to  see.  We  chipped  in  and  paid  our  cook  an  extra  ^2;") 
for  preparing  the  spread,  while  we  furnished  the  provisions.  In 
the  absence  of  large  game  we  had  a  hundred  rabbits  for  meat. 
Only  the  squaws  came  to  the  ball.  Many  of  them  were  of  mixed 
French  and  Indian  blood  and  knew  something  of  dancing,  and 
the  others  were  not  slow  to  learn.  It  was  a  sight  to  note  tlieir 
appetites  and  amusing  to  see  them  tucking  away  in  their  clothing 
the  cake  they  were  unable  to  eat. 

"The  Sioux  Indians  oceasionallj'  came  to  tlie  fort  ready  to 
waylay  an  individual  or  small  company  they  might  find.  One  day 
I  Avas  hunting  rabbits  in  the  thick  brush  across  the  river  when 
I  heard  the  crackling  of  brush  not  far  back  of  me,  then  on  one 
side  and  then  on  the  other.  I  gave  the  call  to  which  our  boys  and 
the  Crows  always  responded,  but  received  no  reply.  I  realized 
that  the  sounds  were  made  by  Sioux  Indians,  so  I  made  a  break 
for  the  river  bank,  but  the  Indians  did  not  show  themselves  this 
time.    On  another  occasion  I  was  about  a  mile  below  our  fort  near 


an  old  deserted  log  fort  in  a  clearing.  Three  Sioux  on  horseback 
started  for  me,  but  I  ran  and  got  behind  the  logs  of  the  old  fort. 
They  circled  around  me  a  number  of  times  and  tried  to  induce  me 
to  come  out  into  the  open,  but  I  could  not  see  it  in  that  light. 
Finally  they  rode  away  and  after  waiting  for  a  considerable  time 
I  made  for  the  fort.  On  another  occasion  the  Indians  made  a 
raid  and  captured  every  horse  belonging  to  our  company.  The 
soldiers  and  friendly  Crows  started  in  pursuit.  There  was  con- 
siderable confusion  and  delay  in  getting  started ;  then  it  was  some- 
times hard  to  tell  Sioux  from  Crow  Indians.  We  usually  distin- 
guished them  by  their  horses.  I  was  about  to  shoot  at  what  I 
felt  sure  was  a  Sioux,  when  Captain  Greer  stopped  me  telling 
me  that  was  a  Crow.  A  little  later  this  same  Indian,  who  proved 
to  be  a  Sioux,  made  for  us.  I  fired,  but  had  forgotten  to  remove 
the  wooden  plug  or  "Tompkins"  which  we  kept  in  our  guns  to 
prevent  rusting.  The  Indian  kept  right  on,  but  was  killed  a  few 
moments  after  by  one  of  the  Crows,  and  two  pieces  of  ray  Wooden 
plug  were  found  imbedded  in  bis  chest.  The  Crow  scalped  his 
victim,  and  the  squaws,  not  content  with  this,  later  cut  off  the 
hands  and  feet  of  the  corpse  and  otherwise  mutilated  it. 

"The  only  loss  of  life  to  the  company  by  the  Indians  occurred 
in  April,  1865.  Grizzly  signs  had  been  seen  in  a  piece  of  timber 
less  than  a  mile  from  the  fort  where  some  of  the  boys  had  been 
detailed  to  cut  firewood.  Early  in  the  morning  Sergeant  Orrin  S. 
Ilall,  George  Vaux  and  Erastus  Livermore  went  out  to  see  if  they 
could  get  a  shot  at  the  grizzly.  Soon  Livermore  came  running 
back  to  the  fort,  stating  that  Hall  and  Vaux  had  both  been  killed 
by  the  Indians.  Livermore  had  a  hole  shot  through  his  coat,  but 
was  uninjured.  He  had  seen  the  other  two  fall,  but  had  managed 
to  escape.  The  carti-idge  had  stuck  in  his  gun,  and  being  unable 
to  shoot  he  had  .jumped  over  the  river  bank  and  made  his  way 
back  to  the  fort.  We  hurriedly  made  for  the  timber.  It  was  scarcely 
light.  We  found  Vaux  badly  wounded  but  alive.  He  had  crawled 
into  a  thicket  and  later  had  crawled  back  to  the  trail  so  we  would 
find  him.  A  little  further  along  we  found  poor  Hall,  dead,  pierced 
with  fourteen  arrows  and  scalped.  One  Indian  lay  dead  on  the 
field  and  we  could  see  where  a  wounded  Indian  had  been  taken 
away  by  friends.  Vaux  said  that  Ilall  died  like  the  brave  man 
he  was,  continuing  to  shoot  until  he  fell.  The  dead  Indian  was 
scalped  and  the  scalp  was  brought  back  to  Eau  Claire  by  Alex. 
Watson,  well  known  to  old  residents.  Vaux  recovered  and 
returned  to  this  county.  We  were  at  Fort  Union  just  about  one 
year.     In  the  spring  of  1865  we  returned  to  Louisville,  Ky.     At 


that  place  I  was  taken  sick  and  was  sent  home.  That  was  in 
August.  The  company  returned  to  St.  Louis  and  from  there  went 
to  Washington,  taking  part  in  the  grand  review,  after  which  both 
of  them  returned  to  this  section  of  the  country." 

Editor  Daily  Telegram:  Several  weeks  ago  an  account 
was  given  of  the  battle  of  Parmington,  with  the  death  of 
Captain  Perkins,  of  the  Eagle  company,  and  the  promotion 
of  Lieutenant  Wolf  to  the  head  of  the  company.  That  was 
in  May,  1862. 

Today  we  have  a  letter  from  Captain  Green,  of  the 
Eagle  regiment,  describing  the  siege  and  later  battle  of 
Corinth : 

"Bivouac,  South  of  Corinth,  Miss.,  June  4,  1862. — The  thing 
'which  was  to  have  arroven  have  arrived.'  Corinth  is  ours!  Of 
course  you  have  heard  through  the  newspapers  all  about  the 
evacuation,  the  fight  with  the  rear  guards,  the  destruction  of 
property,  etc.  I  only  know  that  the  enemy  skedaddled;  that  a 
part  of  our  army  is  in  Corinth  and  that  General  Pope's  corps  has 
marched  through  and  is  now  bivouacking  three  or  four  miles 
south  of  Corinth.  It  is  said  that  4,000  prisoners  were  taken,  but 
I  have  not  seen  them.  But  now  I  will  proceed  to  give  you  an 
account  of  our  movements  from  the  27th  of  May  to  the  present 
time ;  first  remarking  that  our  regiment  was  in  the  front  line 
and  met  the  last  charge  of  the  enemy,  repulsed  them  and  drove 
the  into  their  intrenchments.  Our  loss  was  small,  only  two  killed 
and  four  wounded  in  Company  I.  On  the  27th  of  May  our  regi- 
ment went  on  grand  guard.  Well,  as  I  was  saying,  we  had  our 
sentinels  posted  by  9  o'clock  of  the  27th.  The  rebel  guard  was 
not  over  500  yards  in  our  front  and  the  sentinels  could  see  each 
other  and  even  hold  conversation ;  but  they  did  not  talk  much ; 
it  is  a  serious  breach  of  military  discipline,  and  a  violation  of 
the  rules  of  war.  About  9  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  expected  to 
be  relieved,  not  knowing  that  all  the  forces  had  left  camp  and 
were  marching  to  the  front.  We  soon  found  out,  however,  that 
we  were  to  be  relieved  from  picket  duty  only  to  go  into  more 
serious  business,  for  in  an  hour  or  so  a  line  of  skirmishers  came 
out  in  advance  of  our  forces,  passed  beyond  our  guard  lines  and 
attacked  the  rebel  pickets.  They  drove  the  rebel  pickets  in,  after 
some  sharp  firing,  and  followed  them  closely.  Our  guards  were 
called  off  post,  canteens  filled  with  fresh  water,  and  then  we 
started  in  search  of  our  brigade.  Found  it  about  a  mile  to  the 
right,  and  in  advance  of  all  the  other  forces,  drawn  up  in  line  of 


battle  in  a  little  ravine  running  through  an  old  cornfield  with 
rising  ground  in  front,  from  the  top  of  which  the  land  sloped 
down  gradually  four  hundred  yards  to  a  creek,  across  which  on 
another  knoll  was  a  rebel  fort,  one  of  the  strongest  of  all  the 
Corinth  works,  mounting  twelve  guns  and  defended  by  one  or 
more  brigades  of  infantry.  The  creek  ran  parallel  with  our 
line  of  battle  and  extended  three  hundred  yards  to  our  right, 
when  it  turned  and  ran  at  a  right  angle  with  our  lines,  heavily 
timbered  on  the  opposite  side.  We  had  no  sooner  taken  our  posi- 
tion on  the  right  of  our  brigade  than  the  rebel  battery  commenced 
throwing  shells  at  us.  We  got  out  of  the  ravine  as  quickly  as  we 
could  and  laid  down  on  the  side  of  the  hill  in  front,  which  afforded 
protection  against  cannon  shot  and  shell.  The  deep  worn  corn 
furrows  comfortably  hid  a  fellow.  Our  own  batteries  opened  on 
the  rebels  immediately,  firing  over  our  heads  as  well  as  from  our 
right  and  left ;  a  deafening,  terrific  cannonading  was  kept  up  for 
half  an  hour.  It  seemed  as  if  hell  had  broke  loose.  All  at  once 
there  was  a  cessation  of  the  cannonading  from  the  rebel  battery 
and  we  began  to  cheer,  supposing  their  guns  had  been  dismounted. 
But  the  rising  shout  was  soon  drowned  in  the  quick  sharp  reports 
of  musketry  on  our  left,  which  increased  in  a  few  moments  to  vol- 
leys. Up  it  came  from  left  to  right ;  up  to  our  feet  we  sprang  and 
forward  to  the  top  of  the  hill.  The  left  companies  of  our  regiment 
were  already  engaged,  and  as  soon  as  we  reached  the  brow  of  the 
hill  we  saw  the  rebel  infantry  rushing  toward  us.  Bang,  bang, 
whiz,  zip,  zip,  sang  the  rifle  balls.  The  butternuts  stood  to  give 
about  three  volleys,  their  colonel  on  a  splendid  looking  white 
horse  galloping  between  the  two  lines  shouting,  'Forward  my 
brave  men!  The  battery  is  ours!'  The  horse  an  instant  after 
rushed  riderless  through  our  ranks  bleeding  from  one  shoulder. 
Dust  and  smoke  until  you  couldn't  tell  a  man  from  a  stump  ten 
yards  off.  Forward  we  rushed,  firing  and  shouting,  officers  giv- 
ing orders  to  the  tops  of  their  voices,  when  a  voice  was  heard 
crying:  'Look  out  to  the  right,  men!  Look  out  to  the  right!' 
And  three  men  on  horseback  emerged  into  view  from  that  direc- 
tion, one  of  whom,  a  magnificent  looking  old  soldier,  we  recog- 
nized as  'Old  Rosy,'  General  Rosencrans,  and  at  the  same  instant 
almost  the  rebels  came  out  of  the  woods  to  our  right  and  showered 
us  with  musket  balls,  but  overshooting.  With  a  yell.  Company  A 
and  my  company  wheeled  'round  to  the  right  and  dashed  after 
them  to  the  edge  of  the  timber,  but  the  rebels,  not  more  than  one 
or  two  companies,  who  had  been  deployed  there  as  skirmishers, 
skedaddled  fast,  although  we  wounded  eight  or  ten  of  them  and 


captured  their  knapsacks,  blankets  and  haversacks  filled  with  five 
days'  rations  which  they  had  laid  in  a  pile  before  advancing. 
The  fight  lasted  only  twenty  minutes.  Thirty  rebels  were  dead 
on  the  field  in  front  of  our  regiment  and  a  good  many  were  picked 
up  wounded.  A  few  were  taken  prisoners.  We  lost  only  two 
killed  and  four  wounded.  The  rebel  charge  was  gallantly  exe- 
cuted— they  got  so  close  to  one  of  our  batteries  that  the  artillery- 
men shot  some  of  them  with  revolvers.  That  night  we  threw  up 
intrenchments  and  stayed  there  until  the  night  of  the  twenty- 
ninth.    The  rebels  left  on  that  day. 

"Bivouac,  near  Boonville,  Miss.,  June  6,  1862. — We  are  30 
miles  south  of  Corinth,  chasing  the  rebels.  Beauregard's  evacua- 
tion of  Corinth  was  not  altogether  successful.  The  road  for  20 
or  30  miles  south  of  Corinth  was  strewn  with  discarded  equipage, 
whole  camps,  tents,  commissary  and  quartermaster's  stores,  sick 
and  wounded  soldiers,  wagons,  mules,  etc.,  left  or  abandoned  in 
the  greatest  haste,  showing  that  we  pressed  hard  after  them. 
We  found  plenty  of  graves,  in  one  of  which  was  buried  a  12-pound 
howitzer.  It  had  a  headboard  marked  'W.  C.,'  with  date,  etc. 
They  had  not  time  to  round  up  the  grave  before  our  advance 
came  in  sight. 

"October  3. — We  have  completed  the  circle  and  now  hail 
again  from  Corinth.  We  are  in  camp  about  five  miles  west  of 
town.  I  am  in  a  private  house  under  the  surgeon's  care.  The 
enemy,  Price  and  Van  Dorn's  army,  is  all  around  us  everywhere, 
but  no  one  seems  to  know  just  where. 

"Camp  near  Ripley,  October  8. — I  began  this  letter  at 
Corinth,  October  3,  and  had  only  gotten  it  fairly  commenced 
when  the  surgeon  came  into  my  room  greatly  excited,  saying  the 
rebels  were  coming.  There  were  but  a  few  soldiers  in  town. 
Our  brigade  was  marching  from  a  point  five  or  six  miles  southwest 
toward  Corinth  as  rapidly  as  possible.  About  noon  the  report  of 
cannon  was  heard  in  the  near  distance  and  our  troops  began 
pouring  into  town  from  different  directions  and  forming  into  line 
of  battle.  I  waited  from  11  o'clock  in  the  forenoon  until  the 
middle  of  the  afternoon  before  our  regiment  put  in  its  appear- 
ance. I  tell  j'ou  it  was  a  period  of  awful  suspense,  and  I  never 
was  so  glad  in  my  life  as  I  was  to  see  the  old  Eagle  regiment 
coming  up  the  road.  They  had  been  on  the  run  for  several  hours 
and  were  in  a  state  of  exhaustion.  I  joined  my  company  and  we 
went  into  the  fight.  We  doubled-quicked  through  a  field  and  ran 
directly  into  the  enemy  in  the  woods,  who  poured  a  deadly  fire 
into  our  ranks  while  we  were  marching  and  before  we  could  form 


CAPT.  W.  P.  GRAVES         j  '    '] 



UT.  51.  i;.  wyjiAN 



in  line  of  battle.  The  fight  was  hot  for  ten  minutes  or  more,  but 
the  enemy  were  too  strong  for  us.  They  had  ten  times  our  num- 
ber. They  made  a  charge,  yelling  like  so  many  screech  owls  or 
devils.  We  stood  our  ground  and  fired  volley  after  volley  into 
them,  but  it  seemed  to  make  no  impression  on  them  whatever. 
Tliey  came  right  on  like  a  great  wave,  overwhelming  everything 
in  its  progress.  Catching  sight  of  our  eagle  those  in  front  of  our 
regiment  gave  forth  an  unearthly  yell  and  started  to  capture  it. 
Old  Abe,  up  to  that  time  had  behaved  himself  with  great  gal- 
lantry, but  at  this  moment  a  bullet  slightly  wounded  him  under 
one  wing  and  he  hopped  off  his  perch  to  the  ground  and  ducked 
his  head  between  his  carrier's  legs.  All  attempts  to  make  him 
stay  on  his  perch  were  useless.  He  was  thoroughly  demoralized, 
and  the  same  feeling  extended  itself  to  the  line  and  they  broke 
and  ran  before  the  rebel  charge,  the  carrier  of  the  eagle  picking 
him  up  and  carrying  him  under  his  arm  as  fast  as  he  could  run. 
It  was  a  new  experience  for  us,  for  heretofore  we  had  always 
been  the  victors.  The  regiment  and  brigade  dissolved  so  quickly 
that  it  was  impossible  to  see  what  had  become  of  them.  I  found 
myself  with  Captain  Wolf,  of  Company  C,  and  the  colors,  with 
perhaps  a  dozen  men.  The  color  bearer  was  shot  and  the  next 
man  who  picked  them  up  was  wounded.  We  brought  them  off  the 
field  with  the  enemy  at  our  heels.  We  got  back  to  Battery 
Robinette,  which  opened  on  the  rebels  and  checked  their  advance 
and  waited  the  next  move.  It  was  now  dusk  and  the  fight  for 
that  day  was  over.  We  laid  on  our  arms  all  night,  and  as  soon 
as  morning  broke  the  cannonading  opened  and  Avas  kept  up  with 
fearful  energy.  After  this  our  advance  skirmishers  were  driven 
in  and  we  formed  our  lines  and  waited.  We  did  not  have  long 
to  wait.  The  rebel  line  of  battle  emerged  from  the  woods  and 
came  forward  to  Battery  Robinette  through  the  abbatis  formed 
by  falling  trees,  with  the  greatest  heroism  and  daring.  All  the 
guns  of  the  fort  and  the  musketry  of  our  line  of  battle  opened 
on  them,  but  on  they  came,  closing  up  their  ranks-on,  on,  running, 
climbing,  shooting,  shouting  and  yelling — their  leader,  Colonel 
Rogers,  mounted  on  a  white  horse,  riding  in  advance  waving  his 
sword  and  looking  as  grand  and  noble  as  Mars  himself.  Oh,  it  was 
a  terrible  charge.  Right  up  to  the  parapet  of  the  battery  they 
swarmed,  their  gallant  leader  and  his  horse  being  shot  as  he 
leaped  the  ditch.  They  swarmed  over  the  parapet.  Our  line  of 
battle  gave  way  before  them  and  fell  back,  perhaps,  fifty  yards, 
when  General  Rosecrans,  bareheaded,  waving  his  hat  and  sword, 
rushed  along  in  front  of  the  line  and  the  men  soon  went  forward 


and  drove  the  rebels  back.  Some  of  the  rebels  actually  got  into 
the  battery  and  were  killed  or  captured  by  the  gunners.  Many 
surrendered  rather  than  run  the  risk  of  being  killed  on  the  re- 
treat. The  ground  in  front  was  covered  with  their  dead  and 
wounded.  Over  3,000  rebels  were  killed  and  wounded.  Our  loss 
was  not  so  large,  but  was  heavy  enough.  Our  regiment  had  ninety 
men  killed  and  wounded.  The  records  of  the  world  may  be 
searched  in  vain,  I  verily  believe,  to  find  a  more  desperate,  bloody 
and  gallant  charge  than  that  made  by  the  rebels.  They  had  every- 
thing at  stake.  Everything  depended  on  their  winning  the  battle 
and  they  fought  hard  for  it,  but  in  vain.  The  two  armies  were 
about  equal  in  numbers,  but  we  had  the  heaviest  artillery.  As 
soon  as  the  charge  was  over  Ave  waited  for  them  to  try  it  again. 
But  they  did  not  charge  again.  Again  and  again  they  formed 
their  lines  and  advanced  to  the  edge  of  the  woods,  but  their  men 
would  go  no  further.  Officers  swore  and- appealed  to  them  to  go 
in  just  once  more,  but  they  had  had  enough." 

It  was  in  the  fall  of  1862,  soon  after  the  battle  of  Corinth, 
that  Coloney  Murphy,  of  the  Eighth  Wisconsin,  allowed  the 
enemy  to  destroy  an  immense  store  of  supplies  at  Holly  Springs, 
which  event  had  an  important  bearing  on  the  Vicksburg  campaign, 
making,  as  it  did,  impossible  the  carrying  out  of  one  of  the  earlier 
plans  for  the  reduction  of  "Vicksburg. 

The  late  Col.  W.  F.  Vilas,  in  his  history  of  the  Vicksburg  cam- 
paign, makes  the  following  reference  to  this  affair:  "And  to  cap 
all,  the  surprise  by  Van  Dorn  of  Holly  Springs,  the  intermediate 
base  where  Grant  had  gathered  a  million  dollars'  worth  of  sup- 
plies, which  the  enemy  destroyed,  determined  his  (Grant's)  with- 
drawal from  this  attempt.  It  is  humiliating  to  add  that  the  cow- 
ardice of  a  Wisconsin  officer.  Colonel  Murphy,  of  the  Eighth  In- 
fantry, the  Eagle  regiment,  who  basely  yielded  the  post  at  Holly 
Springs,  which  he  could  easily  have  defended,  furnished  tlie  sole 
reason  for  tliat  disaster;  because,  but  for  his  action,  liis  men  woiild 
have  protected  the  place.  It  is  not  a  consolation  that  he  \Aas 
promptly  cashiered. ' ' 

In  May,  1863,  we  find  Grant's  army  before  Vicksburg,  and 
Captain  Green,  writing  to  his  wife  as  follows:  "Camp  near  Vicks- 
burg, May  26,  1863. — On  returning  to  camp  (eve  of  the  twenty- 
first)  we  had  an  order  that  the  army  was  to  charge  the  enemy's 
works  at  ten  o'clock  next  day  all  along  the  line.  In  the  morning 
the  army  was  in  line  of  battle,  waiting  the  order  to  go  in.  It 
was  about  noon,  however,  when  the  bugles  sounded  and  the  Union 
Army,  with  Hags  waving  over  them,  charged  the  rebel  works. 


Our  brigade  was  held  in  reserve.  We  stood  in  line  of  battle  and 
saw  the  front  go  in.  They  melted  away  before  the  withering 
fire  from  the  entrenchments  and  soon  disappeared  from  view. 
Presently,  when  the  smoke  lifted,  we  saw  them  in  ravines  and  in 
the  ditch  right  under  the  rebel  guns,  with  their  Hags  planted  on 
the  outer  slope  of  their  works.  About  two  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon General  Grant  and  Adjutant-General  Rawlins  met  Generals 
Sherman,  Tuttle  and  Mower,  where  we  were  standing  under  arms. 
Grant  had  on  a  slouch  hat,  a  torn  blouse  and  an  ej'e  glass  slung 
over  his  shoulder.  They  had  a  conference  at  the  head  of  our 
regiment,  and  several  of  us  officers  went  up  to  where  they  were 
talking  and  heard  what  they  said.  General  Grant  said  he  had  a 
dispatch  from  McClernand,  on  the  extreme  right  of  him,  down 
by  the  Mississippi  river,  on  the  lower  side  of  Vicksburg,  stating 
that  his  troops  had  carried  the  enemy's  works  and  were  now  in 
them,  and  if  another  charge  was  made  on  another  part  of  the 
line  to  prevent  the  enemy  sending  re-enforcements  to  repel  him 
he  could  go  into  the  city.  I  heard  General  Grant  say  that  he 
did  not  think  it  was  true,  but  it  might  be  so,  and  in  order  that  the 
enterprise  might  not  fail  for  lack  of  support,  he  would  order  that 
another  charge  be  made  immediately;  and  turning  to  General 
Sherman,  he  said:  'Send  in  your  reserves.'  General  Sherman 
turned  to  General  Tuttle,  our  division  coiiniiander,  and  ordered 
him  to  send  in  a  brigade.  General  'riitlli'  sjiid  in  turn  to  General 
Mower,  wlio  commanded  our  brigade,  '(icuci-al.  charge  the  works 
with  your  brigade  at  once.'  General  Mower  was  a  brave  man, 
there  was  no  discount  on  that — he  meant  to  obey  the  order,  but 
could  not  help  saying,  'General,  it  will  be  the  death  of  every  man 
in  the  brigade  to  go  in  there  now,'  and  without  waiting  to  hear 
what  reply  was  made  he  sent  his  aide  to  the  colonels  command- 
ing the  regiments  of  the  brigade  with  orders  to  follow  the  ad- 
vance, marching  by  right  flank  for  about  one  hundred  yards, 
where  the  groiuid  would  not  permit  a  forward  movement  in  line 
of  battle,  and  when  they  got  out  of  this  to  form  in  line  of  battle 
and  charge  on  the  double  quick.  The  Eleventh  Missouri  was  in 
the  lead,  the  Fifth  Minnesota  came  next,  the  Eighth  Wisconsin 
was  next  and  the  Forty-seventh  Illinois  in  the  rear. 

"The  orders  were  given.  We  moved  down  the  road  diagonally 
to  the  front,  mareliing  four  abreast  until  we  struck  a  sunken  road, 
three  or  four  feet  deeper  than  the  surrounding  ground.  This 
sunken  road  was  perhaps  two  hundred  yards  long,  then  it  tui-ned 
to  the  right.  We  were  marching  four  abreast  through  this  road 
until  it  turned,  then  we  were  to  form  in  line  of  battle  and  march 


forward.  Just  as  we  struck  the  road  we  came  out  in  full  view 
of  the  enemy,  who  were  standing  by  their  guns.  Our  appearance 
was  the  signal  for  them  to  open  fire  on  us  with  all  their  guns 
and  a  stream  of  fire  shot  out  from  the  rebel  works  not  over  a 
thousand  yards  away.  It  was  perfectly  awful.  The  two  regiments 
ahead  of  us  had  disappeared  and  the  sunken  road  was  full  of  dead 
and  wounded.  Just  as  we  reached  it,  Lieutenant  Chapman,  as 
brave  a  young  fellow  as  every  was  in  the  army,  and  a  genial  com- 
panion was  shot,  a  canister  shot  hitting  him  in  the  breast  and 
going  through  him.  He  fell  against  me,  his  blood  spurting  out  in 
streams.  I  laid  him  down  as  gently  as  I  could.  His  eyes  looked 
into  mine,  but  he  was  dead,  killed  instantly.  We  actually  stepped 
on  the  dead  and  wounded  in  the  sunken  road,  so  thickly  were  they 
lying.  Men  were  falling  all  aroinid  us.  The  bullets  whizzed  in 
our  ears  like  a  s\varm  of  bees  and  the  shells  exploded  among  us 
incessantly.  We  reached  the  turn  in  the  road  and  left  it,  the  com- 
panies making  a  half  wheel  to  get  into  line  of  battle,  then  charged 
forward  on  the  double  quick,  without  much  regard  to  alignment. 
The  ground  was  open  and  level,  here  and  there  a  tree  or  a  stump 
or  a  bunch  of  cane  behind  which  a  squad  of  men  were  crouching. 
The  works  were  only  a  few  lumdred  yards  ahead,  but  it  seemed 
a  mile.  We  ran  on  through  an  iron  hail  before  which  our  men 
fell  like  leaves,  killed  and  wounded.  Our  flag  went  down — then 
reappeared — the  air  thick  with  the  dust  and  the  noise  of  the 
enemy's  shots  pei'fectly  deafening.  It  seemed  as  if  we  would 
never  get  there,  but  at  last  we  reached  the  ditch  at  the  foot  of 
the  entrenchments,  jumped  and  drew  a  long  breath  of  relief. 
Our  color-bearer  was  boosted  up  and  planted  his  flag  in  the  ground 
half  way  up. 

"Well,  it  was  just  as  General  Grant  anticipated,  our  charge 
was  a  useless  waste  of  life ;  McClernand  did  not  get  into  the  city ; 
indeed,  he  had  never  been  inside  of  the  works.  We  lay  in  the 
ditch  until  after  dark.  During  the  time  we  were  lying  there  the 
rebels  would  put  their  muskets  over  the  parapets  and  shoot  down 
at  us.  If  one  of  them  showed  his  head  above  the  works  our  boys 
were  watching  and  it  was  a  dangerous  operation.  Several  of  our 
boys  were  wounded  in  the  ditch.  After  dark  an  armistice  was 
proclaimed  to  carry  off  our  dead  and  wounded  and  our  brigade, 
indeed  all  the  troops,  marched  back  to  camp.  The  regiment  had 
thirty  killed  and  seventy-five  or  eighty  wounded.  The  next  morn- 
ing an  order  was  issued  that  the  works  were  too  strong  to  be 
carried  by  assault,  that  we  must  get  them  by  regular  approaches, 
consequently  we  are  now  digging  our  way  up :  exactly  the  same 


experience  that  the  allies  had  before  Savastopol.  I  think  a  fort- 
night will  end  the  siege.  There  are  supposed  to  he  twenty-five 
or  thirty  thousand  men  in  Vicksburg,  we  have  not  over  twenty- 
five  thousand,  if  that  many. 

"This  campaign  will  be  forever  memorable  in  history  and 
stamps  General  Grant  as  the  greatest  military  genius  of  the  age. 
He  whipped  Johnson's  thirty  thousand  men  and  drove  him  so  far 
away  he  can  do  no  more  miseliief,  then  turned  round  and  penned 
Pemberton's  men  up  iu  Vicksburg,  and  all  with  a  smaller  army 
than  either  Johnson's  or  Pemberton's.  His  headquarters  are  only 
a  short  distance  to  our  right  and  rear.  We  see  him  every  day, 
common  as  a  private  soldier,  but  he  always  seems  to  be  thinking. 
Grant,  Sherman,  Logan  and  McPherson  are  great  soldiers.  If  the 
array  of  the  Potomac  had  such  generals,  Richmond  would  soon  be 
ours."  During  the  progress  of  the  Vicksburg  siege  the  Eighth 
Wisconsin  was  moved  about  considerably.  Had  a  sharp  skirmish 
at  Mechanicsville,  also  near  Richmond. 

"Camp  on  Black  river,  12  miles  east  of  Vicksburg. — I  wish  we 
had  as  great  a  general  as  Lee  to  command  our  eastern  army. 
Vicksburg,  Julj^  4,  1863,  2  o'clock  p.  m. — I  am  writing  this  on  a 
yellow  piece  of  paper  in  the  cupola  of  the  Vicksburg  court  house, 
and  I  send  it  to  you  with  a  bunch  of  splinters  from  one  of  the 
pillars  of  the  steeple,  where  a  shell  had  gone  through  it.  The 
whole  cupola  is  riddled  with  our  shells.  The  long  siege  is  at  last 

"July  4. — Later  in  the  day.  The  scenes  we  Avitnessed  on  com- 
ing into  the  city  beggar  description.  I  cannot  write  them  to  you. 
The  Confederate  troops  were  in  the  last  stage  of  starvation.  They 
had  been  living  on  mule  meat  for  some  days.  I  saw  some  of  it 
and  it  was  enough  to  turn  one's  stomach.  The  rebels  were  glad 
to  see  us,  too.  The  hills  are  honey-combed  with  caves  in  which 
they  have  lived.  As  we  walk  along  the  street  we  can  see  women 
running  toward  each  other,  crying  for  joj',  and  throwing  their 
arms,  around  each  other's  necks  and  weeping  and  kissing.'" 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Charles  CofiSn  we  furnish  the 
following  description  of  Vicksburg,  as  written  by  Captain  Culbert-'  '-'<'- 
son,  of  the  Sixteenth  Wisconsin:     "If  there  were  about  ninety 
hills  like  Barren  Bluff  sitting  near  together  with  dugways  through       -|  kA-.~^  "i 
the  liills,  trenches,  rifle  pits,  forts  and  redoubts  on  every  command-         t/L<»->X^ 
ing  point.  If  there  was  such  a  place,  it  would  be  as  near  like  Vicks- 
burg as  anything  I  can  think  of  at  present,  but  still  it  would 
want  one  thing  to  complete  the  scene,  which  these  hills  would 
want  to  be  covered  with  buildings  and  the  buildings  riddled  with 


shells.  But  for  all  this,  there  are  some  very  fine  streets  in  the 
place,  also  some  fine  buildings,  but  finest  of  all  are  the  shade 
trees,  which  are  on  every  street,  almost  hiding  the  houses.  If  I 
had  seen  this  place  before  the  boats  run  the  blockade  I  should  have 
said  that  Grant  was  crazy  to  attempt  anything  of  the  kind,  but 
the  old  fellow  has  a  long  head  and  works  to  win.  Let  General 
Grant  have  his  army  in  here  and  I  would  defy  the  world  to  take 
this  place  in  seven  years. ' ' 

"Vicksburg,  Miss.,  August  19,  1863. — Dear  Mother,  Sister  and 
Brother:  The  steamer  City  of  Madison  was  blown  up  today  while 
lying  at  the  levee  loading  ammunition  to  take  below.  There  was  a 
detail  of  about  three  hundred  men,  white  and  black,  loading  her, 
and  it  was  all  done  by  the  carelessness  of  one  negro.  As  they  Avere 
loading  percussion  shells  the  negro  threw  one  of  the  boxes  filled 
with  these  shells  into  the  hold,  discharging  the  whole  lot,  and  as  the 
boat  had  several  tons  on,  the  bursting  of  one  shell  set  the  whole 
cargo  ofl'.  The  boat  was  blown  so  that  you  could  hardly  tell 
that  it  had  ever  been  a  boat.  As  near  as  can  be  ascertained  now 
there  were  nearly  156  lives  lost.  The  steamer  Walch,  that  lay 
along  side  of  her,  was  nearly  as  bad,  but  I  believe  there  was  no 
loss  of  life  on  the  Walch.  The  loss  of  life  and  property  was  awful. 
There  was  not  a  whole  pane  of  glass  left  in  a  building  within  80 
rods,  so  great  was  the  concussion.  Men  were  blown  across  the 
river  and  fragments  of  the  wreck  could  be  seen  all  througli  the 

"Your  son  and  brother,  H.  M.  Culbertson.'" 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Sixteenth  regiment,  to  which 
Captain  Wheeler's  company  belonged,  was  badly  cut  up  at  the 
battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing  or  Shiloh.  Later  engagements,  sick- 
ness and  death  further  reduced  its  ranks,  and  it  was  found  neces- 
sary to  reorganize  the  regiment.  This  was  done  by  consolidating 
the  ten  old  companies  into  five  and  adding  "new  companies  B, 
D,  F,  H  and  K. "  John  Kelly,  who  went  out  as  a  private  in  Cap- 
tain Wheeler's  Company  G,  was  made  captain  of  "new  company 
B,"  a  well  earned  promotion.  I  find  no  other  Eau  Claire  man  in 
this  company,  it  being  recruited  from  the  eastern  part  of  the 
state.  One  of  the  "new  companies,"  Company  H,  was  recruited 

Free  Press,  December  3,  1863.  On  Monday  last  67  men  for  a 
new  company  in  the  Sixteenth  left  for  LaCrosse  in  charge  of  D.  C. 
Whipple  and  John  T.  Tinker.  This  company  has  been  recruited 
in  less  time  than  it  required  to  raise  any  previous  one.     Messrs. 


Tinker,  Whipple  and  M.  A.  Shaw  have  labored  zealously  to  raise 
this  company,  and  their  efforts  have  been  erovi^ned  with  the  most 
ample  success.  No  officers  of  this  company  were  elected  until 
after  their  arrival  at  LaCrosse.  No  list  of  the  privates  in  this 
company  was  printed  at  the  time,  but  from  the  official  roster  the 
list  below  is  furnished.  Capt.,  Darwin  C.  Whipple ;  First  Lieut., 
John  T.  Tinker ;  Second  Lieut.,  Milton  Grover,  Red  Cedar ;  Second 
Lieut.,  Edward  W.  Allen,  Eau  Claire.  Privates :  John  C.  Bailey, 
Burzelia  Bailey,  Walter  D.  Bailey,  John  C.  Barland,  William  H.  H. 
Beebe,  Harvey  N.  Benjamin,  Edward  J.  Bonnell,  John  W.  Brown, 
Wesley  C.  Butterfield,  James  G.  Cleghorn,  Peter  Cromwell,  Sam- 
uel C.  Dean,  Peter  Deery,  Isiah  Drew,  William  H.  Fox,  John  W. 
Gilbert,  Freeman  Grover,  Jefferson  Heath,  John  W.  Heasley, 
Henry  Ilendrickson,  Benjamin  P.  Ilowland,  Hiram  Hill,  Lyman 
M.  Hotehiss,  Azro  B.  Hoyt,  Arch  K.  Humphrey,  Samuel  Iverson, 
John  Johnson,  Daniel  E.  Johnson,  Dwight  A.  King,  Myron  N. 
Lawton,  Henry  Longdo,  George  IMcElrath,  Even  J.  Morgan,  Ener 
Nelson,  Patrick  Nooney,  David  A.  Robertson,  Joel  Ross,  John  Ross, 
Harvey  N.  Saunders,  Myron  A.  Shaw,  Canute  Thompson,  Cary  P. 
Wood,  Henry  Wyborney. 

The  history  of  Company  H,  which  christened  itself  the  "Wil- 
liams Guards  "  in  honor  of  H.  Clay  Williams,  was  published  in 
Tom  Randall's  history  of  the  Chippewa  Valley,  as  told  by  Lieut.  j,v'-vvivvi.^    c^|^ 
E.  W.  Allen,  and  is  herewith  reprinted :  -^  jL  "^  n-^ 

"From  the  cold  snows  of  the  North  to  the  balmy  skies  and  * 

peach  blossoms  of  Vicksburg  was  a  pleasant  change.  After  doing 
picket  duty  at  Black  River  bridge  for  a  month  we  were  ordered 
back  to  Vicksburg,  from  thence  north  on  transports  up  the  river, 
passing  Port  Pillow  a  few  hours  after  the  massacre  by  Forrest. 
Company  H  and  two  other  companies  were  landed  at  Columbus  to 
assist  the  colored  troops  in  defending  the  fort  against  an  attack 
momentarily  expected  from  that  chivalrous  general,  which,  how- 
ever, he  failed  to  make.  After  two  weeks  of  hard  duty  we  joined 
the  command  at  Cairo,  then  preparing  to  join  Sherman's  army 
in  Northern  George.  From  Cairo  to  Clifton,  Tennessee,  on  trans- 
ports, and  thence  by  forced  marches  three  hundred  miles  across 
that  state,  Alabama  and  Georgia,  taking  position  on  the  left  of 
the  grand  army,  before  Kenesaw  Mountain,  June  10,  1864.  We 
suffered  terribly  during  this  march  and  many  gave  out  by  the 
way,  among  whom  were  Lieutenants  Grover  and  Tinker,  who  went 
to  the  hospital. 

"From  this  time  to  the  tenth  of  September,  three  months,  we 
were  constantly  under  arms,  marching,  skirmishing  and  fighting. 


our  first  exploits  being  in  the  battles  about  Kenesaw,  where  we 
lost  several  men;  then  hotly  pursuing  the  rebels  night  and  day, 
until  they  took  refuge  in  their  trenches  before  Atlanta.  We  lay 
on  our  arras  on  the  night  of  July  20,  the  enemy  strongly  fortified 
in  front,  and  just  at  break  of  day  we  were  ordered  to  charge. 
Grave  doubts  and  fears  were  expressed,  as  there  were  so  many 
new  recruits  in  the  regiment,  whether  it  would  not  be  better  to 
put  an  old  and  tried  regiment  in  our  place,  but  after  a  short  con- 
sultation it  was  decided  to  keep  us  where  we  were,  for  if  the 
charge  was  made,  the  older  soldiers  Avho  Avere  supporting  them 
would  have  no  confidence  in  them,  and  they  would  lose  all  con- 
fidence in  themselves.  The  result  showed  the  wisdom  of  the  con- 
clusion. It  was  a  trying  moment  when  Colonel  Fairchild  shouted 
the  order,  'Fix  bayonets,  forward.'  Out  of  the  timber,  down  a 
ravine,  up  and  across  a  field,  over  their  works,  driving  out  Har- 
dee's veterans  and  taking  some  prisoners,  was  but  the  work  of  a 
moment.  Lieutenant  Colonel  Reynolds,  coming  up  quickly,  said 
to  the  new  men,  'You  are  all  veterans  now,  boys.' 

"The  general  commanding  the  brigade  sent  word  to  General 
Blair,  saying,  'The  "Wisconsin  boys  did  nobly,'  but  it  was  praise 
dearly  earned.  Colonel  Fairchild,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Reynolds, 
Capt.  John  Wheeler,  and  many  other  officers  were  wounded,  but 
fortunately  none  killed.  Company  H  lost  two  killed  and  seven 
wounded.  Captain  Whipple  particularly  distinguished  himself  in 
this  action,  and  a  somewhat  laughable  incident  occurred  during 
the  charge.  So  great  was  the  excitement  but  little  attention  was 
paid  to  his  efl:orts  to  keep  the  men  in  line  with  the  colors,  but 
finally  becoming  terribly  in  earnest  and  shouting  above  the  roar 
and  din  of  battle,  he  sang  out,  'If  you  don't  know  what  line  on 
the  colors  means,  keep  your  eyes  on  that  flag. '  We  held  the  works 
all  day  under  fire,  and  strengthened  them  at  night ;  but  about  noon 
the  next  day  the  enemy  burst  on  our  left,  and  was  crushing  that 
part  of  our  army  like  an  egg  shell,  coming  boldly  on  until  they 
reached  the  works  held  by  the  Twelfth  and  Sixteenth  Wisconsin, 
who  repulsed  them  in  six  successive  terrible  charges,  first  in  front, 
then  in  rear,  and  changing  sides  of  their  works  as  many  times. 
Captain  Whipple  showed  himself  the  same  hero  here  as  the  day 
before,  but  the  strain  was  too  much ;  constant  fatigue  and  anxiety 
and  the  suffering  from  his  wound  sent  him  to  the  ambulance. 
Orderly  Sergeant  Allen  took  command  of  the  company,  there  be- 
ing no  commissioned  officer  with  the  company.  Being  ordered  to 
another  part  of  the  field,  by  a  forced  march,  Captain  Whipple 
again  joined  us  and  assisted  in  repi;lsing  several  charges,  but  was 


soon  obliged  to  go  to  field  hospital,  and  E.  W.  Allen,  just  com- 
missioned, took  command. 

"The  final  battles  of  Jonesborongh  and  Lovejoy's  Station 
closed  the  campaign,  and  with  light  hearts  we  spread  our  tents 
in  Atlanta,  September  10,  1864.  Our  company  was  reduced  from 
ninety  to  twenty  muskets,  so  severe  had  been  the  work.  Here 
we  received  a  quantity  of  good  things,  pickles,  berries,  condensed 
milk,  etc.,  from  kind  friends  in  Eau  Claire,  for  which,  if  ever 
men  felt  grateful,  we  did.  But  we  did  not  rest  long.  Hood  had 
gone  north  and  was  eating  our  crackers,  so  we  were  after  him 
again,  and  for  five  days  and  nights  we  chased  him  over  moun- 
tains, rivers  and  valleys,  and  then  were  ordered  back  to  Atlanta 
again,  whei'e,  for  the  first  time  in  eight  months,  we  received  our 
pay,  and  voted  for  president,  thirty-four  for  Lincoln  and  two 
for  McClellan.  That  was  the  kind  of  men  that  composed  Com- 
pany H.  On  November  14  we  started  with  Sherman  on  his  grand 
march  to  the  sea,  and  a  month  of  constant  marching  brought  us 
to  the  gates  of  Savannah,  where,  after  a  short  resistance,  we 
marched,  flags  flying,  into  the  city.  Starting  again,  we  took 
Poeotaligo,  out  on  the  Charleston  railroad,  which  fell  in  conse- 
quence, and  next  our  company  was  at  the  burning  of  Columbia, 
then  Cheraw,  Fayetteville,  Bentonville  and  Goldsborough  were 
taken,  and  after  a  few  daj^s'  rest,  waiting  for  our  absent  men  to 
come  up,  a  forced  march  brought  us  to  Raleigh. 

"When  Captain  Whipple,  who  had  been  sent  home  sick,  re- 
joined us,  how  glad  we  were  to  see  him.  Here  the  war  virtually 
closed.  The  fighting  was  over,  but  we  were  a  long  way  from  home, 
but  marching  was  easy  now,  for  every  day  brought  us  nearer  to 
our  loved  ones  there.  On  to  Petersburg,  Richmond  and  Wash- 
ington, where  on  the  twenty-third  of  May,  we  took  part  in  the 
grandest  pageant  ever  seen  in  America,  the  grand  review;  Mrs. 
Sherman  throwing  bouquets  at  our  tattered  and  worn  colors.  We 
were  soon  transferred  to  Louisville,  Ky.,  where,  on  the  fourth  day 
of  July,  1865,  General  Sherman  took  a  final  farewell  of  us,  and 
a  few  days  after  we  were  mustered  out,  sent  to  Madison,  received 
our  final  pay  and  discharged  on  August  21,  1865,  and  with  light 
hearts  started  for  home,  never  more,  it  is  hoped,  to  be  called 
to  take  up  arms  for  our  beloved  country  against  internal  foes." 

On  the  roster  of  Captain  Whipple's  company  will  be  found  the 
name  of  John  C.  Barland,  who  furnished  to  the  Telegram  the  fol- 
lowing reminiscences  of  that  company. 

J.  C.  Barland,  on  request  of  the  editor  of  the  Telegram,  fur- 
nished an  article  on  the  late  war,  says,  "to  give  a  comrade's  recol- 


lection  of  the  old  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  volunteers  should  have  some 
response.  The  pressure  of  circumstances  makes  it  difficult  for 
me  to  do  so  just  now.  Still  I  would  fain  offer  something,  for 
when  is  not  a  tribute  due  to  those  gallant  men?  Through  the 
dimming  mists  of  fifty  years  again  they  come  before  my  vision. 

■'I  see  them  muster  in  a  gleaming  row, 

"With  ever  youthful  brows  that  nobler  show, 

We  find  in  our  dull  road  their  shining  track, 
In  every  nobler  mood, 

We  feel  the  orient  of  their  spirits  glow. 
Part  of  our  life's  unalterable  good — 

Of  all  our  saintlier  aspiration." 

Company  G,  the  first  to  go,  enrolled  some  of  the  choicest  spirits 
that  Eau  Claire  could  give.  I  cannot  stop  to  enumerate.  Of  one 
I  will  speak.  John  Kelly ;  rough,  yes  rough,  but  a  diamond  in 
the  rough.  Years  later,  when  asked,  "Do  you  receive  a  pension?" 
his  answer :  "John,  why  should  I  receive  a  pension  ?  I  was  a  bet- 
ter man  physically,  morally  and  mentally  when  I  came  out  than 
when  I  went  in."  This  was  true.  He  was  a  growing  man  to 
the  last  day  of  his  life,  and  no  finer  thing  can  be  said  of  any  man. 

In  the  fall  of  '63,  while  Vicksburg  and  Gettysburg  still  echoed 
in  our  ears.  Company  H  enlisted  and  later  joined  the  Sixteenth 
at  Vicksburg.  Of  that  company,  Eau  Claire  may  be  proud.  There 
were  Whipple  and  Tinker  and  Allen,  so  finely  identified  with  the 
early  history  of  Eau  Claire,  all  worthy  of  mention  if  these  limits 
permitted.  Only  a  few  remain — Merton  of  Bloomer,  a  good  sol- 
dier, and  most  worthy  man,  and  Cleghorn  of  Eau  Claire,  splendid 
soldier,  good  citizen,  who  gave  of  his  best  to  his  country  and  the 
little  valley  that  bears  his  name. 

From  the  miasmas  and  sickness  of  the  Mississippi  valley  the 
early  spring  of  '64  found  us  at  Huntsville,  Alabama,  after  a  series 
of  arduous  marches  to  join  Sherman  for  the  capture  of  Atlanta. 
It  was  a  grewsome  sight,  that  Sunday  afternoon,  when  we  arrived 
at  Huntsville  after  a  long  forced  march.  The  beautiful  stream 
that  bubbles  up  from  a  great  spring  in  the  heart  of  Huntsville 
was  lined  with  our  boys,  their  shirts  in  their  hands  picking  off 
the  greybacks,  and  washing  in  the  stream.  From  Huntsville 
throiigh  an  enemy's  country,  400  miles  of  forced  marching  and 
fighting  to  our  goal,  Atlanta.  On  the  long  march,  unable  to  obtain 
supplies,  many  a  soldier  had  to  go  barefoot.  Such  was  the 
writer's  fate,  who  was  known  as  the  barefoot  corporal.  It  was 
near  the  base  Kenesaw  that  we  joined  Sherman.     It  was  here 


1hat  Company  II  received  its  baptism  of  fire.  For  hours  we  had 
marched  to  the  deepening  sound  of  artillery.  At  first  only  a  throb 
on  the  air,  and  then,  nearer  and  clearer  and  still  clearer.  A 
strange  silence  stole  over  the  men,  and  Captain  Whipple,  march- 
ing at  our  side  said:  "Well  boys,  that  is  what  we  have  been 
marching  so  long  for  to  find  at  last,"  And  next  the  order  to  file 
right  into  line,  and  now  the  bullets  are  whistling  in  our  ears  and 
the  shells  from  Kenesaw  are  bursting  in  our  midst. 

The  great  struggle  for  Atlanta  was  on.  It  lasted  through  all 
those  long,  hot  summer  mouths.  These  limits  will  only  permit  of 
a  glimpse.  There  was  a  constant  roar  of  battle,  day  and  night, 
upon  some  part  of  our  line,  swelling  now  into  the  assault  upon 
Kenesaw,  where  we  were  repulsed,  now  upon  Lost  Mountain,  or 
South  Mountain,  which  stood  like  sentinels  between  us  and  At- 
lanta, or  again  at  Peachtree  Creek,  on  the  twenty-second  of  July, 
when  Hood  flung  himself  upon  us  in  the  madness  of  desperation. 
It  was  here  that  the  Sixteenth  Wisconsin,  of  all  its  memorable 
conflicts,  distinguished  itself  the  most.  Hood's  veterans  had 
fiercely  attacked  our  left  wing  in  hope  of  turning  it,  and  largely 
it  was  the  determination  of  the  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  which  pre- 
vented this.  If  Hood  could  have  turned  our  flauk  at  that  time 
he  Avould  have  won  a  vast  prize,  for  there,  on  our  left  flank,  were 
massed  the  wagon  trains  of  our  army.  It  was  the  fortune  of 
the  writer  at  that  time  to  be  detailed  to  guard  the  wagon  train. 
Five  hundred  six-mule  wagons  were  massed  not  three  miles  from 
Decatur.  Hood,  for  the  moment,  had  turned  our  flank  and  was 
sweeping  down  upon  our  train.  The  wagon  fled  in  a  furious  panic 
to  form  behind  the  center.  The  train  guards  were  deployed  in  a 
thin  skirmish  line  to  hold  Hood  in  check.  It  was  here  the  Six- 
teenth, with  others,  saved  the  day,  and  Hood  was  turned  back. 
It  was  this  incident  that  enabled  the  writer  to  speak  intelligently 
of  that  field.  As  we  passed  down  the  lines  to  rejoin  our  train, 
behind  the  center,  we  passed  the  Sixteenth  where  they  lay  in  the 
midst  of  the  carnage  that  had  been  wrought.  There  were  the 
dead  rebels  as  thick  as  leaves,  right  up  to  the  very  foot  of  the 
Sixteenth's  lines.  As  we  passed  down  the  lines  there  were  Icmg 
rows  of  our  own  dead  and  wounded,  and  further  on,  younij:  .Mc- 
Pherson,  the  brave  commander  of  our  own  army  of  the  Tennessee, 
lay  still  in  death. 

It  was  only  a  few  days  later  that,  assaying  to  go  to  the  regi- 
ment which  lay  beyond  a  little  wood  and  down  an  open  slope,  that 
I  ran  across  Willard  Bartlett,  a  member  of  Company  G.  He  was 
cooking  at  a  fire.    I  knew  him  to  be  a  good  soldier,  and  I  said  to 


him,  "How  is  this,  "Willard?"  "Well,"  he  said,  "I  have  only 
three  days  more  to  get  my  discharge  and  I  prevailed  on  the  offi- 
cers to  let  me  cook,  so  I  might  have  a  chance  to  get  through." 
The  writer  passed  on  through  the  wood  to  the  open  slope.  Though 
I  knew  that  the  regiment  lay  not  forty  rods  away,  not  a  sign 
of  them  was  visible.  No  enemy  was  in  sight.  The  stillness  of  death 
hung  over  the  little  valley.  As  I  emerged  from  the  woods  the 
sharpshooters  in  the  trees  beyond  got  a  line  upon  me.  The  bul- 
lets flew  thick  and  fast.  You  may  be  sure  I  walked  pretty  fast. 
Though  I  did  not  like  to  have  the  Sixteenth  see  me  run,  when  I 
got  within  ten  rods  of  the  ditch  I  heard  Ed  Allen's  voice  calling: 
"Run,  John,  why  don't  you  run?"  Iran.  "Why,"  said  Ed,  who 
was  down  in  the  ditch  almost  out  of  sight,  "it's  not  safe  to  show 
your  head.  The  rebs  are  only  ten  rods  away  in  another  ditch." 
I  stayed  curled  up  in  the  bottom  of  the  narrow  ditch  till  it  was 
dark  and  then  I  returned  to  my  train,  but  I  stopped  on  my  way  to 
see  Willard  Bartlett.  They  told  me  he  had  been  shot  soon  after 
I  had  left  him;  slain  doubtless  by  one  of  the  bullets  aimed  at 
myself.  I  give  this  incident  that  yovi  may  .iust  get  a  glimpse  of 
this  terrible  conflict." 

Note:  The  Willard  W.  Bartlett  referred  to  was  a  brother  of 
Hon.  William  P.  Bartlett  of  this  city. 

Editor  Daily  Telegram. — We  take  up  today  the  story  of  an- 
other company  from  Eau  Claire  county.  The  town  of  Pleasant 
Valley  seems  to  deserve  a  considerable  share  of  credit  for  this 
company,  which  later  became  Company  K  of  the  Thirty-sixth 
Wisconsin  infantry.  I  furnish  you  a  picture  of  Capt.  Warren 
Graves,  who  died  near  Petersburg,  Va. 

The  first  reference  in  the  press  to  this  new  company  for  the 
Thirty-sixth  regiment  is  tlie  following: 

(Free  Press,  March  3,  1864.) 
The  work  of  recruiting  goes  on  in  a  satisfactory  manner,  and 
at  the  present  rate  men  are  coming  forward  it  is  confidently  ex- 
pected the  towns  of  Lincoln,  Bridge  Creek  and  Brunswick  will 
yet  raise  their  quota  prior  to  the  draft.  Eau  Claire  county  has 
made  a  record  which  shines  too  brightly  to  be  dimmed  by  failure 
to  respond  to  the  demands  of  the  hour,  and  some  of  her  sons  have 
helped  to  make  the  grand  old  state  of  which  we  are  proud  to  be 
the  children,  a  synonym  for  all  that  is  manly,  courageous  and 
brave.  Since  Friday  last  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  men  have 
enlisted  to  fill  various  quotas  for  this  and  adjoining  counties,  and 
the  new  company  now  being  raised  for  the  Thirty-sixth  Regiment. 


The  town  and  county  have  already  furnished  a  large  amount  to 
avoid  conscription  and  are  ready  to  make  further  advances  in  the 
same  direction,  if  the  men  will  come  forward.  The  enthusiasm 
is  at  fever  heat  in  this  county,  and  the  boys  are  determined  to 
close  up  this  rebellion  before  another  summer. 

Before  the  end  of  the  mouth  the  ranks  were  filled  and  the  com- 
pany left  for  the  front. 

A  week  later  further  mention  is  made  as  follows: 

(Free  Press,  March  24,  1864.) 

One  week  ago  last  Monday,  amid  general  enthusiastic  rejoicing 
and  well  wishes  from  those  they  left  behind,  the  volunteers  of  the 
new  company  for  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  numbering  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  men,  left  this  place  for  Jladison,  where  they  are 
to  be  mustered  into  service.  As  we  glanced  at  the  many  familiar 
friends  leaving  to  share  the  uncertainties  of  war,  one  could  not 
help  noticing  the  large  number  of  "Old  Pioneers"'  in  the  ranks 
on  whose  countenance  age  had  already  deeply  stamped  its  never 
failing  mark.  They  have  proven  their  deep  patriotism  by  enlist- 
ing side  by  side  Avith  younger  companions,  to  assist  in  quelling 
this  unholy  rebellion,  which  speedily  must  have  a  termination.  In 
the  ranks  were  to  be  seen  men  whose  "silvery  locks"  told  that 
mau.\-  siiiniiicrs  had  passed  over  them,  beside  the  beardless  youth 
will  ISC  :!  II  lent  desire  to  serve  his  country  knows  no  bounds ;  all  leav- 
ing Avith  many  blessings  and  fervent  wishes  for  their  safe  journey 
through  scenes  which  they  may  be  called  to  pass,  and  for  their 
speedy  return  home  when  duties  are  discharged.  Although  re- 
cruiting for  the  company  onh'  commenced  four  weeks  ago,  it 
raised  its  maximum  number  in  much  less  time ;  and  in  general  ap- 
pearance will  compare  with  any  other  company  raised  in  this  sec- 
tion. A  number  of  the  volunteers  are  residents  of  Chippewa  and 
Buffalo  counties,  all  stout,  well  built,  rugged  looking  fellows,  as 
if  inured  to  the  privations,  hardships  and  exposures  of  outdoor 
life.  The  company  is  yet  unorganized,  having  expressed  a  wish  to 
leave  the  selection  of  officers  until  they  reach  the  place  of  destina- 
tion, where  they  will  be  assigned  to  the  Thirty-sixth  Regiment. 

The  announcement  of  the  election  of  captain  and  first  lieu- 
tenant is  given  two  weeks  later. 

(Free  Press,  April  7,  1864.) 
We  understand  that  the  new  company  recently  raised  here  for 
the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  has  selected  W.  Graves  for  captain  and 
E.  A.  Galloway  for  first  lieutenant.    Both  of  these  men  are  quali- 


fied  to  discharge  the  perplexing  duties  of  their  offices  in  a  credit- 
able manner.  Charles  H.  Witherow,  late  of  the  Twenty-fifth  Regi- 
ment, took  six  or  eight  new  recruits  with  him  last  M'eek  to 

I  have  found  no  satisfactory  account  of  the  service  of  the 
Graves  company.  Thomas  Randall,  in  his  history  of  the  Chippewa 
Valley  devotes  a  small  amount  of  space  to  it,  but  his  statements 
are  not  altogether  accurate.  The  following  is  taken  from  his 
book  :  ' '  Company  K,  Thirty-sixth  Regiment,  was  recruited  under 
the  call  of  the  President  for  five  hundred  thousand  men,  in  Feb- 
ruary and  March,  1864,  through  the  efforts  of  Capt.  Warren 
Graves  and  Lieut.  E.  A.  Galloway  and  Joseph  R.  Ellis,  all  of 
Pleasant  Valley,  in  this  county,  and  nearly  all  the  men  were 
from  the  country  towns  in  Eau  Claire,  Chippewa  and  Dunn  coun- 
ties. It  was  a  brave  and  hardy  company  of  men,  but  the  regiment 
was  the  most  unfortunate  of  any  that  left  this  state,  and  of  the 
eighty-eight  men  in  Captain  Graves'  company,  only  one  returned 
unscathed.  W.  W.  Crandall,  of  LaFayette,  Chippewa  coimty,  was 
neither  sick,  wounded  nor  taken  prisoner  while  every  other  man  in 
the  company  was  either  killed,  woimded,  taken  prisoner  or  sent  to 
hospital.  Captain  Graves  was  wounded,  sent  to  hospital  and  died. 
Lieutenant  Galloway  was  killed  while  leading  an  assault  on  the 
enemy's  works.  Many  were  taken  prisoners  in  the  deep  railroad 
cut  south  of  Petersburg,  and  suffered  horrors  a  thousand  times 
worse  than  death  in  rebel  prisons,  and  many  painful  circumstances 
grew  out  of  the  long  suspense  and  almost  hopeless  uncertainty  as 
to  their  fate." 

The  number  in  the  company  was  considerably  larger  than 
stated  by  Mr.  Randall.  The  Free  Press  states  that  120  joined, 
but  some  of  these  must  have  failed  to  muster  in.  The  official  roll 
shows  102  names.  Captain  Graves  did  not  die  of  wounds  and  was 
not  wounded,  but  died  from  heat  and  overexertion  during  an  en- 
gagement. There  is  no  such  name  as  W.  W.  Crandall  given  on 
the  official  muster  roll.  There  was  a  David  Crandall,  from  Red 
Cedar,  but  this  Crandall  was  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor.  Although 
this  company  unquestionably  was  fearfully  decimated  by  death, 
wounds  and  prisoners  taken,  yet  it  is  too  strong  a  statement  to 
say  that  only  one  returned  unscathed.  Of  course,  there  is  no 
means  of  telling  how  many  liave  temporarily  been  sick  and  in  hos- 
pitals, but  I  find  over  20  names  of  those  who  were  mustered  out 
at  the  time  of  the  general  mustering  out  of  the  company  on  the 
twelfth  of  July,  1865,  and  a  considerable  number  more  who  were 
mustered  out  a  few  weeks  earlier. 


I  give  below  the  names  of  all  in  this  company  who  enlisted 
from  Eau  Claire,  Chippewa  and  Dunn  counties.  As  stated  in  the 
Free  Press,  quite  a  number  in  this  company  were  from  Buffalo 
county.  I  also  give  a  summary  made  up  from  the  official  roster 
showing  the  fate  of  members  of  the  company. 


Capt.  Warren  Graves. 

Capt.  Joseph  R.  Ellis. 

First  Lieut.  Elias  A.  Galloway. 

First  Lieut.  Henry  D.  Sehaefer. 

^  "cU^  ENLISTED  MEN. 

J^es  F.  Allen,  Nathaniel  II.  Benner,  ilatthew  Bittler,  Mor- 
timer R.  Brown,  Richard  Burpee,  Henry  W.  Butler,  Marion  J. 
Cable,  George  W.  Campbell,  Ransler  Cogswell,  John  Cunningham, 
Seymour  Donaldson,  Wilbur  I.  Ellis,  Elias  L.  Fidler,  John  Hill, 
Walter  L.  Hobbs,  William  Hutchinson.  George  Kocher,  John  Mc- 
Laughlin, Edward  J.  Nolan,  Patrick  O'Donohue.  Martin  Oppelt, 
Lars  Pederson,  Edward  Reed,  Even  Thorsen,  Running  Tollefsen, 
Melvin  Winslow. 


Albert  B.  Adams,  Nelson  C.  Bates,  Demas  Besette,  Nathaniel 
G.  Calkins,  Frederick  S.  Capron,  Joseph  D.  Cooper,  Charles  Corbin, 
Ambrose  Corbin,  Anthony  P.  R.  Dahl,  Charles  Ermatiuger,  Alex- 
ander Gokee,  Stephen  S.  McCann,  Arthur  J.  McCann,  Jordan  J. 
McCann,  Columbus  Miller,  Lewis  Pratt,  John  S.  Rains,  Adolph 
Rodemacher,  Albert  H.  Shipman,  Perry  Sowles,  Peter  Stnmm, 
John  Thomas,  George  P.  Warren. 


William  Butterfield,  Bernt  Chi'istophersoii,  William  W.  Chapel, 
Jordan  Coleman,  David  Crandall,  Orson  T.  Crosby,  Almon  A. 
Curtis,  David  C.  Fayerweather,  Johnson  Graham,  Marshall  M. 
Granger,  Lars  Johnson,  John  Johnson,  Oliver  Johnson,  John  T. 
Laforge,  Martin  Larson,  Phillip  Lee,  Michael  W.  Shafer,  Ileni'y 
Sippel,  Nathan  Skeel,  Engebret  Sorenson,  Harold  T.  E.  Tillerson, 
Henry  Wright. 

Killed  in  action,  5;  died  from  wounds,  10;  died  from  disease, 
7  ;  taken  prisoners,  23. 


In  addition  to  the  above  a  large  number  were  wounded  and 
some  of  them  discharged  on  account  of  wounds. 

Of  the  23  taken  prisoners,  no  less  than  9  died  in  prison. 


Among  the  members  of  this  company  and  who  was  also  taken 
prisoner,  was  James  P.  Allen,  a  brother  of  C.  L.  Allen,  of  this  city, 
and  now  a  resident  of  Plorida.  At  my  request  C.  L.  Allen  wrote 
to  liis  brother  in  Plorida  asking  him  if  he  would  write  something 
concerning  his  experience.  I  am  allowed  to  quote  his  reply,  which 
was  as  follows : 

•'De  Land,  Plorida,  July  13,  1911. — In  regard  to  writing  an 
article  for  publication  of  my  war  experiences.  Now  my  actual 
war  experience,  outside  of  my  prison  experience,  was  very  limited 
and  covered  a  period  of  about  thirty  days,  while  in  that  time 
there  was  war  enough  to  satisfy  the  most  valorous  spirits,  for  the 
length  of  time  at  least,  it  was  too  short  a  time  on  which  to  build 
a  readable  story  unless  supplemented  by  the  imagination,  and  you 
know  I  am  short  on  that  quality. 

"And  when  it  comes  to  my  prison  experience,  that  is  anotlier 
matter  entirely.  It  is  a  subject  I  don't  like  to  think  about, 
much  less  talk  about  and  have  been  for  forty-six  years  trying  to 
forget  all  my  prison  life  and  its  attendant  horrors,  and  now  to 
deliberately  sit  down  and  write  about  those  terrible  days,  weeks 
and  months  (I  was  in  the  different  so-called  prisons  ten  and  a 
half  months)  is  more  than  I  care  to  do,  even  if  I  thought  I  could 
write  an  interesting  letter,  which  I  can't.  I  am  very  much  inter- 
ested in  the  old  war  time  letters  being  printed,  with  Ed's  and 
Uncle  Bill'sT^nd  others. "  .'j  >  "   •"- 

S.  S.  McCann. — Among  tlie  names  of  those  from  Chippewa 
county  we  find  the  name  of  tliat  old  pioneer  Stephen  S.  McCann. 
It  was  he  who  with  Jeremiah  Thomas  began  the  first  lumbering 
operations  in  Eau  Claire,  in  the  middle  forties.  At  the  time  of 
his  enlistment  he  must  have  been  quite  an  old  man, 

A  son  of  Captain  Graves,  Wilbur  Graves,  is  living  in  tliis  city 
and  is  head  engineer  at  the  paper  mill.  The  widow  of  Captain 
Graves,  now  Mrs.  Cleasby,  is  also  now  in  the  city.  In  response 
to  a  request  I  have  received  from  the  family  the  following  brief 
account  of  Captain  Graves.  It  was  also  from  them  that  I  obtained 
the  excellent  picture  of  the  captain,  which  I  am  furnishing  you 
todav  with  the  other  material. 


Capt.  Warren  Graves,  Company  "K,"  Thirty-sixth  Wisconsin 
Volunteers,  recruited  his  own  company;  was  commissioned  in 
March,  1864;  mustered  into  the  service  by  Lieut.  J.  H.  Purcell. 

Spent  two  weeks  in  Madison,  Wisconsin,  drilling  liis  company. 
From  Madisou,  Captain  Graves  was  ordered  to  Washington  and 
on  arriving  there  was  ordered  to  join  his  regiment  in  Virginia, 
which  at  that  time  was  the  active  seat  of  war. 

Here  Captain  Graves  and  his  men  took  part  in  tlie  "Battle  of 
the  Wilderness,"  in  which  the  Union  loss  was  very  severe.  From 
May  5  to  June  15,  1864,  Captain  Graves  took  part  in  one  battle 
after  another  in  rapid  succession. 

It  was  during  this  time  that  in  a  letter  to  his  wife  Captain 
Graves  spoke  in  reference  to  this  sis  weeks'  steady  work  against 
the  rebels.    The  following  is  the  substance  of  the  letter : 

He  said  he  had  been  engaged  with  the  enemy  all  night  and  had 
just  come  into  camp  for  breakfast  and  sleep  when  he  and  his 
men  were  called  out  for  dutj'  again.  These  six  weeks  of  con- 
tinuous duty  weakened  him  physically  and  during  the  months  of 
July  and  migust  made  many  long  marches.  On  the  fourteenth 
day  of  August  Captain  Graves  went  into  battle  after  having 
made  a  long  and  severe  march.  During  the  heat  of  the  battle 
Captain  Graves  suffered  a  sun-stroke  and  was  taken  off  the  field. 
(During  this  battle  the  greater  share  of  his  company  were  taken 
prisoners.)  Captain  Graves  was  removed  to  a  hospital  at  Peters- 
burg and  there  passed  away  the  twenty-ninth  of  August,  1864. 

September  1,  1914. 
Since  the  series  of  Civil  War  articles  was  published  in 
the  Telegram  in  1911,  I  have  been  fortunate  enough  to  find 
a  survivor  of  Captain  Graves'  Company  K,  of  the  Thirty- 
sixth  Wisconsin,  and  have  obtained  from  him  his  story  of 
the  company  and  regiment.  Corporal  Henry  W.  Butler  is 
still  living,  in  the  town  of  Washington,  a  hale  and  hearty 
veteran.  Although  lacking  but  a  few  weeks  of  being  eighty- 
eight  years  of  age,  he  appears  much  younger,  and  it  is  a 
common  occurrence  for  him  to  walk  the  four  miles  from 
his  farm  home  to  the  city,  and  if  necessary,  walk  home 


I  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  the  fall  of  1855.  My  former 
home  was  in  Hartford,  Dodge  county,  but  wishing  to  make 
a  change  I,  with  several  others,  started  out  to  seek  a  new 


location.  "We  first  went  into  Iowa,  and  when  at  a  point 
on  the  river  near  Dubuque  we  met  the  veteran  lumberman, 
William  Carson,  then  in  business  at  Eau  Galle.  Mr.  Carson 
was  on  a  trip  purchasing  horses  and  oxen  for  the  pineries. 
Learning  that  we  were  planning  to  come  up  this  way  he 
said:  "Boys,  if  you  will  help  me  take  care  of  this  stock 
on  the  way  up  to  Eau  Galle,  I  will  stand  your  expenses, 
also  keep  you  over  Sunday  at  Eau  Galle,  and  furnish  you 
provisions  for  your  trip  from  there  to  Eau  Claire."  We 
accepted  the  offer.  The  trip  from  Eau  Galle  to  Eau  Claire 
was  made  on  foot.  Read  and  Gage's  small  saw  mill  and 
boarding  house  were  the  only  buildings  on  the  east  side. 
There  was  a  stage  line  from  Madison  to  St.  Paul  running 
through  the  place,  and  there  was  a  barn  on  the  west  bank. 
There  was  no  bridge  or  ferry,  but  the  stage  drivers  would 
put  their  horses  in  this  barn,  then  load  the  stage  or  wagons 
on  a  raft  and  pole  across  the  river.  Arriving  at  the  bank 
about  dark  we  hallooed  across  to  Jim  Read,  who  came  over 
with  a  raft  and  took  us  to  the  east  side. 

The  land  down  on  the  bottoms  near  what  was  later  Por- 
ter's mills,  was  open  to  homestead  entry  and  we  made  a 
trip  down  there.  Shortly  before  there  had  been  a  flood,  and 
saw  logs  and  drift  wood  were  scattered  all  over  the  bottoms 
or  found  hanging  up  in  trees.  We  wanted  none  of  that. 
At  Jim  Read's  place  I  met  a  man  who  said  he  had  a  farm 
for  sale,  four  miles  out,  two  hundred  and  twenty-five 
acres,  twenty  acres  broke,  with  a  log  house  and  log  barn — 
price  seven  hundred  dollars.  I  went  out  to  see  it  and 
bought  the  place,  which  has  since  been  my  home. 

Chippewa  Falls  was  then  the  county  seat,  and  it  was  to 
that  place  that  I  went  to  have  the  papers  made  out. 

I  was  married  and  had  two  children,  my  wife  and  chil- 
being  still  in  Dodge  county.  Returning  there  I  remained 
until  March,  when,  with  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  sleighs,  with 
a  prairie  schooner  top  and  a  stove,  we  made  the  trip  to  Eau 
Claire,  and  it  was  not  such  a  very  long  trip  either,  con- 
sidering the  mode  of  travel.  My  oxen  were  young  and 
active,  and  we  made  the  distance,  about  175  miles,  in  seven 
days,  keeping  along  with  horse  teams  that  were  making 
the  same  trip. 

The  Barland,  Cook,  Wyman  and  Robbins  families  were 
the  only  farmers  in  this  vicinity.  Sparta  was  our  nearest 
trading  point,  and  it  required  from  five  to  six  days  to  take 


out  grain  there  and  bring  back  a  load  of  supplies.  The  land 
was  new,  and  produced  heavy  crops  of  wheat  and  other 
grains,  and  prices  were  high.  We  got  $2.00  for  wheat, 
$1.75  for  oats  and  $1.00  for  potatoes.  Our  nearest  grist 
mill  was  Duncan's,  on  Duncan  creek,  at  Chippewa  Falls.  I 
helped  to  haul  in  the  mill  stones  for  the  Peter  Daniel's 
grist  mill,  which  was  later  built  on  Lows  creek,  a  few  miles 
below  my  place,  and  about  a  mile  above  the  present  Com- 
ing's or  "Silver  Springs"  farm. 

Game  was  plentiful,  and  although  not  a  hunter,  I  would 
occasionally  shoot  a  deer.  They  had  a  runway  to  the  creek 
near  my  place.  Bear  and  wolves  were  also  plentiful,  the 
wolves  especially  doing  considerable  damage  to  stock. 
Lows  creek  was  a  good  trout  stream  in  those  days. 

In  the  spring  of  1864  a  company  was  recruited  for  the 
Civil  War,  the  recruits  coming  largely  from  the  farmers 
ia  our  neighborhood,  and  in  Pleasant  Valley.  I  enlisted 
with  the  others.  Our  captain  was  Warren  Graves,  a 
Methodist  minister,  who  had  lived  in  Pleasant  Valley  and 
had  been  preaching  at  different  points  in  that  vicinity.  He 
was  an  excellent  man,  kind  and  considerate  to  the  members 
of  his  company,  and  generally  highly  esteemed. 

We  left  Eau  Claire  about  the  fifteenth  of  March  for 
Camp  Randall,  and  left  there  on  the  tenth  of  May  for  Wash- 
ington. We  remained  in  Washington  only  one  night,  and 
on  the  fourteenth  took  boat  for  Belle  Plains  Landing.  After 
a  half  day  on  the  boat  and  a  day's  march,  we  arrived  at 
Fredericksburg.  Just  before  our  arrival  a  New  York  regi- 
ment had  been  sent  out  against  some  Confederate  bush- 
wackers  who  had  made  a  raid  and  captured  several  carloads 
of  ham  and  hardtack.  Being  met  with  a  brisk  fire  from  the 
enemy,  the  New  Yorker's  came  running  back,  claiming  that 
the  enemy  were  in  greatly  superior  force.  We  were  just 
cooking  our  supper  coffee  when  the  order  came  to  fall 
in,  and  turn  back  the  demoralized  New  Yorkers,  also  to  at- 
tack the  enemy.  We  were  entirely  successful  in  both,  also 
recaptured  the  provisions.  The  battle  of  the  Wilderness 
was  practically  over.  From  Fredericksburg  we  marched 
to  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  arriving  there  on  the  sev- 
enteenth, where  on  the  day  following  we  were  held  in  re- 
serve, and  did  not  get  into  action  in  that  battle. 

It  was  on  the  nineteenth,  at  Spottsylvania  Court  House, 
that  our  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  was  made  a  part  of  the 


First  Brigade,  Second  Division,  Second  Corps  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac.  In  regimental  histories  that  liave  been 
piiblished,  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania  Court  House  is  given 
as  the  first  engagement  in  which  our  regiment  Avas  present, 
but  this  is  a  mistake,  as  we  had  already  talcen  part  in  the 
affair  at  Fredericksburg,  as  noted  above. 

On  the  twentieth  our  entire  Second  Corps  under  Geneial 
Hancock,  marched  toward  the  North  Anna.  On  our  way  we 
came  to  a  Confederate  fortification.  Hastily  throwing  up 
some  breastworks  for  ourselves,  we  lay  on  our  arms  until 
two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  the  order  was  given  to 
charge  the  enemy's  works.  Rushing  over  their  breastworks, 
we  found  the  enemy  had  already  departed,  leaving  only  a 
few  pickets  to  give  the  appearance  of  occupation. 

The  battle  of  North  Anna  began  on  the  twenty-third. 
On  the  twenty-sixth  Company  H  and  Company  K  were  or- 
dered to  charge  a  line  of  rebel  works,  which  we  took.  Our 
loss  was  two  men  killed,  twelve  Avouuded  and  one  taken 
prisoner.  Both  the  men  killed  Avere  from  Company  H.  The 
pioneer  lumberman,  Stephen  S.  McCann,  Avas  a  member  of 
our  company,  and  was  Avounded  in  this  engagement. 

From  North  Anna  Ave  marched  to  Cold  Harbor,  arriving 
there  on  the  morning  of  the  second  of  June,  and  on  the 
folloAviug  morning  the  brigade  charged  the  enemy's  works. 
Although  starting  out  in  the  rear  of  the  brigade,  by  a  shift- 
ing about  of  the  troops  Avhen  near  the  rebel  intrenchments, 
our  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  Avas  in  the  lead.  Just  at  this  time 
Colonel  McKean,  brigade  commander,  Avas  killed,  and 
Colonel  Haskell,  of  our  regiment,  took  command.  Our  lines 
were  swept  by  a  fierce  fire  from  the  enemy,  and  just  as 
Colonel  Haskell  had  given  an  order  for  the  men  to  lie  down, 
a  bullet  struck  him  in  the  head  and  he  Avas  instantly  killed. 
His  death  Avas  deeply  felt  in  our  regiment  and  in  the  bri- 
gade. Although  only  a  young  man,  he  Avas  a  thorough  sol- 
dier and  a  first  class  officer.  While  in  the  act  of  putting  a 
cartridge  into  my  musket  I  Avas  shot  in  the  hand,  shattering 
the  bone.  Although  left  Avith  a  permanently  crippled  hand, 
I  was  much  more  fortunate  than  my  comrade,  Biesecker, 
who  stood  just  back  of  me,  as  the  same  bullet  that  crippled 
my  hand  struck  him  in  the  hip,  Avounding  him  so  severely 
that  he  died  a  feAV  Aveeks  later.  Our  loss  Avas  heavy,  much 
more  so  than  that  of  the  enemy.  We  remained  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  Cold  Harbor  until  the  tAvelfth,  Avhen  Ave  advanced 


toward  Petersburg.  The  day  after  we  left  Cold  Harbor 
some  half  dozen  of  our  company  were  left  behind  and  while 
hurrying  along  to  overtake  the  company  were  captured 
by  a  band  of  rebel  guerillas.  One  of  those  taken  prisoner 
was  James  F.  Allen,  of  Eau  Claire,  or  Fred  Allen,  as  he  was 
called  by  his  friends.  He  was  a  son  of  James  Allen,  who 
for  many  years  had  charge  of  the  rafting  of  lumber  for 
Ingram  &  Kennedy,  and  their  successor,  the  Empire  Lumber 

Although  my  crippled  hand  made  it  impossible  for  me  to 
serve  in  the  ranks,  I  did  not  wish  to  be  separated  from  my 
company,  so  asked  and  obtained  permission  to  do  duty  at 
regimental  headquarters.  This  I  continued  to  do  until  mus- 
tered out  at  the  close  of  the  war. 

We  reached  the  vicinity  of  Petersburg  on  the  fifteenth  of 
June  and  the  day  following  occupied  the  first  line  of  the 
enemy's  works.  On  the  seventeenth  our  regiment  was  held 
in  reserve.  On  the  eighteenth  we  charged  and  drove  the 
enemy  from  their  second  and  heavier  works,  following  them 
through  dense  Avoods  to  an  open  field  on  the  opposite  side 
of  which  were  their  main  defenses.  It  was  while  charging  *~^\  /^c{^ 
through  these  woods  that  Lieutenant  Galloway,  of  our  com- 
pany, was  killed.  He  enlisted  from  Chippewa  Falls,  and 
was  a  thoroughly  good  and  efficient  officer.  In  the  after- 
noon our  regiment  charged  across  the  open  ground  and  our 
Colonel  Savage,  who  had  succeeded  Colonel  Haskell,  was 
mortally  wounded  as  he  was  climbing  over  the  enemy's 
breastworks.  In  this  charge  our  regiment  lost  nearly  one- 
third  of  its  numbers  in  killed  and  wounded.  As  it  seemed 
certain  death  to  either  advance  or  withdraw,  the  survivors 
of  our  regiment  lay  down  on  the  ground  and  by  scooping 
holes  in  the  soft  ground  got  what  protection  they  could 
iintil  darkness  allowed  them  to  leave  the  field.  In  the 
skirmishing  around  Petersburg  our  entire  first  brigade  on 
the  twenty-second  was  flanked  by  the  enemy  and  nearly 
one-half  of  its  members  captured.  Througli  the  skill  of  our 
officers  the  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  changed  front  and  es- 
caped capture,  but  lost  several  killed  and  wounded. 

Our  troops  were  then  moved  back  some  distance,  where 
we  went  into  camp  and  remained  several  weeks. 

The  colonel  of  a  Pennsylvania  regiment  from  the  min- 
ing district  had  proposed  an  underground  mine  under  the 
enemy's  works  to  blow  up  their  fortifications  and  aid  in 


the  capture  of  Petersburg.  General  Graut  had  sanctioned 
the  plan  and  by  the  latter  part  of  July  everything  was  in 
readiness  for  the  explosion.  In  order  to  divert  the  enemy, 
Grant  marched  a  part  of  the  troops,  including  our  regiment, 
to  another  plane  and  made  a  demonstration,  then  quietly 
brought  us  around  in  front  of  the  fortifications  to  witness 
the  setting  off  of  the  mine.  This  took  place  on  the  thirtieth 
of  July.  It  was  an  awful  sight,  even  to  us  who  had  seen 
considerable  of  the  horrors  of  war.  I  did  not  want  to 
look.  Mangled  bodies  of  men,  flying  timbers  and  earth  rose 
into  the  air  as  from  a  volcano.  You  know  the  result.  It 
was  a  failure.  On  account  of  delay  in  getting  troops 
across  the  pit,  or  crater,  the  enemy  had  time  to  rallj'. 
Many  of  our  own  troops  met  their  death  in  trying  to  cross, 
and  Petersburg  was  not  taken. 

The  Weldon  railroad,  running  south  from  Petersburg, 
was  of  extreme  importance  to  the  enemy,  and  Grant  was 
determined  on  its  capture.  One  force,  including  oiir  regi- 
ment, were  sent  north  of  the  James  river  to  threaten  Rich- 
mond, while  another  was  sent  south  of  Petersburg  to  cap- 
ture the  railroad  already  mentioned.  "We  met  the  enemy 
on  the  fourteenth  and  had  a  severe  engagement,  our  regi- 
ment loss  being  three  officers  and  twenty-eight  men  killed 
and  wountled.  Grant's  plan  Avas  a  success  and  the  railroad 
was  captured,  but  the  enemy  continued  to  make  desperate 
attempts  to  recapture  it.  For  several  weeks  there  was  al- 
most continuous  fighting  along  the  railroad  south  of  Peters- 
burg. Reams  Station  was  on  this  road  only  a  few  miles 
from  Petersburg.  On  the  twenty-fifth  the  enemy  attacked 
the  Union  troops  at  that  place.  The  Thirty-sixth  was  sta- 
tioned in  a  deep  railroad  cut.  Although  not  successful  in 
recapturing  the  road,  at  one  time  they  drove  back  the 
Union  lines  and  hemmed  in  our  Thirty-sixth  Regiment, 
whose  position  allowed  them  little  chance  to  escape.  A  few 
did  cut  their  way  through,  but  a  large  part  of  the  regiment 
were  either  killed,  wounded  or  taken  prisoners.  Captain 
Graves,  of  our  company,  was  overcome  by  heat  and  exer- 
tion and  died  in  the  hospital  a  few  days  later.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded as  captain  by  First  Lieut.  Joseph  R.  Ellis,  also  from 
Pleasant  Valley.  My  old  neighbor,  Patrick  0 'Donahue,  of 
Pleasant  Valley,  who  enlisted  the  same  day  as  myself,  was 
one  of  the  number  captured.  He  survived  his  imprison- 
ment, and  was  mustered  out  with  our  company,  but  his 


health  was  shattered,  and  he  died  a  few  years  later.  Some 
of  his  descendants  are  still  living  in  this  vicinity,  but  they 
have  dropped  the  "0"  from  their  names,  which  is  now 

General  Gibbon  was  not  satisfied  with  the  part  taken 
by  the  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  at  Reams  Station,  and  with- 
out stopping  to  examine  into  the  matter,  issued  an  order 
depriving  the  regiment  of  carrying  the  national  colors.  A 
thorough  investigation  was  later  made,  with  the  result  that 
General  Gibbon  was  ordered  to  personally  present  to  the 
regiment  a  new  set  of  colors.  This  was  done  about  the  first 
of  November. 

On  the  twenty-fourth  of  October  our  brigade  marched 
to  the  left,  and  on  the  twenty-seventh  reached  the  enemy 's 
fortifications  at  Hatcher's  Run.  Company  A  of  our  regi- 
ment advanced  and  captured  the  rebel  picket.  This  was 
followed  by  a  general  engagement  in  which  the  enemy 
forced  their  way  through  the  Union  lines,  cutting  off  com- 
munication between  the  two  parts.  Captain  Fisk,  in  com- 
mand of  our  regiment,  saw  the  danger,  faced  the  regiment 
to  the  rear  and  ordered  a  bayonet  charge.  "We  doubled  up 
the  line  of  the  enemy  and  put  them  to  rout,  capturing  a 
large  number  of  prisoners.  General  Eagan  wrote  a  letter 
to  the  Governor  praising  the  work  done  by  the  regiment 
under  Captain  Fisk,  and  stated  that  we  had  captured  more 
prisoners  than  we  had  men  on  the  field.  Our  regimental 
loss  was  some  fifteen  wounded  and  missing.  After  this  en- 
gagement we  returned  to  our  former  location,  where  we 
remained  until  mid-winter.  Early  in  February  we  had  an- 
other engagement  at  Hatcher's  Run,  then  went  into  win- 
ter quarters  and  remained  there  until  the  last  of  March. 
We  then  moved  against  the  enemy's  works,  capturing  one 
line  after  another,  including  prisoners  and  guns,  and  early 
in  April  learned  that  Lee's  army  was  in  full  retreat.  One 
entire  second  corps  followed,  crossing  the  Appomattox  on 
the  seventh  and  on  the  ninth  were  present  at  Lee's  sur- 
render near  Appomattox  Court  House. 

We  saw  no  active  service  after  this,  but  what  did  re- 
main of  our  regiment  went  to  Washington  and  took  part 
in  the  grand  review,  then  returned  to  Madison  and  our 

In  the  fall  of  1864  still  another  company  was  added  to 
the  credit  of  Eau  Claire  county.    The  leading  educational 


institution  in  the  early  history  of  the  village  of  Eau  Claire 
was  the  old  "Wesleyan  Seminary,  which  stood  where  the 
high  schood  building  now  stands.  Principal  Shadrach  A. 
Hall  went  out  as  captain  of  this  new  company.  Like  the 
"Whipple  company,  this  one  was  also  made  up  to  take  the 
place  of  another  company  in  a  reorganized  regiment. 

I  have  asked  J.  F.  Ellis,  who  helped  Captain  Hall  to  re- 
cruit this  company  and  who  served  as  a  private  in  same, 
to  tell  vour  readers  its  story. 

J.  F.  ELLIS'  STORY.  ^       P»v-^^' 

Eau  Claire,  Wis.,  August  14, 1911.— W.  W.  Bartlett :  As  I  prom- 
ised, I  give  you  the  following  history  of  Company  K,  Fifth  Wis- 
consin Infantry,  which  was  mostly  made  up  here.  My  diarj', 
which  I  kept,  was  burned  in  the  great  Water  street  fire  years  ago, 
so  my  accoimt  is  largely  a  matter  of  memory,  which  accounts  for 
a  general  lack  of  dates.  There  were  three  Companies  K  in  the 
Fifth  Wisconsin:  First  Company  K,  Evans,  captain,  from  Meno- 
monie ;  Second  Company  K,  Mott,  captain,  also  from  Monomonie, 
and  Third  Company  K,  Hall,  captain,  designated  from  Eau  Claire. 
The  last  one  is  tlie  company  that  I  write  about. 

The  recruiting  of  this  company  was  for  another  regiment  which 
was  filled  up  and  left  for  the  front  before  we  reached  Madison, 
and  so  belonged  to  no  certain  regiment  when  we  reached  there. 
Company  K,  as  made  up  here,  was  recruited  by  Captain  Hall  and 
myself  in  1864.  I  turned  my  papers  over  to  him  in  order  that  he 
might  get  a  captain's  commission  and  I  went  into  the  ranks,  where 
I  remained  until  mustered  out.  After  reaching  Camp  Randall 
we  consolidated  with  a  squad  from  near  Oshkosh.  Those  com- 
posing the  Eau  Claire  squad  are  the  following :  S.  A.  Hall,  cap- 
tain. Privates — Andrew  Anderson,  Peter  Anderson,  David  Bab- 
cock,  Charles  W.  Bailey,  John  S.  Barger,  Lyman  Beemau,  Samuel 
W.  Bennett,  Erastus  S.  Bills,  Charles  E.  Burpee,  Heinrich  Christ- 
man,  John  Crapser,  James  W.  Crouch,  Hiram  S.  Curtis,  Joseph  E. 
Davenport,  Elias  Davis,  Francis  W.  Dighton,  Philander  S.  Drew,  J. 
F.  Ellis,  Roderick  Elwell,  Charles  0.  Foote,  James  Gilbert,  Nelson 
Gillet,  Patsex,^A^Haekett,  Russell  Ilaekett,  Benjamin  G.  Hall, 
Dwight  L.  HazenTJohnOTHoisington,  Demetrius  P.  Howell,  Alfred 
Ingalls,  Robert  Jones,  Miles  Lansdell,  Joseph  Listy,  James  B. 
Louther,  Joseph  B.  Reynolds,  Nicholas  Roach,  Isaac  A.  Shane, 
Peter  Shores,  George  F.  Silvernail,  Adrian  J.  Smith,  Uriah  M. 


-^      ^ 

IT.  J.  T.  TINKER 

V4  V  ^fvyt--^'  ^lUli^^^^ 

1    w    \i.r  1  \  I 

-Q^Mw«<^    ''i*^^ 


Stone,  Marshall  Swain,  Nahum  S.  Taylor,  Meroni  Ware,  Samuel 
Welch,  George  W.  Wells,  Henry  B.  Westcott,  James  R.  Whitney, 
Joseph  W.  Wiggins,  Corydon  Wyman,  James  Young. 

Colonel  La  Grange,  of  the  First  Wisconsin  Cavalry,  was  at 
Madison  when  we  reached  there  and  offered  Captain  Hall  and 
myself  each  a  first  lieutenancy  if  we  would  join  his  regiment 
with  our  recruits,  but  we  finally  decided  to  join  the  Fifth  In- 
fantry and  consolidated  with  a  squad  from  Oshkosh  in  order  to 
make  a  full  company.  By  this  plan  Company  K  was  organized 
and  Hall  was  commissioned  captain  and  commanded  the  com- 
pany throughout  its  service,  excepting  when  absent  by  sickness. 
Our  recruits  were  mostly  from  Eau  Claire,  Dunn  and  Chippewa 
counties.  We  came  together  on  the  West  Side  and  had  a  recep- 
tion in  the  old  Seminary  Hall,  where  the  high  school  building 
now  stands.  The  ladies  got  up  a  banquet  for  us  at  which  there 
Avere  speeches  and  music,  mostly  war  songs,  and  a  flag  presenta- 
tion. The  flag  was  made  by  the  ladies  and  was  presented  by  one 
of  the  most  beautiful,  bright  and  popular  young  ladies  of  the 
town,  Miss  Izzie  Farwell,  daughter  of  L.  W.  Farwell,  a  west  side 
merchant.  I  was  delegated  to  receive  the  flag,  which  I  carried 
until  we  reached  Madison,  when  we  shipped  it  back  to  Eau  Claire. 

The  next  day,  or  soon  thereafter,  we  all  gathered  on  the  East 
Side  Hill  (University  Square),  where  lumber  Avagons  waited  for 
us  with  boards  across  the  boxes  for  seats  in  most  cases,  and  where 
friends,  sweethearts  and  wives  gathered  to  bid  us  bood-bye.  We 
traveled  in  those  rigs  to  Sparta,  where  we  took  railway  passage 
for  Madison.  We  had  our  OAvn  improvised  band.  I.  H.  Shane, 
with  his  fife,  and  a  couple  of  drummers.  Every  stop  we  made  was 
enlivened,  if  there  was  anybody  to  look  on,  by  getting  in  line 
with  the  flag  floating  and  the  band  playing  martial  airs.  Mr. 
Shane  was  very  good  with  the  fife  and  served  for  a  while  in  the 
regimental  band,  bi;t  did  not  like  the  service  and  came  back  to 
the  company  and  was  with  it  until  mustered  out  of  the  service. 
Shane  was  one  of  the  best  soldiers  in  the  service,  tall,  muscular, 
but  not  fat,  active,  kindly,  faithful  and  strictly  honest.  On  ac- 
count of  his  height  he  was  ahvays  near  the  right  of  the  line  and 
so  at  the  front.  His  feet  were  large  and  strong,  a  quality  that 
helps  in  a  long  or  forced  march.  At  one  time,  when  drawing 
clothing,  he  had  to  have  a  pair  of  shoes.  There  wasn't  a  pair  in 
the  whole  supply  that  came  to  that  post  for  the  army  large  enough 
for  him.  He  marched  and  did  every  duty  called  for,  barefoot, 
good  naturedly  and  just  as  faithfully  as  any  man  in  the  army. 
Years  afterward,  while  in  the  employ  of  the  Daniel  Shaw  Lumber 


Company  as  teamster,  hauling  supplies  to  the  woods,  he  was  killed 
in  being  accidentally  thrown  from  a  load. 

The  company  reached  Madison  and  went  into  quarters  at  Camp 
Randall  the  latter  part  of  August  or  early  in  September,  1864, 
and  was  there  some  time.  Camp  life  in  Camp  Randall  was  very 
demoralizing,  much  more  so  than  in  the  field.  Although  guards 
were  stationed  at  all  times  at  the  entrance,  yet  everybody  was 
allowed  to  enter  and  also  go  out,  except  those  dressed  in  uni- 
forms of  the  common  soldier.  Some  of  those  wearing  officers' 
uniforms  were  among  the  most  drunken  and  worst  gamblers  there. 
As  soon  as  our  company  was  organized  we  began  company  drill, 
spending  from  one  to  four  hours  daily.  After  drawing  our  uni- 
forms and  guns  and  accoutrements  we  then  drilled  dressed  in 

The  Fifth  Wisconsin  Infantry,  all  told,  in  officers  and  men, 
from  its  first  organization  until  it  was  mustered  out,  numbered 
over  3,000  men.  When  we  joined  it,  it  was  reorganized,  the  old 
numbers  were  consolidated  into  Companies  A,  B  and  C,  and  we 
went  out  as  one  of  the  seven  new  companies,  carried  a  new  flag 
and  a  new  state  banner.  The  colonel  of  the  regiment  was  with 
us.  The  balance  of  the  regiment  was  then  in  the  Shenandoah 
Valley.  The  seven  new  companies  left  Madison  by  rail  to  Chi- 
cago, thence  to  Pittsburgh,  to  Baltimore  and  on  to  Washington, 
all  the  way  by  rail.  We  were  in  barracks  at  Washington  some 
time,  and  one  Sunday  morning  about  twenty-five  of  our  company 
formed  and  under  the  leadership  of  one  of  our  number,  marched 
up  to  the  White  House  and  saw  President  Lincoln.  Shortly 
after  this  visit  to  the  President  the  regiment  was  sent  across  the 
long  bridge  into  Alexandria,  Va.,  in  barracks  next  the  railroad 
station  and  held  ready  for  any  emergency  call,  all  dressed  and 
arms  at  hand. 

One  afternoon  late  Company  K  and  two  other  companies  of 
the  Fifth  were  ordered  to  draw  five  days'  rations  and  report  at 
the  railroad  station  in  five  minutes.  We  rolled  up  our  blan- 
kets, buckeled  on  our  belts,  slung  on  our  knapsacks,  canteens 
and  took  our  guns  and  haversacks  in  hand  and  lined  up  before 
the  commissary  sergeant,  took  each  his  rations  of  hard  tack,  pork, 
coffee,  sugar  and  doubled-quicked  for  the  station.  An  engine 
Avith  steam  up  coupled  to  a  train  of  box  cars  was  there.  We 
climbed  in  in  a  hurry  and  away  we  went.  We  were  run  out  to  a 
siding  on  the  old  Bull  Run  battle-ground,  fifteen  miles  in  fifteen 
minutes.  When  we  stopped  at  the  siding  army  wagons  hauled 
by  mules  and  driven  by  niggers  were  coming  toward  the  station 


on  the  dead  run,  drivers  yelling  and  lashing  their  teams  with  all 
their  might.  Some  of  the  darky  drivers  were  so  scared  that  they 
had  turned  pale. '  We  tumbled  out  of  the  cars  before  they  had 
fairly  stopped  and  formed  in  line  between  the  siding  and  timber, 
about  80  rods  away,  where  the  teams  had  been  gathering  wood 
for  the  use  of  the  government  at  Washington.  Mosby  and  his 
men  were  raiding  the  teams.  Two  horsemen  rode  out  of  the 
woods  and  looked  us  over  and  rode  back  out  of  sight.  We  dug 
trenches  and  were  in  line  of  battle  for  several  days,  and  did 
some  scouting,  but  there  was  nothing  doing.  Returned  to 


The  seven  new  companies  of  the  regiment  were  sent  from 
Washington  via  Harper's  Ferry  to  Winchester,  where  we  joined 
the  balance  of  the  regiment  and  went  into  camp  on  the  battle- 
field. It  was  a  desolate  sight.  Every  living  thing  was  destroyed. 
Not  even  a  weed  could  be  seen.  The  ground  was  gouged  and 
pounded.  A  fitting  place  for  new  recruits  to  camp.  Shallow 
trenches  had  been  dug,  the  dead  laid  in  and  covered  with  earth 
rounded  up  a  little.  Here  and  there  a  shallow  place  had  been 
scooped  out  and  a  body  twisted  and  stiffened  in  its  contortions, 
so  that  it  could  not  be  laid  in  the  trenches  with  its  fellows,  was 
placed  in  the  shallow  grave  and  covered.  Rains  had  come  and 
washed  off  some  of  the  covering  and  here  an  arm  and  there  a 
foot  was  pointing  mutely  toward  the  heavens.  The  stench  was 
sickening.  One  of  our  boys  saw  a  shoe  almost  new  lying  on  the 
field.  It  looked  to  him  to  be  about  his  fit.  He  thought  he  had 
made  a  good  find.  He  rushed  to  it  and  picked  it  up.  He  found 
that  it  had  a  human  foot  in  it,  which  had  began  to  decay. 
There  was  no  other  place  for  our  camp  and  there  we  camped  for 
a  few  days.  We  formed  in  groups  of  fours,  buttoned  our  pieces 
of  tents  together,  making  our  tent  large  enough  for  four  men 
to  sleep  in  and  huddle  under  during  a  storm  and  a  shelter  for 
our  extra  clothing  and  provisions.  Each  group  of  four  owned 
a  coffee  pot  and  spider  and  usually  cooked  its  coffee  in  common, 
while  each  man  cooked  his  own  meat.  We  had  fresh  beef  and 
salt  pork  regularly  and  our  rations  were  abundant  and  gen- 
erally good.  From  Winchester  we  moved  up  the  valley  to  Red 
Cedar  Creek,  where  we  became  a  part  of  the  army  under  Sheri- 
dan, near  the  battle-ground  where  the  battle  of  Cedar  Creek  was 
fought.  Plere  we  became  a  part  of  the  Sixth  Corps  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac,  Wright  commanding,  and  remained  in  that  corps 


until  the  close  of  the  war.  The  Fifth  "Wisconsin  was  not  in  that 
battle,  although  it  had  been  a  member  of  the  Sixth  Corps  from 
the  time  of  its  organization.  While  at  Cedar  Creek  I  became 
indisposed  and  was  sent  to  the  field  hospital,  which  was  located 
in  a  beautiful  place  in  large  tents.  My  care  was  very  good  there, 
and  I  was  soon  able  to  walk.  The  presidential  election  was  com- 
ing on  and  I  happened  to  be  the  only  one  in  the  company  who 
had  any  experience  in  conducting  an  election,  so  tlie  captain 
wanted  me  to  come  back  to  the  company  and  take  charge.  The 
surgeon-in-chief  advised  against  it,  but  did  not  forbid  it.  I  took 
my  belongings  and  went  back  to  the  company  the  day  before  the 
election  and  sat  at  the  polls  in  the  open  air  at  the  head  of  the 
company  camp  and  polled  votes  all  day.  That  night  when  I 
turned  in,  after  making  up  the  returns,  I  was  about  played  out 

The  morning  after  election,  before  I  had  a  chance  to  return 
to  the  hospital,  the  army  was  ordered  to  fall  back,  the  hospital 
well  in  front.  I  was  hardly  able  to  march  without  any  load,  so 
with  my  gun,  accoutrements  and  outfit,  I  struggled.  The  army 
made  out  a  half  day's  march  and  it  was  night  when  I  got  in.  I 
got  some  help  in  carrying  my  load  by  a  wagon  carrying  supplies. 
The  army,  as  the  retreat  began,  was  so  severely  harrassed  by 
guerillas  and  rebel  cavalry  that  it  went  into  camp  here  and 
sent  out  strong  picket  lines.  We  stayed  here  luitil  after  Thanks- 
giving Day.  The  day  and  night  before  Thanksgiving  snow  began 
to  fall  and  on  that  day  the  ground  was  covered  and  the  weather 
Avas  severe.  The  people  in  New  England  had  sent  down  a  sliij)- 
load  of  turkeys,  geese,  ducks  and  chickens  for  a  Tranksgiving 
dinner  for  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  A  lot  of  "fixings"  that  go 
with  them  was  sent  too.  The  part  that  came  to  the  army  in  the 
valley  reached  it  the  night  before.  The  advantage  of  holding 
commissions  was  well  shown  in  the  distribution.  Every  group 
of  four  enlisted  men  got  one  chicken.  Every  officer  a  pair  of 
chickens,  a  turkey  or  a  goose  or  duck  and  fixings. 

Sharp  and  deadly  work  was  being  done  on  the  picket  line. 
Strong  picket  posts  behind  rail  and  timber  barricades  composed 
of  the  best  shots  were  shooting  every  enemy  in  range  and  many 
of  them  in  turn  were  hit  and  brought  in.  Although  I  was  not 
detailed  on  picket  duty,  I  went  out  to  see  them  work.  Our  camp 
was  in  the  timber.  There  was  no  cooking  or  serving  meals  by 
companies  or  in  groups.  Each  enlisted  man  usually  received  five 
days'  rations,  consisting  of  hardtack,  a  piece  of  side  salt  pork, 
coffee,  C  sugar,  salt  and  pepper.    Also  generally  fresh  beef.    The 


cattle  were  driven  with  the  army  and  when  in  camp  enough  were 
slaughtered  for  one  to  two  days'  rations  and  distributed.  We 
were  transferred  by  rail  back  to  Washington  to  our  old  quar- 
ters in  the  shadow  of  the  capitol,  and  soon  marched  across  the 
long  bridge  again  to  Alexandria,  thence  by  transport  down  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  and  up  the  James  river  to  City  Point.  At  this 
place,  which  was  then  General  Grant's  headquarters,  a  train  of 
flat  cars  was  ready  for  us,  on  which  we  took  passage  for  the  left. 
This  road  was  known  as  "Grant's  Railroad,"  and  extended  from 
City  Point,  behind  the  lines  as  far  to  the  left  as  the  army  reached, 
and  was  used  to  transport  supplies  and  men  back  and  forth. 
The  road  Avas  level  and  graded  but  little.  At  places  where  the 
hostile  lines  were  close  to  each  other,  a  high  bank  was  raised 
along  the  track  on  the  side  towards  the  enemy  for  protection. 
As  we  were  whisked  past  these  places  the  engineer  pulled  the 
lever  wide  open  and  we  went  by  at  a  clip  that  made  it  very  difficult 
for  us  to  retain  our  footing.  Each  car  was  loaded  to  its  capacity 
with  standing  men,  holding  on  to  each  other.  The  noise  of  the 
rushing  train  provoked  a  storm  of  shot  and  shell,  but  all  passed 
over  us  or  fell  behind  us.  The  sharp  rattle  of  musketry  and  the 
heavy  roar  and  smoke  and  flash  of  artillery  all  along  our  right 
as  we  speeded  along  the  track  showed  that  the  fighting  was  on  all 
the  time.  We  landed  at  General  Meade's  headquarters,  some  dis- 
tance to  the  left  of  Petersburg,  and  moved  out  to  the  breastworks 
occupied  by  the  Fifth,  or  Warren's  Corps,  and  relieved  it.  Our 
pickets  were  detailed  and  sent  out  to  the  front,  relieving  their 
pickets  and  Warren's  Corps  fell  back  to  the  rear  of  Meade's  head- 
quarters and  became  a  part  of  the  reserve.  The  Second  Corps, 
that  we  relieved,  had  built  their  winter  quarters,  which  we 

When  we  relieved  the  Fifth  Corps  in  the  long  line  investing 
Petersburg,  the  Union  forces  were  opposed  by  the  line  of  the 
enemy  extending  as  far  to  the  left  as  ours  reached.  Each  line 
was  protected  by  breastworks  in  which  at  every  commanding  or 
high  point  a  fort  stood,  mounting  from  one  to  more  pieces  of 
artillery,  and  the  field  in  front  of  the  breastworks  were  gen- 
erally cleared  of  timber.  The  breastworks  were  protected  by 
abattis,  rows  of  tree  tops  stripped  of  bark  and  sharpened  tops 
lying  with  butts  set  in  ground,  tops  pointing  out.  The  ditches 
in  front  of  the  works  were  deep  and  at  this  time  of  year,  early 
winter,  were  mostly  filled  with  yellow,  muddy  water.  The  picket 
posts  were  rail  barricades,  the  more  exposed  with  earth  thrown 
up  against  them  in  front.     They  were  about  sixteen  feet  front 


with  a  wing  at  each  end  and  from  twenty-five  to  one  hundred 
yards  apart;  each  post  manned  with  from  five  to  twenty  men. 
The  picket  lines  were  fighting  all  the  time  when  we  relieved  War- 
ren's Corps.  Every  man  exposed  on  either  side  was  shot  at  by 
some  one  or  several  men  on  the  other  side.  Casualties  were 
numerous.  When  we  went  in  there  we  followed  the  old  custom 
of  the  Sixth  Corps  not  to  try  to  kill  an  opponent  unless  necessary 
for  the  protection  of  our  own  lives.  We  had  no  personal  feeling 
to  gratify  bj'  wantonly  killing.  So  after  repeatedly  firing  at  our 
picket  posts,  at  a  cap  poked  up  in  sight  on  a  ramrod,  a  blouse 
with  a  hat  above  poked  into  view  and  getting  nothing  but  chaffing 
in  return,  shooting  at  each  other  mostly  ceased.  Instead  some- 
thing like  this  took  place:  "Hello,  Yank."  "Hello,  Johnnie." 
"Got  any  cofl'ee  to  spare,  Yank?"  "Got  any  tobac,  Johnnie?" 
"Leave  me  some  coffee  at  the  foot  of  that  tree  and  I'll  leave 
some  tobac."  And  so  the  trading  habit  was  put  in  force.  The 
men  from  each  going  to  the  stump  or  tree  sometimes  got  together 
and  talked  over  their  lots.  Soon  deserters  began  to  come,  some- 
times one  and  later  in  squads.  After  a  while  they  came  so  thick 
that  the  enemy  attacked  us  several  times,  drove  in  our  picket 
line,  and  drove  us  back  to  the  breastworks,  where  the  alarm  of 
the  attack  had  called  up  the  entire  army  with  reserves.  We  had 
several  of  these  attacks  during  the  winter,  but  none  of  them 
proved  to  be  very  serious.  They  were  made  to  induce  us  to  shoot 
deserters  who  made  a  run  for  our  lines.  They  resulted  in  our 
capture  of  some  of  the  attacking  men,  and  as  we  could  not  shoot 
the  one  or  half  dozen  men  running  to  our  lines,  the  desertions 
became  more  numerous.  The  practice  of  shooting  at  every  one  in 
sight  by  the  troops,  both  to  our  left  and  right,  continued  as  before 
we  relieved  Warren's  men.  The  desertions  to  our  corps  were 
greater  than  those  to  the  entire  balance  of  the  line.  Desertion 
by  them  was  a  serious  matter.  Trusted  men  Avere  stationed  all 
along  their  line,  good  shots,  with  instruction  to  shoot  every  man 
leaving  their  line  coming  toward  ours  without  a  flag  of  truce  and 
escort.  Many  tried  it  and  were  shot  dead  and  the  report  of  the 
effort  and  death  circulated  among  the  men  of  the  rebel  army. 

During  the  winter  an  eseciation  for  desertion  in  front  of  the 
enemy  while  in  battle  took  place  in  front  of  our  regiment,  out- 
side the  breastworks.  Two  men  had  been  condemned  to  be  shot. 
Their  graves  were  dug  in  the  field  in  our  front.  The  men  were 
brought  through  the  lines  in  ambulance  open  wagon,  sitting  on  their 
coffins;  each  man's  legs  were  tied  together  at  the  ankles  and  knees 
and  hands  tied  together  behind  their  back.    Each  man's  coffin  was 


placed  aei-oss  his  grave  and  he  was  seated  on  the  foot.  His  eyes 
were  bandaged;  ten  men  of  the  provost  guard,  with  loaded  mus- 
kets, faced  the  condemned  men.  The  officer  in  charge  took  his 
station  by  one  of  the  men  and  instructed  tlie  guard  that  when 
the  word  fire  was  given,  they  must  fire  at  the  man  aimed  at,  aiming 
at  his  breast.  He  gave  the  command:  "Guard  ready,  aim,  one, 
two,  three,  fire."  Before  he  gave  the  command  "fire,"  he  jerked 
the  man  next  to  him  oil"  the  box  and  the  shots  were  at  the  other 
fellow.  He  fell  backward  oft'  his  coffin  with  his  bound  legs  still  on 
the  coffin,  lying  on  his  back,  face  to  the  sky,  dead,  his  breast 
stove  in.  This  was  the  only  execution  by  court  martial  in  the 
Sixth  Cori3s  while  I  was  a  member  of  it.  Major  General  Humph- 
rey, who  executed  so  many  men  in  the  Nineteenth  Corps,  was  re- 
puted to  be"  a  brave  commander,  very  rigid  and  austere.  I  had 
a  personal  taste  of  his  austerity  and  promptly  put  his  bravery 
to  test,  and  it  was  wanting.  I  was  stationed  with  a  squad  of  men 
at  the  picket  post  on  our  extreme  left.  The  next  one  to  the  left 
was  the  Nineteenth  Corps  post  on  the  extreme  right.  In  the 
picket  posts  along  our  front  we  had  not  been  required  to  turn  out 
the  guard,  form  in  line  and  present  arms  to  the  general  officer 
of  the  day  of  the  army,  though  the  rules  of  war  required  it,  and 
it  was  all  a  soldier's  liberty  was  worth  not  to  do  it. 

This  major  general  commanding  the  Nineteenth  Corps  Avas 
general  officer  of  the  day  when  I  was  in  charge  of  this  post,  and 
really  before  I  was  aware  of  it  (the  timber  here  was  rather  thick) 
he  rode  up  at  a  sharp  gallop  from  my  left,  just  in  the  rear  of  my 
post  with  the  big  red  sash  across  his  breast  and  over  his  right 
shoulder  and  a  long  retinue  of  aids  and  orderlies  following  him, 
indicating  his  rank  for  the  day.  My  post  was  not  in  sight  of  the 
post  either  to  the  right  or  left,  nor  of  any  of  the  posts  of  the 
enemy.  Rebel  pickets  were  shooting  our  way  often.  This  com- 
manding officer  halted  and  called  to  the  one  in  charge  of  the  post. 
I  stepped  out.  He  told  me  in  no  uncertain  language  in  a  loud 
voice,  showing  auger,  what  was  coming  to  me  for  not  showing 
due  respect  for  the  general  officer  of  the  day  by  not  tui-ning  out 
my  guard.  I  went  up  close  to  him  and  told  him  that  in  his  big 
red  sash  and  bright  equipment  he  was  a  good  mark  for  a  rebel 
sharpshooter  over  in  front  and  that  I  did  not  turn  out  the  guard 
as  it  Avould  direct  attention  to  him  and  he  might  get  hurt.  Just 
then  a  Johnnie's  gun  went  off  and  the  bullet  struck  the  tree  top 
overhead.  He  went  to  the  rear  like  a  rocket,  leaving  his  retinue 
far  behind,  not  even  stopping  to  thank  me  for  being  so  con- 
siderate of  his  safety.     Several  times  during  the  winter  the  regi- 


meut  was  ordered  to  break  camp.  "We  fell  in,  usually  in  the 
evening,  marched  down  to  the  left  a  few  miles,  around  and  back 
again,  or  marched  to  the  right  towards  Petersburg,  and  after  a 
march  of  an  hour  or  two,  came  back  to  our  old  camping  ground 
and  again  pitched  our  tents  in  the  same  places  we  occupied  before. 
The  colonel  told  me  that  the  army  was  full  of  spies  and  these 
moves  were  to  mislead  the  enemy.  The  point  we  occupied  in  the 
line,  with  the  line  genei'ally  to  the  left  of  Petersburg,  had  been 
advanced  and  we  were  over  a  mile  in  front  of  its  former  location. 
A  fort,  Davidson,  just  back  of  Meade's  headquarters  and  ad- 
joining Warren's  headquarters,  occupied  a  commanding  position 
and  was  cared  for.  A  guard  and  a  lieutenant  from  our  regiment, 
part  of  Company  K  and  others,  were  detailed  for  this  job  and 
stayed  there  until  about  the  latter  part  of  ]\Iarch.  While  we  were 
doing  guard  duty  at  this  fort  the  battle  of  Hatcher's  Run  was 
fought,  Avay  down  on  the  left.  Company  K  and  the  regiment  took 
part,  but  only  as  reserves  to  the  Fifth  Corps.  Company  K  lost  one 
man,  who  dropped  dead  from  heart  failure.  Warren's  entire 
corps  passed  close  by  the  fort  in  moving  down  to  the  left.  We 
could  plainly  hear  the  guns.  General  Warren  Avas  there  relieved  of 
his  command  by  Sheridan,  who  came  back  to  his  quarters  looking  a 
broken  man.  I  was  out  in  front  of  his  quarters  when  he  returned 
without  his  aids  and  orderlies,  with  only  one  orderly.  He  gave 
me  the  first  tidings  of  the  battle.  From  the  accounts  the  boys 
gave  me  later,  it  appeared  that  Company  K  and  the  regiment  were 
under  a  heavy  artillery  fire,  but  the  shell  and  shot,  though  fall- 
ing all  about,  did  not  hurt  Company  K.  Shortly  after  the  return 
of  the  regiment  from  Hatcher's  Run,  the  guard  in  Fort  Davidson 
was  relieved  and  we  went  back  to  the  old  camp  and  took  part  in 
drills,  maneuvers  and  dress  parades,  battallion,  regimental,  brig- 
ade and  division.  All  winter,  ever  since  we  went  into  the 
trenches,  the  battle  had  been  carried  on  between  the  picket  lines, 
and  the  lines  where  they  were  too  close  together  to  put  out 
pickets.  The  roar  of  musketry  and  artillery  day  and  night  was 
heard  nearly  all  along  the  lines.  The  troops  engaged  on  both 
sides  were  always  alert  to  take  advantage  of  any  carelessness  or 
weakness  shown  on  either  side.  Assaults  on  the  Sixth  Corps  were 
more  frequent  than  elsewhere,  because  our  troops  were  not  keep- 
ing up  a  constant  fusillade.  These  assaults  were  by  a  relatively 
small  force,  usually  less  than  five  hundred  men.  Tliey  came  with 
a  rush  and  noise  that  would  call  out  the  whole  corps.  After  the 
shock  and  shake-up  they  would  retreat  with  as  great  a  rush  as 
thev  came.    The  casualties  were  verv  small,  two  or  three  wounded 


and  once  or  twice  a  man  killed.  They  never  got  off  so  cheap. 
Several  of  these  assaults  were  made  upon  the  line  in  our  front. 
In  one  of  them  we  captured  a  lieutenant  and  a  bunch  of  enlisted 
men.  The  lieutenant  was  very  despondent  at  being  taken  alive. 
I  think  he  Avas  slightly  wounded,  and  tliat  he  would  rather  have 
been  killed. 


On  the  night  of  April  1,  1865,  after  dark  an  army  silently 
marched  in  and  occupied  our  breastworks  and  we  were  ordered  to 
strike  tents  and  prepare  to  march.  The  orders  were  given  in  a 
whisper  or  very  low.  We  were  told  to  put  our  cups  in  our  haver- 
sacks, move  our  bayonet  scabbards  around  toward  the  back,  so 
that  no  metal  parts  would  strike  and  rattle,  to  keep  perfectly 
still,  no  talking  nor  noise  in  marching.  After  forming  in  line  we 
moved  out  a  little  way  toward  the  left  and  rear.  Our  guns  were 
loaded  and  bayonets  fixed.  We  each  had  sixty  rounds  of  am- 
munition. We  moved  a  little  way  in  one  direction  and  halted; 
then  moved  again  and  halted.  The  night  set  in  misty  and  so 
dark  that  we  could  not  see  except  by  the  uncertain  light  of 
campfires  and  that  made  by  burning  fuses  from  shells  passing 
overhead  from  both  sides.  Just  before  ten  o  'clock  at  night  of  the 
first,  I  noticed  by  the  fitful  glare  of  the  light  made  by  the  burning 
fuses  of  the  shells,  that  we  were  close  to  the  dark  walls  of  a 
silent  fort.  This  was  Fort  Fisher.  We  passed  through  a  narrow 
opening  to  the  left  of  the  fort  and  against  its  wall,  in  the  breast- 
works, just  wide  enough  for  one  man,  and  out  to  the  picket  lines. 
Moving  as  still  as  we  possibly  could,  yet  a  body  of  seven  or  eight 
hundred  men  make  some  noise  in  walking,  though  we  moved  slow 
and  picked  each  step  as  carefully  as  we  could  in  the  dark  and 
rain.  The  mist  of  the  evening  had  developed  into  a  light,  driz- 
zling Virginia  rain,  which  kept  falling  nearly  all  night  long.  The 
rebel  picket  line  was  alert  and  at  every  unusual  sound  fired  to- 
ward us  and  cursed  and  swore  and  abused  the  Yanks.  We  at  once 
laid  down  and  kept  perfectly  still.  We  saw  the  vicious  fiashes 
of  their  guns,  heard  the  bullets  cut  the  air  about  us,  the  thud  when 
they  hit,  and  all  but  two  or  three  of  the  officers  hugged  the 
ground.  Sharp  picket  firing  had  been  going  on  this  place  for  days 
and  the  breastworks  on  both  sides  had  been  held  by  a  strong 
force.  The  two  armies  were  strongly  entrenched  all  along  the 
lines  for  miles,  but  our  men,  while  it  was  expected  they  would 
attack  at  some  point,  were  trying  to  keep  the  point  of  attack 
secret.     So  every  noise  on  our  side  was  magnified  by  the  enemy 


into  an  assault,  so  when  we  made  any  noise  their  whole  force 
manned  their  works  and  began  firing  at  us  savagely  as  long  as 
there  was  any  possibility  in  their  minds  of  there  being  any  force 
there  other  than  the  picket  line.  They  had  the  range  and  if  we 
were  standing  their  fire  would  have  got  a  good  many  of  us,  and 
as  it  was  we  lost  a  number  of  men  during  the  fusillade.  We  lay 
flat  on  the  ground  in  the  darkness  and  the  rain  from  about  ten 
o'clock  for  an  hour  and  a  half.  The  firing  upon  us  gradually 
ceased.  Those  hit  made  no  outcry.  No  other  noise  than  the  thud 
of  the  bullets  when  they  struck  the  victims.  Two  soldiers  with 
a  stretcher  would  noiselessly  lay  the  man  shot  upon  it  and  carry 
him  away.  All  those  hit,  whether  killed  or  wounded,  were  re- 
moved at  once. 

A  mistake  had  been  made  when  we  moved  out  through  the 
breastworks.  We  passed  our  left  in  front  and  when  we  faced  the 
enemy  the  rear  of  the  regiment  was  in  front,  so  about  midnight 
a  whispered  order  was  passed  along  the  line,  we  got  up  and  fell 
in,  formed  in  rank,  and  changed  front  or  countermarched.  Al- 
though we  were  as  still  as  we  could  be,  yet  the  little  noise  we 
made  roused  the  Johnnies  again  and  they  again  began  to  shoot  us. 
As  soon  as  we  were  right  in  front  we  laid  down  again.  In  lying 
down  we  broke  ranks  and  this  time  I  laid  down  just  in  front  of 
Lieutenant  Squires  of  Company  G,  from  Black  River  Falls.  The 
rebels  shot  more  accurately  this  time  and  we  lost  more  men.  I  felt 
the  air  cut  by  a  bullet  which  passed  over  me  and  struck  the  lieu- 
tenant; a  flesh  wound  in  the  lower  part  of  his  body.  He  yelled, 
jumped  up  and  ran  the  whole  length  of  the  regiment  and  fell 
and  they  put  him  on  a  stretcher  and  carried  him  to  the  rear. 
The  noise  of  tlie  lieutenant  aroused  the  whole  rebel  line  opposite 
and  gave  them  our  location.  They  fired  on  us  a  continuous  rat- 
tling volley  of  musketry  and  yelled  and  yelled.  The  anguishing 
screams  of  the  wounded  lieutenant  made  them  cheer,  laugh,  damn 
us  and  fire  at  us  with  all  their  might.  They  hit  a  number  of  our 
meu,  but  the  otliers  did  not  cry  out.  We  hugged  the  ground  closer 
than  before  if  possible.  The  surface  sloped  slightly  downward 
toward  the  enemy  and  we  moved  ahead  a  little  to  be  on  a  lower 
level  and  laid  perfectly  still  while  the  bullets  pounded  the  earth 
and  cut  the  air  about  us.  About  two  o'clock  the  firing  upon  us 
gradually  slackened  and  finally  ceased  altogether.  About  2:30 
a.  m.,  of  April  2,  we  carefully  and  silently  got  to  our  feet  and 
stood  ready,  each  man  a  little  way  from  his  fellow  waiting.  The 
rain  had  almost  ceased  to  fall.  We  were  waiting  for  the  order 
or  signal  to  charge.     Our  feeling  was  intense.     Nothing  could  be 


spcu  in  front.  We  knew  nothing  of  the  obstacles  in  our  way.  We 
knew  that  when  the  big  gun  in  Fort  Fisher  behind  us  spoke  that 
we  must  charge  the  unseen  enemy  and  kill  or  subdue  them  or  die 
in  the  effort. 

Just  before  three  o'clock  the  Johnnies  had  quieted  down  and 
ceased  yelling  and  shooting  at  us.  At  three  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing of  April  2,  the  big  gun  in  Fort  Fisher  was  fired.  We  went  in 
on  the  jump.  Every  man  yelling,  many  shooting,  all  running, 
carrying  our  guns  any  way,  every  man  paying  no  attention  to 
what  was  being  said  or  done  by  the  rest ;  all  charging  upon  the 
black  darkness  ahead.  We  cleared  the  space  from  where  we 
waited,  some  hundred  yards  to  the  rebel  breastworks,  tore  open- 
ings through  the  abattis  and  were  upon  their  breastworks  as 
quick  as  we  could  run  there,  but  not  quick  enough  to  avoid  a 
shot  from  every  rebel  who  could  get  his  gun  and  get  to  the  works. 
A  number  of  our  men  were  killed  and  wounded,  about  fifty  alto- 
gether. We  surprised  the  enemy.  After  they  shot  the  lieutenant 
and  his  j-elling  with  pain  caused  the  commotion  at  near  midnight, 
we  kept  so  still  that  they  thought  they  had  shot  one  of  our  pickets 
and  so  they  had  all  turned  in  excepting  the  guard  when  we  made 
the  rush.  Most  of  those  we  got  when  we  went  over  the  works 
were  dressed  only  in  their  shirts  and  drawers.  When  I  went  over 
the  works,  a  Johnnie  laid  in  his  shirt  and  drawers  only.  He  had 
dropped  on  his  knees  and  fallen  over  on  his  back,  his  head  turned 
to  one  side,  a  good  looking,  strong,  well  built  man,  arms  thrown 
out,  his  gun  on  his  right  arm,  a  bloody,  ragged  hole  in  his  shirt 
just  over  the  heart,  dead.  He  was  the  first  dead  man  I  saw  that 
day.  A  smouldering  camp  fire  close  by  may  have  made  the  sight 
more  impressive  and  the  reason  why  I  remember  it  so  well,  for  I 
saw  a  great  many  men  killed  before  the  day  was  done,  but  none 
other  made  such  a  distinct  impression  upon  me.  The  point  where 
our  regiment  struck  and  captured  the  enemy's  line  of  works  was 
much  lower  than  on  both  the  right  and  left,  the  bottom  of  a  small 
valley.  The  land  was  clear  for  eighty  rods  or  more  from  their 
works  to  the  timber  in  the  rear.  In  our  line  of  works  both  to  the 
right  and  left,  at  the  top  of  this  valley  and  about  eighty  rods 
apart,  were  two  forts.  The  bottom  of  the  valley  where  we  went 
in  happened  to  be  the  point  of  least  resistance.  We  made  so 
much  noise  and  our  line  was  extended  so  long  and  we  went  with 
such  a  rush  that  though  the  line  swung  around  and  struck  theirs 
end  on,  yet  they  must  have  thought  the  entire  army  was  upon 
them.  After  the  short  resistance  we  drove  them  into  the  timber 
and  our  regiment  was  right  after  them.     My  strength  gave  out 


and  after  we  got  inside  their  lines  and  most  of  the  boys  pursued 
the  retreating  Johnnies,  I,  with  a  few  others,  staid  there  at  the 
works.  Fires  flared  up  all  along  the  lines  and  the  rain  ceased 
about  us.  Most  of  the  light,  however,  was  from  the  flash  of  mus- 
ketry and  artillery.  Then  it  appeared  that  lines  were  waiting 
ready,  back  at  our  picket  lines,  the  outcome  of  our  assault,  and 
when  our  regiment  went  in  and  drove  the  rebels  at  this  point 
then  there  was  no  occasion  for  concealment  and  fires  burned 
everywhere  and  especially  to  our  right  and  left.  Other  members 
of  the  regiment  who  did  not  chase  tlie  enemy  gathered  about  me ; 
some  of  Company  K.  They  came  over  the  breastworks  and  our 
force  rapidly  increased.  There  was  no  commissioned  officer  with 
us  at  first. 

The  flames  shooting  from  the  muskets  and  the  two  cannon 
in  the  fort  to  our  right,  and  the  screams  of  those  shot,  the  angry 
yells  of  the  attacking  force  and  those  defending,  made  the  battle 
there  fierce  and  hand  to  hand.  Our  forces  in  front  of  the  fort 
were  wavering;  when  I  called  to  our  men  to  attack  the  fort  on 
the  flank  and  in  the  rear.  "We  sent  a  man  over  to  those  in  front 
and  we  attacked  with  a  rush  and  yells,  shooting  as  we  charged. 
Just  before  we  reached  the  fort,  the  Johnnies  ran  and  the  force 
in  front  went  in  the  fort  with  a  rush.  Just  then  the  attack  on 
the  fort  across  the  valley  to  the  left,  about  eighty  rods,  began  to 
develop.  The  Johnnies  were  working  their  one  gun  to  the  limit. 
The  flash  of  musketry  showed  that  there  was  a  large  force  ot 
infantry  in  there  and  that  they  were  all  fighting  with  frenzy. 
Because  of  the  dai'kness,  I  could  not  see  the  line  of  men  attacking 
the  fort,  but  the  flashes  of  their  gims  showed  it  to  be  a  large  body 
and  that  it  was  attacking  and  was  within  gunshot  of  the  fort. 
I  pointed  out  to  those  with  me  the  fight  going  on  at  the  fort  across 
the  valley  and  told  them  that  we  must  go  across  the  valley  and 
help.  We  rushed  down  the  slope,  more  men  joining  us  on  the 
way,  among  whom  was  a  captain  of  one  of  the  companies  of  our 
regiments,  with  his  naked  sword  in  his  hand,  wild  and  excited,  not 
knowing  what  to  do.  I  told  him  to  put  up  his  sword;  that  he 
could  not  do  anything  with  that ;  to  pick  up  a  gun  and  some  car- 
tridges and  come  along,  we  were  going  to  attack  that  fort  up  there 
on  the  left.  The  ground  was  strewn  with  guns  and  cartridge 
boxes,  and  he  at  once  armed  himself  and  came  along.  The  wall 
of  the  fort  on  the  flank  where  we  attacked  was  ten  to  twelve  feet 
high  from  the  bottom  of  the  ditch  to  the  top,  the  side  steep  and 
sloping.  I  told  the  men  that  we  would  run  up  the  wall  with  our 
loaded  giuis  ready,  point  the  muzzle  down  inside  held  at  arm's 


length  above  om-  heads  and  fire  and  run  down  in  the  ditch,  load 
and  run  vip  and  fire  again  as  fast  as  possible.  We  attacked  in 
this  Avay  and  looked  sharp  for  any  of  them  who  would  dare  to 
show  himself.  We  made  noise  enough  for  a  thousand  men.  By 
the  erys  of  pain  from  inside  the  fort,  I  knew  that  an  occasional 
shot  of  ours  was  hitting.  The  army  attacking  iti  front  was  push- 
ing its  force  close  to  the  foi-t,  when  cry  for  quarter  came  from 
the  fort  to  us.  I  told  them  to  tlirow  down  their  arms,  put  up 
their  hands  and  come  over  and  surrender.  They  ceased  firing; 
part  of  them  ran  away  and  some  of  them  came  out  and  sur- 
rendered to  us. 

We  were  in  possession  of  over  a  mile  of  the  enemy's  works, 
including  two  forts  and  three  pieces  of  artillery  and  a  squad  of 
prisoners  in  immediate  charge  of  the  men  that  were  with  me. 
The  battle  had  begun  to  rage  off  to  our  left  a  half  mile  away  in 
which  large  bodies  of  men  were  fighting.  It  was  an  attack  on  the 
rebel  line.  The  Fifth  Wisconsin  had  not  yet  returned  from  the 
timber  into  wiiich  it  chased  the  enemy.  I  wanted  to  hold  our 
prisoners  until  the  regiment  returned.  Some  of  the  men  with  me 
wanted  to  shoot  them.  The  prisoners  were  seared.  I  would  not 
stand  for  shooting  them  or  tying  them,  but  tried  to  get  a  guard 
of  volunteers  to  take  them  to  the  rear  and  deliver  them  to  the 
provost  guards.  No  one  would  volunteer,  so  I  decided  to  take 
them  to  the  rear  myself. 

On  the  afternoon  of  April  2,  1865,  after  the  enemy  had  been 
driven  out  of  their  works  to  the  left,  and  forced  back  toward 
Petersburg,  and  after  numerous  battles  Avere  fought,  in  none  of 
which  we  were  called  upon  to  take  part,  a  rebel  battery  in  a 
grove  on  a  high  place  inside  the  enemy's  lines  was  shelling  the 
Union  forces.  Its  fire  was  disastrous.  The  gunners  were  very 
active  and  their  fire  accurate.  The  Fifth  Wisconsin  was  ordered 
to  charge  that  battery  and  drive  them  out  or  capture  them.  From 
where  we  were  to  reach  the  battery  we  had  to  move  across  an 
open  field  of  rolling  or  undulating  surface.  The  regiment  moved 
out  in  columns  of  fours.  My  feet  had  become  so  lame  that  I  could 
not  keep  up.  The  regiment  followed  depression  for  protection. 
Its  course  was  zigzag,  ahvays  going  nearer  to  the  battery.  I  told 
the  colonel  that  my  feet  were  so  lame  that  I  could  not  keep  up 
and  so  I  would  go  straight  toward  the  battery,  which  I  did.  As 
soon  as  the  battery  saw  that  the  regiment  was  bearing  down  upon 
it,  it  directed  its  fire  against  the  regiment.  I  went  across  higher 
ground  and  nearer  the  battery  than  the  regiment  and  clearly  saw 
them  both.     The  first  shell  they  fired  went  over  the  regiment, 


struck  the  ground  beyond  and  exploded.  They  depressed  the 
gun,  and  the  second  shell  struck  the  ground  near  me,  bounded 
above  the  regiment  also,  went  in  the  ground  beyond  and  ex- 
ploded. Both  shells  tore  great  holes  in  the  earth.  The  third 
shot  got  the  range  of  the  regiment  and  struck  a  man  in  the 
shoulder  and  ranged  through  the  file  of  four  men,  literally  tearing 
them  to  pieces.  The  regiment  charged  the  battery  at  double 
quick  and  it  limbered  up  and  went  off  at  a  gallop  toward  Peters- 
burg to  another  high  point  and  opened  on  us  again  just  as  we 
reached  the  ground  where  they  were.  A  few  shells  exploded 
over  us,  but  we  were  not  touched.  About  four  o'clock  the  army 
was  formed  in  line  of  battle  at  right  angles  to  the  rebel  works 
and  as  soon  as  formed,  the  left  extending  for  half  a  mile  inside 
those  works  and  the  right  far  beyond  them,  towards  the  Union 
works,  the  Fifth  Wisconsin  near  the  left,  a  general  advance  to- 
wards Petersburg  was  begun.  I  took  my  place  in  the  ranks, 
though  I  was  suffering  excruciating  pain  in  my  feet.  We  moved 
slowly  forward  until  about  six  o'clock,  when  we  halted  for  the 
night,  the  whole  line  resting  with  arms  at  hand  or  lying  on  their 
arms  all  night. 

Guards  were  detailed  for  camp  and  picket  duty  and  the  men 
of  the  regiment  laid  down  utterly  exhausted  and  slept  with  guns 
loaded  and  ready  by  their  sides.  I  could  not  sleep,  so  I  volun- 
teered as  guard  and  was  placed  in  charge  of  both  camp  and  picket. 
Towards  night  the  commander  of  our  brigade  was  detailed  to 
serve  as  a  member  of  a  court  martial  and  our  colonel  being  the 
next  in  rank  took  command  of  the  brigade.  At  six  o'clock  that 
night  he  was  detailed  as  general  officer  of  the  day  for  the  army 
and  reported  at  headquarters,  where  plans  for  the  night  were  com- 
pleted and  he  was  charged  to  execute  them.  By  virtue  of  his 
position  as  general  ofScer  of  the  day,  he  was,  while  holding  that 
position,  in  command  of  the  army.  He  rode  along  the  entire  line, 
followed  by  a  long  retinue  of  aides  and  orderlies,  giving  instruc- 
tions to  the  several  commanders,  and  back  to  headquarters.  The 
camp  guards  were  posted,  the  pickets  were  also  posted  and  each 
picket  post  sent  out  a  vidette.  While  I  was  trying  to  rest  and 
after  dark  (no  lights  were  permitted  along  the  line)  the  colonel 
came  down  from  headquarters  on  foot  wearing  the  big  red  sash 
over  his  right  shoulder,  across  his  breast  and  ends  crossing  on 
his  left  side,  the  insignia  of  his  rank  as  general  officer  of  the  day. 
He  asked  me  who  was  in  charge  of  the  camp.  I  told  him  I  was. 
He  said  that  he  was  completely  exhausted  and  could  not  keep 
up  any  longer;  that  although  it  was  contrary  to  the  rules  for  him 


to  sleep  while  on  duty,  he  could  not  keep  awake  any  longer. 
I  told  him  to  get  a  blanket  and  wrap  up  so  that  his  sash  could  not 
be  seen  and  cover  his  head  and  I  Avould  call  him  if  there  was  occa- 
sion for  it ;  that  I  could  not  sleep  and  would  watch  for  him.  He 
outlined  his  duties  to  me,  gave  me  his  password  for  the  night, 
pulled  off  his  boots  and  put  them  under  his  head,  rolled  up  in 
his  blanket  and  covered  up  so  completely  that  he  could  not  be 
distinguished  from  any  one  else  lying  there.  I  jammed  the 
bayonet  of  my  gun  down  in  the  ground  at  his  head  with  the  butt 
of  the  gun  straight  up  in  the  air  as  a  guide  and  he  went  to  sleep 
and  I  became  the  substitute  general  officer  of  the  day  for  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  a  position  which  a  man  in  the  ranks  never 
held  before  or  since.  As  soon  as  everything  Avas  quiet,  I  went 
down  to  a  little  stream  which  ran  across  our  line  and  pulled  off 
my  shoes  and  stockings  and  sat  on  the  bank  with  my  feet  in  the 
creek  for  nearly  two  hours.  This  gave  me  great  relief.  I  did  this 
two  or  three  times  that  night  and  my  feet  were  much  better. 

Near  midnight  a  noise  as  of  moving  bodies  could  be  heard 
away  out  beyond  the  picket  line.  I  went  out  to  see  about  it,  out 
to  the  picket  posts,  out  beyond  to  the  videttes  and  from  post  to 
post.  When  away  out  at  the  front  I  could  hear  noises  like  men 
tramping,  wheels  like  those  of  wagons  and  artillery  moving.  I 
carefully  noted  the  direction  it  was  taking.  I  noticed  that  the 
noise  was  gradually  increasing  in  volume,  not  from  the  cause  of 
the  noise  coming  nearer,  but  rather  from  those  making  the  noise 
increasing  in  number.  I  went  back  to  the  regiment,  woke  up  the 
general  with  some  difficulty  and  told  him  that  the  rebels  were 
evacuating  Petersburg;  that  they  were  running  away.  He  lis- 
tened a  minute  and  said,  "Let  them  go,"  and  drew  his  blanket 
about  him  and  went  to  sleep  again.  So  Lee  and  his  army  got 

The  evacuation  of  Petersburg  by  Lee  and  his  army,  the  Army 
of  Virginia,  was  begun  at  midnight  on  the  second  day  of  April. 
He  retreated  up  the  Appomattox  river.  We  learned  soon  after- 
wards that  Richmond  was  also  evacuated  and  the  whole  rebel 
government  in  full  retreat.  From  the  beginning  of  hostilities 
the  effort  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  had  been  to  captixre  Kich- 
mond  and  drive  the  rebel  government  out.  Every  battle  in  the 
East  fought  by  it  had  that  purpose  for  its  ultimate  object.  The 
army  under  McClellan  got  almost  there.  Then  Burnside  got  as 
far  as  Fredericksburg.  Then  Hooker  was  stopped  and  forced 
back  at  Chancellorsville.  Then  Grant  was  stopped  at  the  Wilder- 
ness.    "Baldy"  Smith  and  Butler  were  turned  back  at  Peters- 


burg  and  on  the  James  river.  In  none  of  the  many  bloody  bat- 
tles theretofore  fought,  had  the  way  been  clear  to  Richmond, 
although  many  of  them  were  among  the  most  bloody  in  history. 
Bull  Run,  Antietara,  Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  Gettysburg, 
the  battles  in  the  Wilderness,  all  failed  to  bring  about  the  fall  of 
Richmond.  They  were  each  and  all  more  bloody  than  the  second 
battle  of  Petersburg,  but  by  none  of  them  was  the  enemy  forced 
into  a  hasty  retreat  and  the  victorious  army  able  to  make  a 
prompt  and  vigorous  pursuit.  In  no  other  battle  in  Virginia  had 
the  defeat  of  the  enemy  been  so  crushing  or  disastrous  to  it  that 
it  could  not  control  its  plan  of  retreat  and  take  the  necessary 
steps  to  recover  from  or  repair  the  disaster.  While  the  enemy 
became  less  and  less  powerful  at  each  successive  battle,  whether 
won  or  lost  by  it,  yet  if  any  one  battle  was  the  decisive  battle  of 
the  war,  that  battle  was  the  second  battle  of  Petersburg,  for  it 
produced  results  that  no  other  battle  accomplished,  the  fall  of 

Early  in  the  morning  of  April  3,  the  army  started  in  pursuit 
of  Lee.  The  Fifth  Wisconsin,  having  been  in  front  or  first  regi- 
ment to  move  the  day  before  in  the  attack  on  Petersburg,  was  the 
last  to  move  today.  Rations  were  issued  to  us,  including  about 
a  gill  of  whiskey  to  each  man.  I  held  my  tin  cup  Avith  the  rest 
for  my  share  and  all  the  boys  knew  I  did  not  drink,  some  thought 
that  I  would  divide  it  up  among  them  and  so  I  got  rather  a  larger 
ration.  My  cup  was  nearly  full,  but  instead  of  passing  it  around, 
I  turned  it  down  my  heels  in  each  shoe  and  thereby  incurred  the 
bitter  condemnation  of  some  of  the  members  of  the  company,  who 
had  a  great  liking  for  it.  I  think  this  was  the  only  ration  of 
whiskey  issued  to  us  while  we  were  in  the  service.  It  was  well 
toward  noon  when  we  began  the  march,  in  the  rear.  About  the 
middle  of  the  afternoon  we  halted  at  a  small  creek  to  fill  our 
canteens  and  rest.  While  we  were  scattered  along  the  creek  rest- 
ing and  lying  stretched  out  on  the  ground  along  side  the  road  we 
were  traveling,  Generals  Grant  and  Meade  suddenly  rode  out  of 
the  brush  along  the  road  back  of  us  and  halted  at  the  creek  close 
by  me  in  the  road  for  a  few  minutes  and  talked  with  our  colonel. 
Grant  looked  happy.  The  colonel  congratulated  him  for  the  great 
victory  won  yesterday.  The  general  replied,  waving  his  hand 
along  the  regiment :    "To  you  and  those  men  belongs  the  credit." 

In  the  morning  of  April  5  we  were  ordered  to  report  to  Sheri- 
dan at  the  front  at  once  and  half  rations  were  issued  to  us,  that 
is,  half  the  usual  amount  for  five  days,  and  about  eight  o'clock 
we  were  on  our  way.    We  stopped  to  rest  five  minutes  every  hour, 


half  an  hour  at  noon,  halt'  an  hour  at  midnight,  half  an  hour  at 
six  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  sixth  of  April,  half  an  hour  at 
noon  of  that  day,  and  about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  we  were 
at  the  front.  Company  K  was  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  regi- 
ment and  I  Avas  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  company  and  the 
regiment'  was  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  line.  Many  of  the  men 
had  fallen  out.  They  could  not  stand  the  forced  march.  The 
whole  number  in  Company  K  then  in  line  was  twenty-six  men 
and  it  mustered  more  men  than  any  other  of  the  companies  in  the 
line  of  the  regiment.  Some  of  the  companies  had  no  more  than 
half  our  number  in  line. 

Sheridan,  with  his  cavalry,  had  brought  General  Ewell's  coi-ps 
too,  and  it  had  been  handling  him  pretty  rough,  and  he  asked 
General  Grant  to  send  him  the  Sixth  Corps  in  a  hurry.  He  was 
being  whipped.  It  was  the  Sixth  Corps  that  whipped  the  Johnnies 
at  Cedar  Creek,  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley.  It  M-as  the  Sixth 
Corps  that  Sheridan  called  for  repeatedly  to  aid  him  in  his  fights 
down  on  the  left  of  Petersburg,  but  Grant  would  not  let  him  have 
it  then.  It  was  the  Sixth  Corps  that  assaulted  this  same  Ewell's 
corps  at  Mary's  Heights  at  Fredericksbiirg,  and  the  Fifth  Wis- 
consin led  in  that  memorable  assault  and  captured  the  heights 
and  drove  this  same  army  that  we  now  faced.  From  the  time 
Sheridan  with  his  troops,  marched  around  the  right  of  Lee's  army 
and  joined  Grant's,  or  the  Ai-my  of  the  Potomac,  on  the  extreme 
left,  he  kept  calling  for  the  Sixth  Corps.  He  called  for  it  before 
the  battle  of  Duuwiddie  Court  House,  fought  March  31,  was 
offered  the  Fifth,  Warren's,  but  refused  it.  He  again  called  for 
the  Sixth  Corps  before  the  aiTairs  at  Five  Forks  and  Bradley 
Run.  He  told  Grant  that  he  could  break  in  the  enemy's  right  if 
he  had  the  Sixth  Corps.  General  Grant  told  him  that  the  Sixth 
Corps  could  not  be  taken  from  its  position  in  the  line,  and  of- 
fered him  the  Second.  Sheridan's  campaign  with  liis  cavalry  and 
the  Sixth  Corps  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  had  been  very  success- 
ful, so  when  his  cavalry  was  put  back  near  Sailor's  creek,  he  had 
again  asked  for  the  Sixth  Corps,  and  by  Grant's  direction,  it  was 
sent  him.  In  the  note  Grant  wrote  to  Sheridan,  he  said,  "The 
Sixth  Corps  will  go  in  with  a  vim  any  place  you  may  dictate." 
So  Sheridan  sent  word  to  Wright,  commanding  the  corps,  to 
hurry,  and  he  says  that  "The  gallant  corps  came  up  as  fast  as  legs 
could  carry  them."  Wheaton's  men  (the  Fifth  Wisconsin  was 
one  of  Wheaton's  regiments)  came  up  all  hot  and  out  of  breath 
and  promptly  formed  for  the  attack,  and  while  the  whole  line 
promptly  attacked  the  enemy  and  fought  the  battle  of  Sailor's 


Creek,  which  Sheridan  called  one  of  the  severest  conflicts  of  the 
war.  He  said  that  it  has  never  been  accorded  the  prominence  it  is 
entitled  to,  because  it  was  overshadowed  by  the  stirring  events 
of  the  surrender  of  Lee  three  days  later.  It  resulted  in  the  cap- 
ture of  six  generals  and  from  nine  to  ten  thousand  prisoners. 

To  our  left,  rapidly  forming  into  line,  was  the  first  division 
of  the  Sixth  Corps.  Before  us  was  the  valley  of  Sailor's  Creek; 
the  creek  was  at  the  bottom  of  the  valley,  about  80  rods  from  us; 
we  were  formed  on  the  edge  of  the  hill,  which  dropped  down  to 
a  freshly  plowed  field,  which  extended  to  the  creek.  On  the  other 
side  of  the  creek,  the  land  was  more  broken  and  rough  with 
scattering  timber  to  a  Virginia  rail  fence,  about  40  rods  from  the 
creek  in  the  edge  of  the  timber.  Behind  the  rail  fence,  with  guns 
pointing  our  way,  was  Ewell's  coi"ps,  extending  in  a  long  line, 
both  to  right  and  left  out  of  sight.  It  was  4  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon when  Company  K  took  its  place  on  the  right  of  the  line,  the 
oificers  all  being  present.  Captain  Hall,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Bull, 
who  commanded  the  regiment,  were  in  a  group  at  my  right ;  Gen- 
eral Wheaton,  our  division  commander,  was  in  the  group  at  my 
right,  discussing  the  plan  of  battle.  General  Wheaton  stated  that 
the  plan  was,  as  soon  as  a  line  of  battle  was  finally  formed  and 
the  men  had  got  their  breaths,  to  advance  the  whole  line  and  at- 
tack the  enemy  where  it  lay.  After  General  "Wheaton  outlined 
his  plan  of  attack,  our  colonel  urged  him  to  send  in  tlie  Fifth 
Wisconsin  against  that  line  of  rebels  alone.  Wheaton  refused, 
then  with  tears  running  down  his  face,  the  colonel  urged  the 
officers  to  let  us  go ;  he  said  we  could  whip  them  alone.  The 
colonel  was  so  earnest  and  begged  so  hard,  that  General  Wheaton 
finally,  with  reluctance,  consented,  saying  to  one  of  his  aides  that 
they  would  send  troops  in  to  support  them.  We  were  required  to 
charge  a  line  of  neai'ly  20,000  desperate  men,  armed  to  kill,  across 
on  open  plain  with  no  kind  of  a  shelter  and  no  protection.  We 
loaded  our  guns  and  fixed  bayonets  and  all  the  commissioned 
officers  and  surgeons  took  their  regular  places  in  a  charge  in  the 
rear  and  we  moved  forward  in  double  line.  We  were  ordered  to 
cross  the  creek,  deploy  in  a  single  line,  each  man  about  two  feet 
from  his  fellow,  and  to  lie  down  until  the  order  was  given  to 
charge  and  then  to  jump  to  our  feet  and  rush  the  enemy's  line 
with  all  our  might.  The  band  played  and  filled  the  valley  with  its 
music ;  there  was  no  levity  among  us.  We  marched  with  our  gun.'- 
on  our  shoulders  toward  the  creek  and  the  enemy  beyond,  down 
across  the  plowed  field  until  we  were  near  the  creek,  when  a  few 
of  the  enemy  began  to  slioot  at  us  and  wounded  two  or  three  men. 


The  line  wavered  and  became  crooked  and  some  of  the  men  lagged. 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Bull,  in  command,  halted  the  regiment,  came 
forward  to  the  head  of  the  line  where  I  stood  and  right  dressed 
the  line.  As  the  men  formed  in  line  again  in  the  face  of  a  fusil- 
lade from  the  enemy,  and  a  great  cheer  from  the  Union  line,  we 
again  moved  forward  and  plunged  into  the  yellow,  rapidly  flowing 
water  of  Sailor's  creek,  which  was  about  hip  deep  and  a  rod  wide, 
and  hurried  across.  Volleys  from  the  whole  rebel  line  were  fired 
into  us  while  we  were  in  the  creek.  It  got  several  men.  "We 
dropped  down  and  hugged  the  earth  as  close  as  we  could  while 
they  fired  into  us  and  kept  up  all  the  time  the  terrible  "rebel 
yell."  We  laid  just  long  enough  to  get  our  breath  when  Colonel 
Bull  passed  the  word  along  the  line  that  when  the  order  was 
giveu  to  charge,  not  to  try  to  keep  in  line,  but  every  man  rush  to 
the  top  of  his  speed  and  fight  for  his  life  and  yell.  At  the  com- 
mand, we  jumped  up  and  rushed  for  the  enemy,  yelling  and  firing, 
every  man  frenziedly  fighting  for  his  life.  We  ran  against  a  ter- 
rific storm  of  bullets,  men  dropping  as  they  ran.  Those  of  us  not 
hit  rushed  on  over  the  crest  of  the  slope  and  down  at  the  rebels. 
There  could  be  but  one  of  two  results  from  our  charge ;  we  must 
drive  them  or  they  must  destroy  us.  As  we  charged  down  that 
slope  at  them,  mad  and  firing  and  yelling,  the  whole  rebel  line  in 
our  front  and  near  flanks  gave  way  and  started  to  retreat ;  they 
got  but  a  rod  or  two  from  the  barricade  when  some  of  them,  their 
officers  and  men,  yelled  at  each  other:  "What  are  you  scared  at, 
there  is  only  a  few  of  them,"  and  they  jumped  back  to  the  fence 
and  began  again  to  shoot  at  us  more  desperately  than  ever.  In 
our  charge.  Company  K  had  swerved  ofi*  to  the  right ;  the  general 
movement  of  the  regiment  was  in  that  direction;  the  exposure 
was  not  quite  so  bad,  but  absolutely  deadly  everywhere,  and  just 
at  this  time  I  found  myself  among  the  men  of  Company  B.  Every 
man  about  me  was  down  and  I  got  down.  Up  to  this  time  I  had 
not  fired  a  shot.  I  tried  to  shoot,  snapped  my  guu  several  times, 
but  it  hung  fire.  There  were  none  left  for  the  Johnnies  to  shoot 
at,  for  most  of  those  down  were  shot  down,  and  those  of  us  lying 
down  for  safety,  took  care  to  keep  very  still.  The  ground  all 
around  me  was  littered  with  guns,  and  as  I  could  not  fire  my  own 
gun,  I  dropped  it  and  selected  a  good  looking  one  from  those  on 
the  ground,  and  loaded  it.  Firing  upon  us  by  the  enemy  slack- 
ened. The  Second  Rhode  Island  were  sent  in  by  General  Wheaton 
on  the  double  ciuick  to  our  relief,  and  that  diverted  attention 
from  us.  A  group  of  Johnny  officers  were  talking  ofl:  to  the  left 
behind  their  line,  and  I  tried  my  new  found  gun  on  them.    I  aimed 


at  a  man  in  the  group  and  fired ;  there  was  a  scream  of  pain,  con- 
soling words  by  others  in  the  group  not  to  mind,  the  shot  was 
not  serious.    A  yell  from  the  line,  an  angry  order  from  an  officer, 

"Shoot  the  d n  Yankee ,"  and  a  fire  in  my  direction, 

it  seemed  to  me,  of  a  hundred  guns.  I  have  never  been  able  to 
understand  why  I  was  not  hit  by  that  fire.  I  felt  the  bullets  cut 
the  air  about  me ;  I  got  back  a  piece  behind  a  tree,  for  I  realized 
the  danger  I  was  in.  In  looking  about  me,  I  saw  Captain  Hall, 
the  only  officer  there  on  the  field.  Our  colonel  came  up,  his  feel- 
ings all  cut  up  over  the  drubbing  we  got  and  crying  like  a  child. 
The  entire  regiment  with  their  colors  was  captured  by  the  John- 
nies and  recaptured  later  by  the  Thirty-seventh  Massachusetts. 
Over  80  per  cent  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  Fifth  "Wisconsin  that 
moved  down  across  the  plowed  field  and  attacked  the  enemy  were 
killed  or  wounded.  The  charge  from  the  creek  until  we  were — 
done  up — lasted  about  five  minutes.  Nineteen  of  the  twenty-six  in 
line  in  Company  K  were  hit,  and  it  suffered  less  than  any  other 
company  in  the  regiment.  Every  man  in  Company  B,  among  whom 
I  found  myself,  was  shot.  I  alone  escaped.  Our  colors  were  saved, 
but  every  man  in  the  color  guard  was  hit.  The  artillery  had  shelled 
the  enemy  when  they  repulsed  us  and  captured  the  Second  Rhode 
Island  and  then  the  whole  line  charged  the  Johnnies  and  drove 
them.  Stragglers  from  the  regiment  kept  coming  in  after  the 
battle.  Some  of  us  remained  and  gathered  up  our  dead  and  buried 
them  and  helped  pick  up  the  wounded.  The  company  moved  off 
witli  the  balance  of  the  regiment  after  the  retreating  enemy  and 
I  stayed  working  with  those  left  behind  until  after  midnight,  when 
we  laid  down  and  slept  till  morning.  This  battle  was  not  ended 
and  the  enemy  in  full  retreat  until  night  set  in.  Sheridan,  in 
reference  to  the  defense  put  up  by  the  enemy  to  our  attack,  says 
that  they  fought  like  tigers.  The  result  of  the  battle  of  Sailor's 
Creek  was  the  capture  of  Rebel  Generals  Ewell,  Kershaw,  Barton, 
Corse,  Dubose  and  Curtis  Lee,  and  about  9,000  to  10,000  prisoners. 
Another  result  quite  as  important  was  cutting  off  Lee's  retreat 
south  to  join  Johnston,  and  driving  his  army  across  the  Appomat- 
tox river  toward  Appomattox  Court  House. 

The  Sixth  Corps  had  proved  to  the  enemy  by  the  bloody  bat- 
tle of  Sailor's  Creek  that  it  was  able  and  in  position  to  prevent 
the  rebel  army  from  retreating  south  without  exhausting  its  entire 
strength  to  defeat  us.  The  victory  and  the  capture  of  most  of 
Ewell 's  corps  by  us  had  released  the  cavalry  from  its  embar- 
rassed position,  and  Sheridan  again  at  once  placed  it  across  the 
enemy's  line   of  retreat.     The  cavalry  moved  out  in  the   right 


after  the  battle  was  over  and  part  of  the  Sixth  Corps  was  sent 
out  also  to  support  it.  This  force  was  fairly  across  the  enemy's 
line  of  retreat  and  it  had  either  to  turn  north,  cross  the  Appomat- 
tox river  and  get  that  stream  between  its  army  and  us  or  fight 
another  pitched  battle  at  once.  Fighting  was  on  all  the  time,  day 
and  night,  but  the  opposing  forces  were  moving  on  both  sides,  the 
enemy  in  retreat  and  our  troops  pursuing.  The  sound  of  the 
rattling  fire  of  musketry  kept  up  during  the  night  after  the  bat- 
tle and  kept  moving  away  toward  the  west.  The  Fifth  Wisconsin 
moved  out  in  the  rear  of  the  Sixth  Corps  very  early  in  the  morn- 
ing. Stragglers,  members  of  the  regiment,  both  officers  and  men, 
who  were  unable  to  keep  pace  with  its  two  days'  and  nights'  con- 
tinuous forced  march  to  take  part  in  the  battle,  kept  coming  up 
until,  when  the  pursuit  of  the  enemy  began  after  the  battle  was 
over,  most  of  them  Avere  with  the  regiment.  In  helping  to  bury 
the  dead  and  care  for  the  wounded  I  became  separated  from  the 
company  and  was  not  with  it  when  it  marched  with  the  regiment, 
and  about  a  dozen  of  us  started  out  to  join  the  army  next  morn- 
ing, without  rations.  The  sound  of  musketry  had  turned  from 
west  to  north  and  was  moving  in  a  northerly  direction,  miles 
away  from  us.  We  started  toward  the  sound  of  firing,  across  the 
country  the  shortest  way,  not  following  the  line  of  march  of  the 
army,  keeping  together  as  pi'otection  against  guerillas  and  bush- 
Avhackers  and  looking  for  something  to  eat.  We  sighted  a  man- 
sion surrounded  by  great  fields  and  negro  quarters  and  other 
buildings.  We  cautiously  reeounoitered  and  found  that  the  place 
was  not  guarded.  We  went  there  and  asked  for  enough  food  to 
last  us  until  we  overtook  the  ai'my,  which  we  offered  to  pay  for. 
They  told  us  there  was  not  a  mouthful  of  food  on  the  place.  The 
proprietor,  an  old  man,  with  his  wife,  a  daughter  and  a  young 
woman  and  two  or  three  younger  children,  were  sitting  together 
on  the  porch  and  lying  on  the  floor  of  the  porch  in  their  midst 
was  a  young  man,  the  son,  bleeding  from  several  wounds  he  re- 
ceived the  night  or  day  before,  suffering.  His  father  and  mother 
shoAved  the  anguish  they  felt  and  the  children  sat  quietly,  tears 
running  down  their  faces.  They  expected  if  they  did  not  pro- 
vide us  with  food  that  we  would  burn  their  buildings.  We  put 
out  pickets  to  guard  against  surprise  and  began  a  search.  In  a 
store-room  filled,  as  they  said,  with  empty  barrels,  we  found  a 
barrel  of  flour  at  the  bottom  of  the  pile.  One  man  found  a  pail 
of  lard  in  the  basement.  Two  or  three  chased  down  a  few  chickens 
that  had  been  overlooked  by  former  raiders  and  we  had  the  old 
negro  mammy  cook  some  frying  flapjacks  and  chicken.     Ai'til- 


lery  and  musketry  sound  off  to  the  northwest  was  very  heavy. 
We  each  took  a  portion  of  flour  and  piece  of  friend  chicken  and 
moved  fast  toward  the  sound  of  the  guns  and  overtook  the  regi- 
ment at  Farmville,  on  the  Appomattox. 

Tlie  Johnnies  had  crossed  the  river  at  Farmville  and  fired  the 
bridge  and  made  a  stand  there,  but  our  men  had  charged  and 
drove  them  out  aiid  put  out  the  fii-e.  The  Fifth  Wisconsin  took 
no  part  in  that  skirmish.  Up  to  the  beginning  of  the  war,  Farm- 
ville was  said  to  be  the  largest  primary  tobacco  market  in  the 
world.  There  were  huge  warehouses  there  filled  with  all  kinds 
of  manufactured  tobacco  when  the  troops  hit  the  town.  The 
troops  halted  there  for  a  while  and  when  we  struck  the  town, 
just  after  our  regiment  had  come  up,  the  streets  were  literally 
carpeted  with  pig  tails,  twist,  plug  and  other  styles  of  tobacco. 
The  lovers  of  the  weed  were  in  the  seventh  heaven.  Davis,  of 
Company  K,  emptied  all  his  clothes  from  his  knapsack  and  filled 
every  inch  of  it  with  tobacco,  making  a  load  that  staggered  him, 
but  he  was  one  of  the  happiest  men  in  the  army  for  a  while. 
Some  of  the  buildings  were  set  on  fire  and  destroyed.  The  con- 
tinued pounding  by  the  cavalry  of  the  outskirts  of  Lee's  army 
Avas  crowding  it  en  masse,  and  we  were  put  in  motion  again.  By 
rapid  marches  were  pushed  across  his  front,  or  on  the  south  side, 
of  his  troops,  in  line  of  battle  on  April  9,  1865,  in  the  edge  of 
timber  with  a  wide  open  field  between  us  and  his  army.  We 
stacked  arms  and  with  broken  ranks  were  right  by  our  guns,  ready 
in  an  instant  for  any  movement  of  the  enemy,  which  we  knew 
was  just  beyond  the  timber  across  the  field  in  front.  We  all 
realized  that  the  critical  time  was  at  hand ;  that  the  only  chance 
for  the  enemy  to  escape  was  to  break  our  line ;  that  his  escape 
meant  aid  for  Johnston  and  the  defeat  of  Sherman.  Cheers  came 
ringing  down  the  line  and  with  them  word  that  Lee  had  surren- 
dered. This  report  was  premature,  but  for  the  time  it  set  the  array 
wild.  The  report  was  soon  contradicted,  but  later  in  the  day 
another  report  came  that  he  had  surrendered,  and  this  proved  to 
be  true. 

After  the  surrender  of  General  Lee  we  marched  back  to  Burks- 
ville  Junction  and  went  into  camp,  from  whence  we  expected  to 
be  transferred  to  Washington  to  take  part  in  the  grand  review, 
plans  for  which  were  begun.  We  had  hardly  gone  into  camp 
when  the  report  came  that  President  Lincoln,  his  cabinet  and 
General  Grant  had  been  assassinated.  The  report  had  a  peculiar 
effect  on  the  troops.  The  Sixth  Corps  continued  under  the  sepa- 
rate comm.and  of  General  Sheridan  from  the  time  it  was  sent  to 


him  by  Grant  to  help  him  out  of  the  hole  that  Ewell  had  him  in 
at  Sailor's  Creek,  and  he  was  now  doing  his  best  to  be  allowed 
to  go  to  Washington  so  that  he  could  ride  at  the  head  of  his 
army  in  tlie  grand  review,  but  General  Grant  ordered  otherwise. 
The  terms  that  Johnston  had  gotten  from  Sherman  for  the  sur- 
render of  his  army  was  not  satisfactory,  and  Sheridan,  with  the 
Sixth  Corps  and  his  cavalry,  was  ordered  south.  The  march  to 
Danville  was  a  forced  march,  the  only  incident  of  special  note 
on  the  march  were  the  extraordinary  beauty  of  Southern  Virginia, 
across  which  we  passed.  We  had  scarcely  reached  Danville  when 
Johnston  surrendered  on  the  same  terms  given  Lee,  and  the  effect 
of  our  march  was  completed.  After  Johnston's  surrender,  the 
Fifth  Wisconsin  did  guard  duty  on  the  Southern  railroad,  guard- 
ing Confederate  government  property,  which  was  being  gathered 
up  and  shipped,  generally  to  Washington.  After  the  property  had 
been  shipped  we  were  marched  to  Washington  by  the  way  of 
Richmond  and  Fredericksburg.  We  marched  to  Arlington  Heights 
and  camped  there.  We  were  impatient  to  be  mustered  out  and 
go  home,  but  we  had  to  remain  there  until  the  accounts  of  the 
officers  and  men  with  the  government  were  squared.  Finally  an 
officer  came  over  from  Washington  and  condemned  our  tents, 
guns  and  accoutrements.  After  remaining  in  camp  at  Arlington 
for  some  time,  we  were  finally  ordered  home. 

J.  F.  ELLIS. 

The  last  company  that  went  out  from  Eau  Claire  county 
for  the  Civil  War  was  recruited  in  February,  1865,  with 
Hobart  M.  Stocking  as  captain  and  Mark  Sherman  as  first 
lieutenant,  and  was  mustered  into  service  as  Company  G, 
of  the  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry.  I  give  below  the 
names  of  those  in  this  company  who  enlisted  from  Eau 
Claire  county  or  vicinity.  I  also  furnish  you  a  letter  re- 
ceived several  years  ago  from  Captain  Stocking,  in  response 
to  a  request  from  me  that  he  tell  the  story  of  his  company. 
It  is  a  very  interesting  and  valuable  addition  to  the  Civil 
War  history  of  Eau  Claire  county.  Although  Captain 
Stocking  was  unable  to  furnish  a  war-time  picture  of  him- 
self, I  was  fortunate  enough  to  find  a  small  picture  of  him 
in  uniform,  which  I  am  furnishing  you  with  this  article. 

Following  are  the  names  of  those  in  the  company  who 
enlisted  from  Eau  Claire  county  or  vicinity. 

Captain  Hobart  M.  Stocking.     First  Lieutenant  H.  Sherman. 



Hans  Amimdson,  Warwick  Ayres,  Francis  C.  Baggs, 
Lewis  Bartz,  August  Bartz,  Joseph  Beau,  George  Betz, 
Ford  Britton,  August  Brummund,  Henry  S.  BuUis,  Charles 
J.  Bussey,  John  G.  Claire,  Horace  F.  Clark,  William  Clark, 
Henry  E.  Cole,  Howard  W.  Craft,  Stewart  A.  Davis,  Joseph 
Denny,  John  Denny,  Sylvannixs  Edson,  Samuel  Ellison, 
John  G.  Emerson,  Nathaniel  Flagg,  Jr.,  Orange  S.  Frizzell, 
Roland  Fuller,  Benjamin  F.  Haines,  William  J.  Hall,  Samuel 
J.  Hamilton,  Phillip  Hammer,  Amasa  Hathaway,  Thomas  C. 
Higgins,  Alonzo  E.  Ilolden,  Horace  Hotchkiss,  Actor  Hun- 
ter, August  B.  Kaatz,  Thomas  F.  Kenyon,  Levi  S.  Ketchum, 
Squire  B.  Kidder,  Andrew  Kopp,  George  Kopple,  Peter 
Launderville,  Erick  Leidiger,  Sylvester  M.  Macomber,  Fred- 
erick Martin,  La  F'ayette  Mattison,  George  W.  Mattox, 
Nicholas  Mergeuer,  Julius  Moldenhause,  Curtis  Z.  Nicholas, 
Ever  Oleson,  Manum  C.  Olin,  Asabel-Putney,  Royal  Russell, 
Elias  Salverson,  James  0.  Sanborn,  Christian  Sehwankce, 
John  M.  Shong,  James  Sloat,  Horace  H.  Smith,  James  J. 
Simth,  Marshus  L.  Snow,  Joseph  Spelile,  Louis  Spehle, 
Hortentio  E.  Stone,  Sylvester  P.  Swan,  Henry  Tallmudge, 
John  Teske,  Charles  Thayer,  Charles  F.  Warren,  Samuel 
Wilke,  John  Wilkinson,  Freeman  Williams,  Henry  L.  Will- 
iams, Frederick  Wittee,  Obadiah  Works,  George  B.  Wright. 

Although  this  company  went  out  near  the  close  of  the 
war,  they  suffered  severe  hardships  and  in  common  with  the 
recruits  who  Avent  earlier,  they  made  good  and  M'ere  a 
credit  to  the  county. 

In  the  preface  to  his  letter,  Captain  Stocking  states  that 
he  was  unable  to  find  a  picture  of  himself  in  uniform,  but 
an  Eau  Claire  friend  of  the  captain  has  unearthed  a  small 
picture  and  I  am  sending  it  to  you,  also  a  picture  of  Lieu- 
tenant Mark  Sherman.  I  am  sorry  that  I  have  mislaid  the 
later  picture  of  Captain  Stocking,  which  is  mentioned  in 
his  letter. 


St.  Paul,  Minn.,  August  .5.  1907. 
Mr.  W.  W.  Bartlett,  Eau  Claire,  Wis. 

Dear  Sir:  I  neglected  answering  yours  of  the  seventh  ult., 
thinking  I  might  be  able  to  find  some  record  which  would  refresh 
my  memory  and  enable  me  to  answer  your  inquiry  in  detail,  but 


I  have  looked  from  "cellar  to  garret"  and  not  a  vestige  of  record 
can  I  find,  nor  can  I  find  a  photograph  in  uniform,  so  I  send  you 
today,  under  separate  cover,  a  photograph  taken  a  few  months 
ago.  Portj^-one  years  is  a  long  time  to  remember,  especially  when 
one  has  been  busy  with  other  pursuits  and  interests,  but  I  shall  do 
the  best  I  can. 

The  regiment  to  which  I  belonged  did  not  put  down  the  Re- 
bellion nor  force  the  surrender  of  Lee  and  Johnston.  We  were 
late  in  the  field  and  had  barely  left  the  state  when  Lee  sur- 
rendered. I  presume  he  got  news  of  our  muster  and  was  afraid 
we  might  be  marching  his  way.  It  was  my  privilege  to  command 
Company  G,  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry,  which 
I  recruited  at  Eau  Claire.  We  were  mustered  in  early  in  the  year 
of  1865,  either  in  February  or  March.  The  company  was  the 
heaviest  in  weight  of  any  which  ever  left  the  state ;  rank  and  file, 
the  average  weight  was  153  pounds.  This  included  my  drummer 
boy,  who  weighed  90  pounds,  and  myself,  who  weighed  93  pounds. 
This  distinction  caused  us  extra  labor  during  our  first  march 
through  Missouri  in  April,  where  we  literally  carried  the  wagon 
train  across  the  western  part  of  the  state.  My  company  being 
the  largest  and  coming  from  the  pineries,  the  colonel  got  the  im- 
pression that  we  could  endure,  and  whenever  the  wagon-train  got 
stuck,  which  was  often,  he  would  ask  me  if  I  could  take  it  out, 
and  I  think  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say  that  I  wheeled  my  com- 
pany out  of  line  each  day  a  half  dozen  times  or  more  and  literally 
carried  the  heavy  wagons  and  contents  to  good  footing.  There 
was  never  a  swollen  stream  to  ford,  and  they  were  many,  for  it 
was  a  wet  spring,  that  Company  G  did  not  take  the  advance  and 
"set  the  example."  The  colonel  would  say,  "Captain,  if  yovi  can 
take  your  men  across  there,  half  the  regiment  will  follow  the 
example ;  the  water  is  deep  and  so  cold  that  I  dislike  to  order 
men  to  ford,  but  as  your  men  are  from  the  pinery  and  can  stand 
hardship,  if  you  will  just  take  the  lead  you  will  oblige,  etc." 
We  always  took  the  lead.  So  much  for  the  reputation  of  being 
big  and  strong.    In  this  case  it  was  a  handicap. 

I  think  I  was  one  of  the  youngest,  if  not  the  youngest,  officer 
who  ever  left  the  state.  I  was  mustered  as  captain  two  months 
before  I  was  eighteen  years  of  age.  I  forced  my  age  a  year  in 
order  to  muster.  The  regiment  was  organized  in  Milwaukee  at 
Camp  Washburn,  and  early  in  March  we  were  sent  to  Benton 
Barracks,  Mo.,  to  drill.  We  only  remained  there  one  week  and 
were  then  ordered  west  to  garrison  posts  along  the  Missouri  and 
Kansas  border,  where  the  bushwhackers  were  still  troublesome. 


Our  march  through  Missouri  was  uneventful,  save  for  the  mud 
and  water  and  the  trifling  annoyances  of  bushwhackers,  who 
were  hovering  about  our  flanks  day  and  night.  Being  infantry, 
we  could  hardly  go  after  the  mounted  bushwhackers,  and  they 
were  very  bold  at  times,  burning  houses  and  pillaging  and  mur- 
dering frequently  within  sight  of  the  command.  Before  we  could 
reach  the  spot  to  oft'er  assistance  they  were  mounted  and  off. 

Our  first  stop  was  at  Paola,  Kan.,  where  Companies  G  and  F 
were  detached.  Our  stay  was  limited,  however,  as  the  night  of 
the  second  day  after  being  detached  I  received  orders  to  proceed 
to  Mound  City,  thirty-five  miles  south,  with  all  possible  dispatch 
and  take  command  of  the  post  there.  We  made  this  march  in 
thirteen  hours.  At  one  point,  "Big  Sugar  Bottoms,"  for  seven  con- 
tinuous miles  the  water  was  from  waist  to  shoulder  deep.  It  was 
a  hard  march  and  when  I  got  there  and  reported  to  General  Blunt 
by  wire,  I  received  in  reply  a  complimentary  dispatch,  in  which 
the  general  expressed  surprise  at  the  fact  of  our  reaching  our 
destination  so  soon,  saying  he  expected  it  would  take  two  days. 
I  was  young  and  inexperienced  and  supposed  the  order  which 
read  "all  possible  dispatch"  meant  all  it  said,  and  I  fulfilled  the 
order  to  the  letter.  We  marched  the  distance  in  thirteen  hours. 
I  don't  believe  we  could  have  cut  off  two  minutes  from  the  time, 
as  it  was  heavy  footing,  and  while  in  many  places  the  water  was 
too  deep  to  wade  with  ease,  it  was  hardly  deep  enough  to  swim 
with  knapsack  weighing  from  sixty  to  eighty  pounds  on  one's 
back.  We  were  ordered  to  Mound  City  to  relieve  a  company  of 
Kansas  Jayhawkers,  as  the  reckless  Fifteen  Kansas  was  called. 
Captain  Swain,  a  former  captain  of  this  company,  who  had  a 
few  weeks  before  been  sentenced  by  court  martial  to  a  term  in 
military  prison  at  Jeffersonville,  Mo.,  had  made  his  escape  and 
was  in  hiding.  A  troop  of  regular  army  cavalry  was  scouring  the 
country  trying  to  find  him.  The  captain  in  command  of  this  troop 
suspected  he  was  in  hiding  in  the  vicinity  of  Mound  City  and  that 
this  company  was  shielding  him,  hence  we  were  ordered  there  to 
relieve  the  command. 

I  arrived  at  Mound  City  and  went  at  once  to  headquarters  and 
found  there  in  command  a  much  bewhiskered  officer,  faultlessly 
attired  in  regulation  viniform,  who  received  me  with  much  for- 
mality and  addressed  me  as  "orderly."  On  reading  the  order  he 
did  not  seem  well  pleased,  and  asked,  "Where  is  this  Captain 
Stocking?"  I  replied,  "Here."  With  surprise  and  a  slight  sneer 
he  looked  me  over  and  said,  "You  Captain  Stocking?"    I  replied 


in  the  affirmative  and  forgave  him  the  sneer,  as  I  certainly  was 
a  rough  looking  kid,  a  beardless  boy  in  fatigue  uniform,  without 
a  strap  or  bar  to  indicate  my  rank,  and  my  clothes  literally  bespat- 
tered with  Missouri  clay.  One  could  hardly  blame  the  man  for 
not  wishing  to  turn  over  the  command  to  such  a  youthful-looking 
tramp.  On  recovering  from  his  surprise  he  asked,  "When  do  you 
wish  to  take  command?"  I  replied,  "Immediately."  He  said, 
"Surely  not  tonight."  I  said,  "You  have  read  my  orders,  which 
say  'immediately.'  You  can  consider  yourself  relieved  now." 
He  did  not  take  this  kindly.  I  had  a  man  shot  on  picket  duty 
that  night,  and  when  we  were  rolled  out  at  midnight  the  situa- 
tion had  me  guessing  for  a  time.  The  night  was  dark  as  a  pocket, 
with  a  strong  wind  and  heavy  rain,  and  the  location  entirely  new, 
as  I  was  too  tired  to  reconnoiter  much  before  retiring  that  even- 
ing. I  really  was  at  a  loss  to  know  whether  it  was  an  attack  from 
Taylor's  band  of  bushwhackers,  which  were  operating  in  that 
vicinity,  or  a  shot  from  some  straggling  horse  thief  who  was 
trying  to  open  the  corral  where  the  post  was  located.  I  had  the 
satisfaction  of  ordering  a  detachment  of  twenty-five  men  from 
the  Jayhawkers  to  roll  out  and  scout  in  the  dark  and  rain  until 
daylight.  I  also  reinforced  the  picket  with  mounted  men  fron^ 
tliat  command,  which  took  the  last  man  from  their  quarters  and 
there  was  some  swearing  done  on  their  part.  After  the  fullest 
investigation  I  came  to  the  conclusion  that  my  man  was  shot 
by  one  of  these  self-same  Jayhawkers  in  a  spirit  of  revenge  or  an 
effort  to  stampede  the  "Doughboys."  A  stampede  did  not  occur 
and  I  never  was  able  to  fasten  the  crime  on  them.  The  one  satis- 
faction I  had  was  in  keeping  their  company  out  all  night  in  the 
storm.  They  were  a  lawless  bunch,  and  if  I  could  ever  have 
fastened  this  attempted  murder  on  them  they  would  have  cer- 
tainly received  a  sample  of  discipline  of  which  they  were  in  sore 
need,  and  with  which  they  were  not  entirely  acquainted. 

We  garrisoned  this  post  about  four  months.  Our  duty  here 
was  light  and  rather  uninteresting.  Bushwhacker  scares  among 
the  natives  were  frequent,  as  they  were  very  nervous,  having  been 
frequently  raided.  We  gave  them  the  fullest  protection,  however, 
and  in  return  we  were  treated  better  by  the  citizens  than  we 
would  have  probably  been  treated  in  our  own  state. 

In  August,  General  Taylor,  seeing  the  "jig  was  up,"  and  that 
they  could  not  divide  the  spoils  with  the  troops  then  garrisoning 
the  border,  capitulated  to  our  colonel,  who  was  in  command  at 
Fort  Scott,  twenty-two  miles  distant.    He  surrendered  a  band  of 


153  mounted  guerrilas,  who  were  taken  to  prison  at  Fort  Leaven- 
worth. This  wound  up  the  guerrilla  warfare,  and  there  was  no 
further  need  of  our  services  there. 

We  were  ordered  to  Lawrence,  Kan.,  to  rendezvous  as  a  regi- 
ment. We  expected  to  be  mustered  out,  but  instead  were  sent 
west  to  relieve  the  Eighth  United  States  "Galvanized"  Rebels, 
who  were  garrisoning  posts  on  the  western  frontier.  This  service 
was  scattered  from  Forst  Ellsworth  on  the  east  to  Fort  Union 
on  the  southwest.  Fort  Ellsworth  was  on  the  Smoky  Hill  Fork, 
and  Fort  Union  was  at  a  point  about  100  miles  southwest  of 
Pike's  Peak. 

Companies  E  and  G  were  stationed  at  Fort  Zarah.  Our  colonel 
with  four  companies  was  at  Fort  Larned,  twenty-four  miles  west. 
The  remaining  four  companies  in  command  of  Major  Butt  were, 
I  think,  stationed  at  Fort  Union.  A  little  excitement  was  threat- 
ened shortly  after  Captain  Hutchinson  of  Company  E  took  com- 
mand at  Fort  Zarah.  The  troops,  who  were  rebels  taken  from 
Rock  Island  and  other  prisoners,  officered  by  Union  officers,  and 
placed  in  the  Indian  service  on  the  frontier,  were  really  as  bitter 
rebels  as  ever.  We  had  800  of  them  assembled  at  Fort  Zarah 
awaiting  marching  orders  to  Fort  Leavenworth,  where  they 
expected  to  be  discharged.  The  order  was  slow  in  coming  and 
the  command  miitinied  and  refused  to  do  duty.  Captain  Hutchin- 
son ordered  that  the  arms  be  taken  from  the  men  and  they  con- 
fined to  quarters  on  prisoners'  rations.  The  men  refused  to  give 
up  their  arms.  The  situation  was  threatening  and  it  required 
courage  to  meet  it,  as  they  were  800  to  our  135 ;  they  occupied 
quarters  and  we  occupied  tents,  but  Captain  Hiitchinson  had  the 
nerve  requisite,  and  he  made  good,  quelled  the  mutiny  and  the 
troops  did  duty  until  their  orders  came.  Our  service  at  Fort 
Zarah  was  strenuous  if  not  exciting.  It  consisted  of  the  ordinary 
garrison  duty  and  escort  duty,  which  in  some  eases  was  very  dis- 
tasteful. Colonel  Dent  was  at  the  Big  Bend  of  the  Arkansas  a 
few  miles  south,  with  a  supply  camp,  issuing  annuities  to  the 
Indians.  Bodies  of  chiefs  and  head  men  of  the  tribes  would  come 
to  the  fort,  and  the  commander  would  give  them  a  liberal  body- 
guard in  command  of  a  trusty  officer  to  protect  them  from  the 
desire  of  revenge  on  the  part  of  the  soldiers,  on  their  way  to 
receive  the  presents  of  the  government  at  the  hands  of  Colonel 
Dent.  The  situation  was  further  aggravated  by  the  knowledge 
that  a  half-breed  son  of  this  same  Colonel  Dent  was  in  command 
of  a  body  of  Sioux  warriors,  murdering  and  pillaging  on  the 
Platte  route,   only  thirty-five  miles  north.     Stage  coaches  were 


held  up,  passengers  murdered,  the  stock  stolen  and  coaches  burned 
by  this  blood-thirsty  band.  Woe  be  to  the  straggling  soldier  who 
fell  into  their  hands.  Some  of  the  most  fiendish  tortures  imagin- 
able were  meted  out  to  these  self-same  soldiers.  We  were  lucky 
in  escaping  them,  but  they  got  some  of  the  Seventeenth  Illinois 
Cavalry  and  tortured  them  to  death,  sometimes  in  sight  of  Fort 
Fletcher,  where  a  detachment  of  this  regiment  was  stationed. 

Being  mounted,  the  tendency  of  the  men  was  to  straggle  and 
hunt  buffalo.  I  had  a  party  of  twenty  men,  who  had  been  kept 
liusy  getting  wood  for  winter  for  several  weeks,  and  who  were 
enjoying  the  hunt  which  had  been  promised  them,  when  we  came 
nearly  running  into  the  jaws  of  this  blood-thirsty  band.  Some 
hunters  discovered  our  camp  fire  and  warned  us  of  the  close 
proximity  of  the  ludians,  and  we  stood  not  on  the  order  of  going, 
but  "got"  for  the  fort  as  soou  as  we  could  get  our  stock,  which 
had  stampeded,  and  run  to  the  fort  that  evening.  It  seems  an 
interposition  of  Providence  that  saved  us,  for  that  very  day  the 
men  had  been  hunting  in  parties  of  ten  within  a  few  miles  of  Fort 
Fletcher,  and  that  same  day  the  Indians  captured  two  stage 
coaches,  shot  the  passengers  one  by  one  as  they  were  trying  to 
escape,  burning  the  coaches  and  running  off  with  the  stock.  They 
caught  two  soldiers  of  the  Seventeenth  Illinois  Cavalry  within 
sight  of  the  fort  and  tortured  them  to  death  in  a  manner  too 
revolting  to  put  on  paper.  Little  wonder  the  soldiers  were  ready 
to  retaliate  on  sight  and  that  it  was  necessary  to  strongly  guard 
the  parties  who  came  for  annuities.  The  father  issuing  annuities 
and  the  son  murdering  and  torturing  in  the  same  vicinity  was  an 
aggravating  situation. 

Kit  Carson,  the  famous  scout  and  delightful  man,  later  went 
into  camp  five  miles  north  of  us  on  the  Walnut.  As  guests  he  had 
for  a  time  the  secretary  of  the  legation  of  Belgium  and  the 
assistant  secretary  of  the  legation  of  Prussia,  whom  we  often 
entertained  at  mess.  Both  were  trying  to  enjoy  tlie  hunting  of 
buffaloes,  but  they  had  some  sad  experiences,  the  Belgian  shoot- 
ing his  horse  through  the  neck  by  accident  and  getting  a  bruising 
fall  when  the  horse  went  dowu.  They  soon  got  tired  of  the  sport 
and  returned  to  civilization  at  the  first  opportunity.  We  enjoyed 
their  visits  very  much,  and  when  they  left  us  they  gave  each 
officer  an  urgent  invitation  to  call  on  them  should  we  ever  visit 
their  country.  It  was  my  privilege  to  command  an  escort  for  Kit 
Carson  on  his  final  and  successful  effort  to  complete  a  treaty  with 
the  five  war  tribes,  which  was  accomplished  after  days  of,  to  me, 
aggravating  parleying  at  a  point  called  Plum  Buttes.    Each  day's 


council  would  be  broken  up  by  the  defiant  chief  of  the  Arapahoes, 
who  had  a  white  woman  prisoner  for  his  squaw  and  he  refused  to 
give  her  up,  which  was  one  of  the  conditions  of  completing  the 
treaty.  About  4  p.  m.  each  day  he  would  mount  his  horse  and 
ride  off,  and  all  the  chiefs  would  follow  him,  breaking  up  the 
council.  The  soldiers  were  very  impatient,  and  the  last  day  I 
suggested  to  Carson  that  we  murder  the  whole  baud.  He  replied, 
"No,  no,  for  God's  sake  put  that  out  of  your  head.  They  will 
come  to  time  in  the  end,"  and  they  did.  Of  this  patient,  per- 
sistent, quiet  man  I  can  only  say  he  was  one  of  the  most  delight- 
ful companions  and  straightforward,  determined  men  I  ever  met. 
He  believed  in  the  Indians,  or  pretended  to,  and  they  swore  by 
him.  He  deserved  their  confidence.  This  treaty  was  signed  and 
peace  reigned  for  a  time.  How  long  I  do  not  remember,  but  for 
the  few  days  we  remained  on  the  frontier  it  was  safe  to  travel 
without  fear  of  losing  one's  scalp. 

Early  in  December  we  were  relieved  by  regular  troops  and 
started  on  our  homeward  march.  Here  let  me  say,  that  I  believe 
that  for  exposure  and  fatigue,  no  troops  ever  made  such  a  march 
in  America.  The  night  before  we  left  Fort  Zarah  a  foot  of  snow 
fell.  Our  first  two  days'  march  was  uneventful,  the  weather, 
although  cold,  was  not  severe.  The  morning  of  the  third  day  a 
blizzard  struck  us,  which  continued  almost  uninterruptedly  for 
four  days.  The  first  day  the  mules  would  not  face  it  and  we  had 
to  go  in  camp  at  the  end  of  a  five-mile  march.  Having  only  drawn 
enough  rations  to  make  the  march,  which,  if  my  memory  serves 
me  right,  was  twenty-four  days,  we  could  not  tarry  or  we  would 
be  out  of  supplies  in  that  vast  wilderness  of  snow  and  upon  a 
bleak  plain.  The  second  day  we  started  with  a  shovel  corps  of 
fiftj'  men,  who  were  relieved  by  a  fresh  detail  of  men  each  hour, 
and  we  literally  shoveled  our  roads  for  eighty  miles.  The  wagon- 
master  would  take  his  riding  mule  by  the  tail  and  start  him  out 
to  find  the  trail.  When  he  floiindered  the  men  would  shovel  him 
out,  and  they  were  shoveling  him  out  most  of  the  time.  The  snow 
was  from  three  to  thirty  feet  deep.  Every  ravine  or  depression 
in  the  plains  was  filled.  Some  of  these  ravines  were  twenty  to 
thirty  feet  and  often  of  greater  depth.  At  night  we  would  cut 
out  a  hole  in  the  snow  for  our  tents  and  pitch  them.  Companies 
E  and  G  had  only  dog  tents,  properly  called  shelter  tents,  and 
these  would  often  be  covered  up  in  the  morning  if  the  wind  v/as 
high,  making  it  snug  and  comfortable  during  the  night,  but  "Oh, 
what  a  difference  in  the  morning,"  when  the  cook's  detail  would 
roll  out  and  make  a  fire  of  wet  elm,  over  which  the  cook  would 


brew  hot  coffee.  The  men  would  take  a  cup  of  coffee  in  one  hand 
and  hardtack  in  the  other  and  make  a  large  ring  about  the  fire 
and  take  a  dog  trot  and  keep  it  up  until  coffee  and  hardtack  were 
consumed,  then  off  for  the  day's  tramp.  Only  one  day  did  we 
lose  the  trail  entirely.  That  night  we  camped  about  three  miles 
south  of  a  rocky  prominence  on  a  high  sugar-loaf  hill,  which,  if 
I  remember  right,  was  called  Chimney  Rock.  When  I  went  to  the 
wagon  train  to  get  a  shovel  to  sliovel  the  snow  away  so  I  could 
pitch  my  tent  I  met  the  wagonmaster  and  said  to  him:  "I 
thought  we  passed  north  of  that  rock  when  we  marched  out."  He 
replied:  "You  did,  the  road  is  at  the  north,  but  I  tell  you,  cap- 
tain, no  landmark  ever  looked  so  good  to  me  as  that  very  rock 
when  I  sighted  it  this  p.  m.  I  was  lost  all  day."  I  replied  that  I 
did  not  know  it.  lie  said,  "Of  course  you  didn't  know  it.  It  was 
all  I  could  do  to  fight  the  panic  within  me.  Should  I  have  let  the 
situation  be  known  there  woidd  have  been  500  men  in  the 
damndest  panic  you  ever  heard  of,  and  hell  would  have  been  pop- 
ping.   I  am  just  truly  thankful  to  be  here  tonight." 

Strange  as  it  appears  to  me  up  to  this  day  we  lost  no  man  on 
this  march.  Our  drum-major,  a  man  well  along  in  years,  and 
John  Wilkinson,  a  very  large  man,  standing  6  feet  3  inches  high 
and  weighing  325  pounds,  both  gave  out,  and  we  put  them  in  the 
wagon  and  covered  them  with  blankets  and  left  them  at  Fort 
Riley  when  we  reached  that  point.  I  supposed  that  both  lost  their 
feet,  but  I  met  Wilkinson  in  West  Superior  twenty  years  later 
with  both  feet  attached.  He  said  the  drum-major  lost  his  feet, 
but  he  saved  his,  although  they  were  not  so  good  as  he  would  wish. 
Our  colonel  froze  his  face  so  badly  that  both  eyes  were  tempor- 
arily blind  and  we  left  him  at  Junction  City,  the  border  town. 

He  arrived  in  time  to  join  the  regiment  before  we  left  Fort 
Leavenworth  and  came  back  home  with  us.  He  was  a  young, 
sturdy  man,  who  was  duck-legged  and  could  not  wade  through 
the  snow,  so  he  stuck  to  the  saddle,  and  this  came  near  costing 
him  his  life.  It  is  said  that  a  man  can  stand  more  than  a  mule. 
This  march  proved  this  assertion  to  be  true.  When  we  left  Fort 
Zarah  we  had  thirty-six  six-mule  teams,  as  fine  animals  as  I  ever 
saw  and  in  prime  condition.  When  we  reached  Fort  Leavenworth 
all  but  four  teams  were  condemned  as  no  longer  fit  for  service 
and  sold  under  the  hammer  at  auction.  The  only  thing  that  saved 
our  command  was  the  fact  that  we  had  so  much  transportation. 
This  wagon  train  was  returning  empty  from  a  trip  to  the  West 
and  was  assigned  to  our  men.  We  had  been  on  the  plains  for 
months  and  nearly  every  man  had  one  or  more  buffalo  skins  and 


wolf  pelts,  and  here  were  transportation  facilities  enough  so  he 
could  bring  them  home,  as  %vell  as  all  his  clothing  and  heavy 
blankets.  Under  ordinary  conditions  a  man  would  not  have  been 
allowed  transportation  for  half  the  luggage  each  soldier  had,  and 
these  same  skins  saved  the  lives  of  the  men.  Halters  and  ropes 
were  stretched  along  the  Avagons  attached  to  the  box,  top  bows, 
or  any  place  where  a  hitch  could  be  secured.  A  guard  was  sta- 
tioned at  each  wagon  to  keep  men  from  riding,  as  they  would 
have  frozen  to  death  if  they  had  ridden,  but  the  halters  and  rope 
made  a  hold  for  the  men  and  they  could  catch  on  and  drag  them- 
selves through  the  snow,  which  was  from  knee  to  crotch  deep, 
thus  making  the  march  and  keeping  warm  at  the  same  time,  other- 
wise not  half  the  command  would  have  survived  the  first  eighty 
miles  of  blizzard  and  deep  snow. 

When  we  arrived  at  Fort  Leavenworth  after  twenty-four  days.' 
march  we  were  a  little  battered,  but  still  in  the  ring.  We  were 
mustered  out  as  soon  as  we  could  get  our  muster-out  rolls  made 
and  turned  over  our  camp  and  garrison  equippings.  We  were  dis- 
charged at  Madison,  where  we  received  a  grand  reception  on  our 
arrival  on  the  ninth  day  of  January,  1866,  if  my  memory  serves 
me  right. 

We  did  not  put  down  the  rebellion.  We  were  never  in  a 
pitched  battle.  If  we  had  been  I  would  tell  you  of  it,  even  if  we 
ran,  for  "  'tis  better  to  have  fought  and  ran,  than  never  to  have 
fought  at  all."  Lee  may  have  surrendered  sooner  having  known 
that  the  doughty  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  was  under  arms.  I  am 
not  informed  as  to  that.  We  did  not  smell  much  powder,  except 
as  we  shot  down  the  unsuspecting  buffalo  and  wolves,  but  we  had 
a  lot  of  hard  marching  and  we  were  "Johnny  on  the  spot"  when 
orders  came  for  any  kind  of  service.  Of  course  there  is  no  doubt 
but  that  General  Taylor  hustled  to  make  the  best  terms  he  could 
when  the  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  relieved  the  Kansas  Jayhawkers. 
This  may  seem  a  joke,  but  there  is  room  for  truth.  The  Jay- 
hawkers Avere  sometimes  accused  of  whacking  up  with  Taylor 
and  his  men  in  the  divvy  of  stolen  hoi'ses  and  other  plunder.  The 
Forty-eighth  was  there  to  protect  lives  and  property,  and  I  have 
never  heard  them  accused  of  appropriating  either  people's  stock 
or  conniving  at  the  acts  of  the  guerrillas,  or  sharing  the  spoils 
with  them.  So  General  Taylor  may  have  thought  his  occupation 
gone  once  we  entered  his  domains. 

As  soon  as  the  Indians  found  that  this  ' '  unwhipped ' '  regiment 
was  assigned  to  gari-ison  duty  on  the  frontier  there  was  "noth- 
ing to  it. ' '    The  five  war  tribes  simply  capitulated  as  soon  as  they 


could  be  induced  to  give  up  their  white  women  prisoners  and  he 
sure  they  would  be  well  fed  and  cared  for  during  that  cold  winter. 
Colonel  Dent  was  liberal  with  the  annuities.  Both  of  these  con- 
ditions may  have  had  something  to  do  with  it,  but  I  think  that 
the  fact  that  "that  "Wisconsin  regiment"  was  out  there  praying 
for  a  chance  to  shoot  something  put  the  final  touch  to  the  con- 
ditions and  induced  them  to  lay  down  their  arms  and  take  no 
chances  until  the  grass  was  high  enough  for  feed,  and  the  roving 
deer  and  antelope  returned  to  their  usual  haunts. 

What  I  have  given  you  is  history  as  I  recall  it,  but  not  much 
of  it  is  war  history,  and  I  doubt  if  any  of  it  will  be  of  service 
to  you.  To  be  honest,  the  nearest  we  ever  came  to  a  fight  was  to 
bury  the  dead  at  the  Battle  of  Mine  Creek.  Our  service  with 
bushwhackers  and  Indians  was  inglorious  and  unsatisfactory. 
We,  however,  endured  hardships  and  experienced  enough  fatigue 
to  make  us  rejoice  at  the  opportunity  of  returning  to — if  not  more 
peaceful  haunts — at  least  more  congenial. 

Respectfully  yours, 


EXPERIENCE  OF  JAMES  F.  ALLEN.  Cc-../5>..^--^'i-^  (Ifu^^ 

Narrative  of  the  Prison  Experience  of  James  Fred  Allen,  G^>^j 

of  Eau  Claire,  Wis.,  Private  in  Company  K.  16th  Regiment 
of  Wisconsin  Volunteers,  Who  Enlisted  When  Only  Seven- 
teen Years  Old  and  Whose  War  Experience  Was  Prac- 
tically All  in  Rebel  Prisons. 

After  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  June  :J,  18(i4,  we  remained  in- 
active until  the  12th.  That  night  after  we  had  turaed  in,  we 
received  orders  to  pack  up,  fall  in  and  move  out  quietly  and  with 
as  little  noise  as  possible.  We  of  the  rank  and  file  didn't  under- 
stand the  meaning  of  this,  to  us,  unnecessary  caution,  but  learned 
later  that  Wade  Hampton's  Legion  (cavalry)  was  suspected  of 
being  in  our  vicinity  and  would  hang  on  our  flanks  ready  to  at- 
tack any  of  our  troops  they  felt  able  to  get  away  with,  hence  the 
caution  which  some  of  us  later  found  to  our  sorrow  was  well 
timed.  We  moved  out,  as  I  remember,  about  9  P.  M.  and  after 
marching  about  two  hours,  the  night  being  very  dark,  we  were 
overtaken  by  a  courier  with  the  information  that  we,  with  a 
portion  of  the  command  had  somewhere  after  starting  taken  the 
wrong  road  in  the  dark  and  must  about  face  and  get  back  in 
quick  time,  but  with  the  main  command  now  far  in  the  front. 
We  made  a  supreme  effort  to  catch  the  command,  but  .just  before 


reaching  it  we  got  whispered  orders  to  stop  for  a  breathing  spell 
and  a  few  minutes  rest.  This  was  our  undoing,  for  in  a  moment 
we  were  stretched  along  the  side  of  the  road  in  the  woods  out 
of  the  mud  and  were  sound  asleep,  as  indeed,  many  had  been 
for  some  time  while  marching  in  the  ranks,  and  when  a  little  later 
the  order  to  fall  in  again  was  passed,  still  in  whispers,  some  of  us 
for  obvious  reasons,  failed  to  respond,  and  it  being  still  very  dark 
were  not  missed  by  oiir  comrades  or  by  the  orderly  whose  busi- 
ness it  was  to  get  us  into  line,  until  too  late.  It  was  broad  day 
light  when  we  awoke,  and  when  we  realized  the  situation  our 
feelings  can  better  be  imagined  than  described. 

But  we  pulled  ourselves  together  and  made  another  effort  to 
catch  the  command ;  this  however,  soon  proved  futile  for  we 
hadn't  gone  a  mile  when  we  were  halted  by  a  command  to  sur- 
render by  a  squad  of  cavalry  who  stepped  into  the  road  ahead 
of  us,  and  as  they  outnumbered  us  we  at  once  saw  the  point  of 
their  argument  and  like  good  soldiers,  obeyed  orders,  but  before 
they  could  get  to  and  disarm  us  we  had  the  satisfaction  of  spoil- 
ing the  efficiency  as  Avell  as  the  beauty  of  our  new  Springfield 
rifles  by  bringing  their  stocks  suddenly  in  contact  with  near-by 
trees.  This  precaution  in  the  interest  of  our  cause,  was  however, 
strongly  resented  by  our  captors  and  had  it  not  been  for  some 
of  the  older  and  cooler  heads  among  them  it  would  certainly  have 
gone  hard  with  us,  for  at  that  period  of  the  war  the  most  impor- 
tant capture  a  reb  could  make  next  to  a  live  Yankee,  was  a  new 
Spi-ingfield  musket. 

"We  were,  as  near  as  I  can  remember,  about  seven  miles  from 
Richmond  to  which  city  we  started  as  soon  as  they  stripped  us  of 
everything  of  value  to  them  and  arriving  there  were  immediately 
put  in  Libby  prison  on  the  third  floor,  a  hungry  and  tired  lot 
of  boys.  "We  remained  here  about  two  weeks,  being  treated  fairly 
well  and  little  dreaming  of  the  horrors  in  store  for  us  when  the 
gates  of  Andersonville  closed  behind  us  later. 

About  the  first  of  July  we  were  loaded  in  cattle  ears  recently 
used  for  transportation  of  cattle,  and  after  a  trip  of  four  days' 
jolting  and  bumping  over  the  worst  roads  imaginable,  and  filled 
with  hardships  and  suft'ering,  Ave  reached  Andersonville  Prison, 
that  horrible  hell-hole  of  the  Confederacy  in  the  interior  of 
Georgia,  where  in  a  stockade  of  thirty  acres  were  confined  as 
many  as  33,000  Union  prisoners  at  one  time,  packed  in  so  closely 
that  the  space  equally  divided  would  allow  only  four  square  feet 
to  a  man.  Here  during  the  last  year  of  the  war  were  confined 
about  50,000  of  whom  over  13,000  died  from  starvation,  exposure, 
J^A^A  ^    yw^Avv   \/^^^.  (aJ-Uva.   !L,,^^Jj^-  <P^^^ 


scurvy  and  loathsome  diseases.  No  pen  can  tell  what  we  suffered 
in  the  months  we  were  held  there  till  the  close  of  the  war. 

Around  the  inside  of  the  stockade,  twenty  feet  from  its  base, 
ran  the  dead  line  and  should  a  person  step  over  the  line  acci- 
dentally or  purposely  he  was  shot  by  the  sentinels  on  the  stock- 
ade. Many  driven  half  insane  by  the  horrors  of  their  daily  exist- 
ence deliberately  walked  to  death  by  crossing  this  dead  line. 

A  swamp  was  the  center  of  the  prison  and  through  it  flowed 
a  small  creek,  which  furnished  all  the  water  that  was  to  be  had 
for  the  daily  use  of  the  prisoners  and  in  addition  it  was  the  sewer 
for  thousands  of  men  crowded  together,  who  had  to  drink  of  its 
pestilential  waters. 

Most  of  us  were  without  shelter  from  the  winter  storms  or 
summer  heat  and  the  rags  which  we  wore  did  not  cover  our 
nakedness.  We  yearned  for  the  refuse  food  in  the  swill  pails  of 
our  northern  homes. 

No  attempt  was  made  by  Wirz,  the  inhuman  rebel  monster  in 
charge  of  the  prison,  to  lighten  our  sufferings  and  make  us  com- 
fortable, but  his  every  eft'ort  was  to  prolong  and  intensify  our 
sufferings.  Refuse  bacon  unfit  for  any  human  being,  and  un- 
bolted eornmeal  was  our  diet.  It  could  not  and  was  not  meant  to 
support  life.  Men  were  dying  like  flies  each  day,  feet  and  ankles 
rotting  off,  limbs  swollen  to  thrice  their  normal  size.  Unable  to 
protect  themselves,  their  food  was  stolen  from  them  by  their 
crazed  comrades  in  their  desperate  fight  for  life.  Although  green 
corn  and  vegetables  could  easily  have  been  furuislied  them,  they 
were  withheld  so  that  scurvy  could  do  its  work. 

No  clothing  was  given  to  us  to  wear  or  soap  for  washing,  nor 
medical  assistance  in  sickness.  Chills  and  fever  were  rife  and 
diarrhoea  ever  prevalent,  while  the  stench  was  unspeakable  and 
always  with  us. 

In  October,  just  before  Sherman  started  on  his  march  to  the 
sea,  and  doubtless  in  anticipation  of  his  attempt  to  liberate  us, 
we  were  hurriedly  put  in  cattle  cars  and  run  to  Savannah,  Ga., 
and  put  into  a  temporary  stockade,  pending  the  completion  of 
the  stockade  at  Millen,  Ga.,  and  after  a  short  stay  in  Savannah 
were  taken  to  the  new  one  at  Millen.  This  was  a  vast  improve- 
ment over  Andersonville  in  many  ways,  not  the  least  of  which 
was  our  escape  from  the  monster  Wirz,  which,  however,  was  only 
temporary,  for  those  of  us  who  survived  until  fall  were  destined 
to  have  more  experience  with  that  fiend  in  human  shape.  Our 
stay  in  Millen  prison  was  about  two  months,  and  in  November, 
on  the  day  of  the  general  elections  in  the  north,  and  at  the  insti- 


gation  of  the  rebel  authorities  themselves,  we  held  a  mock  elec- 
tion, the  result  of  which  was  very  disappointing  to  the  rebels  as 
we  elected  Lincoln  over  McClellan  two  to  one,  which  showed 
them„  plainly  the  war  would  be  prosecuted  to  the  end  without 
compromise  and  that  the  loyal  people  of  the  country  were  in  the 
majority.  Some  time  in  the  first  part  of  December  M'hen  Sherman 
was  nearing  Millen,  we  were  again  loaded  on  box  cars  and  sent 
back  to  Savannah  and  from  there  without  changing  cars  on  to 
Blackshear,  a  station  on  the  coast  railroad  near  Thomasville.  We 
were  placed  in  the  woods  with  a  heavy  guard  around  us  and  kept 
here  a  few  days  and  then  on  to  Thomasville,  Ga.,  where  we  stayed 
two  weeks  when,  Sherman  liaving  gone  to  Savannah,  we  started 
on  a  four  days'  march  across  the  country  to  Albany,  Ga.,  sixty 
miles,  taking  the  cars  again  at  this  point  and  on  Christmas  Day 
1864,  were  back  in  Andersonville  again.  At  this  time  our  num- 
bers had  been  greatly  reduced  by  death,  exchange,  and  transfer 
to  other  prisons,  so  we  did  not  number  more  than  three  or  four 
hundred.  We  suffered  greatly  from, the  cold  and  many  died  from 
cold  and  exposure  who  otherwise  might  have  pulled  through.  But 
all  things  have  an  end  and  so  were  our  days  in  this  hell  on  earth. 
And  when  on  the  28th  of  April,  1865,  we  were  ordered  to  the  depot 
to  take  cars  for  our  line's  at  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  our  joy  knew  no 
bounds.  It  came  so  sudden  and  was  such  a  shock,  that  to  say, 
some  of  us  acted  like  lunatics  in  our  great  joy  over  the  prospects 
of  deliverance,  would  be  putting  it  very  mildly.  But  we  got  off 
finally  and  after  a  ride  of  two  or  three  days  in  our  old  friends — 
the  cattle  cars,  without  much  to  vary  the  monotony  we  reached 
Baldwin,  Fla.,  twenty  miles  from  Jacksonville ;  the  track  being 
torn  up  between  two  places,  we  were  escorted  for  a  short  distance 
by  a  rebel  guard  and  then  withoiit  further  ceremony  were  turned 
loose  and  it  was  then  every  man  for  himself  and  a  great  strife  to 
be  the  first  to  reach  God's  country,  our  friends,  and  the  Stars  and 
Stripes,  which  I  had  not  seen  for  about  eleven  months. 

We  stayed  in  Jacksonville  long  enough  to  gain  sti-ength  to 
stand  the  trip  north,  which  was  about  two  weeks,  for  we  were 
taken  in  hand  at  once  by  the  doctors,  who  put  us  on  a  strict  diet 
to  keep  us  from  killing  ourselves  by  overeating.  First  of  all  we 
were  led  to  the  St.  John's  river,  and  after  casting  our  rags  in  a 
common  pile  and  being  furnished  with  soap  and  towels,  were 
ordered  into  the  water  for  a  general  cleaning  after  which  each 
was  given  a  new  uniform,  a  welcome  exchange  for  the  rags  we 
had  been  wearing  so  long,  and  which  we  proudly  donned. 

We  boarded  a  river  steamer  about  the  first  of  May  for  Fernan- 


I'Al'T.   A.  M.   SIIEKMAN 




dina,  where  we  transferred  to  an  ocean  transport  for  parole  camp 
at  Annapolis,  Md.  I  will  not  attempt  to  describe  our  passage 
north,  further  than  to  say  that  of  the  six  hundred  on  board 
probably  seventy-five  per  cent  were  very  seasick,  which  in  many 
cases  lasted  during  the  trip,  and  Avhen  it  is  considered  that  we 
were  all  confined  below  decks,  it  will  not  require  a  very  vivid 
imagination  to  realize  the  condition  we  were  in  when  reaching 
our  destination,  and  that  our  joy  on  reaching  port  was  only  second 
to  that  when  being  released  from  rebeldom. 

We  stayed  a  few  days  in  Annapolis,  received  our  commuta- 
tion of  ration  money,  which  in  my  case  amounted  to  $72.00  at 
twenty-five  cents  per  day,  and  were  forwarded  to  the  distribution 
camp  for  western  men  at  St.  Louis  and  a  few  days  later  we  Wis- 
consin men  were  sent  to  Madison  and  home. 

Edward  Nolan  and  John  Cunningham  from  my  company  were 
captured  at  the  same  time.  Of  the  others  taken  at  the  same  time 
from  the  regiment  were  two  from  Company  I,  Bogley  and  Par- 
sons. They  both  died  in  Audersonville.  I  found  Parsons  dead 
at  my  side  one  morning. 

I  did  not  attempt  to  escape  by  tunnelling  under  the  stockade, 
as  many  did,  for  none  of  the  three  locations  I  had  was  near 
enough  the  dead  line  to  warrant  it.  Many  got  out,  but  few  suc- 
ceeded in  getting  away  and  when  caught  were  subjected  to  hor- 
rible and  inhuman  torture  by  buck  and  gagging,  being  strung 
up  by  their  thumbs  and  starving.  I  did  escape  for  a  time  how- 
ever, with  two  others,  when  lying  in  the  woods  at  Albany,  Ga., 
waiting  for  a  train  to  take  us  back  to  Audersonville.  Although 
a  line  of  guards  was  around  us  we  succeeded  in  eluding  them  one 
dark  night  and  slipped  through.  We  made  a  clean  getaway 
for  the  time  being,  but  when  it  became  light  enough  to  see  we 
found  we  had  traveled  in  a  circle  and  were  back  to  the  point  of 
starting.  We  started  again  and  reached  the  home  of  a  planter. 
We  were  nearly  famished  and  decided  to  attempt  to  get  food 
from  the  planter's  negro  slaves,  who  as  a  rule  were  friendly  to 
the  Yankees  and  would  do  all  they  could  to  help  escaping  prison- 
ers. We  cautiously  approached  the  cabin  furthest  from  the  plan- 
tation house,  but  unfortunately  someone  saw  us  and  reported  to 
the  planter  who,  with  revolvers  in  his  belt  and  a  pack  of  vicious 
dogs  at  his  heels,  came  down  to  interview  us.  Under  ordinary 
cireiimstances  we  would  have  thrown  up  our  hands  and  given  up 
in  despair  after  taking  in  the  situation,  but  we  had  been  up 
against  similar  situations  many  times  and  were  by  this  time  sea- 
soned veterans  and  decided  to  make  the  best  of  it,  and  to  this 


end  our  spokesman,  a  comrade  by  the  name  of  McKinley  from  a 
Pennsylvania  regiment  who  was  one  of  us,  in  a  few  well  chosen 
words  (he  was  good  at  that)  told  him  that  we  were  escaped 
prisoners,  were  nearly  famished  and  that  we  had  come  out  for 
something  to  eat.  Mr.  Mercer,  for  that  was  his  name,  looked  us 
over  and,  probably  under  the  influence  of  Mack's  eloquence 
changed  his  aggressive  look,  dropped  his  hand  from  his  revolver 
and  in  a  friendly  voice  told  us  to  come  up  to  his  house.  Arriving 
there  he  ordered  his  cook  to  get  us  something  to  eat,  others  to 
make  a  big  fire  in  the  yard  and  still  others  to  bring  out  chairs 
for  us  to  sit  on,  and  then  he  himself  brought  a  large  black  bottle 
with  glasses,  and,  being  his  guests  and  knowing  the  custom  of 
the  country  and  the  sensitiveness  of  the  people  in  such  matters, 
we  laid  aside  for  the  moment  any  conscientious  scruples  we  might 
have  had  and  helped  ourselves.  This  put  is  in  fine  condition  to 
do  justice  to  the  breakfast  which  soon  followed,  and  which  we 
ate  still  in  the  yard.  To  say  that  we  enjoyed  it  but  feebly  ex- 
presses the  intense  satisfaction  of  being  filled  up  again  after  our 
long  fast  on  half  rations.  After  finishing  breakfast  Mr.  Mercer 
again  sent  his  servants  for  meal,  sweet  potatoes,  etc.,  for  us  to 
take  with  us.  Then  he  made  us  a  little  speech  in  which  he  said 
he  was  not  a  soldier,  being  exempt  on  account  of  having  a  certain 
number  of  slaves,  but  it  was  his  duty  to  take  us  back  to  camp ; 
that  lie  deplored  the  war  and  wushed  it  was  over;  that  he  sym- 
pathized with  us  in  our  troubles  and  hoped  we  would  finally  reach 
home  safely,  etc.,  and  now  if  we  were  ready  he  would  take  us  to 
the  provost  marshal  in  Albany,  which  he  did,  and  that  night  we 
Avere  placed  in  the  guard  house  and  next  morning  turned  in  with 
the  rest  of  the  prisoners.  This  happened  many  years  ago,  but  it 
seems  but  yesterday,  so  vividly  was  it  impressed  on  my  mind. 
It  was  the  only  bright  spot  in  my  prison  experience  and  I  shall 
never  forget  it. 

I  have  always  thought  Mr.  Mercer  was  a  union  man  at  heart 
and  whether  or  not,  he  certainly  was  a  man  in  the  truest  sense 
and  stands  out  in  violent  contrast  to  all  others  with  whom  we 
came  in  contact  while  in  the  confederacy.  I  heard  of  him  after 
we  moved  to  Florida  through  a  widow  who  came  here  from 
Albany.  She  always  spoke  very  highly  of  him  and  that  he  was 
one  of  the  solid  men  of  that  section. 

On  our  way  home  from  Andersonville  the  Government  gave 
us  stationery  for  writing  home  and  instructed  us  to  write  on  the 
envelope  "Paroled  Prisoner's  Letter."  This  would  allow  the  let- 
ter to  go  through  the  mails  without  postage  being  paid  in  ad- 


vance,  but  it  would  be  collected  at  its  destination.  "When  my 
letter  written  from  St.  Louis  reached  home  the  postmaster  J.  W. 
Farwell,  called  Myron  Briggs'  attejition  to  it  and  said  that  it  must 
be  from  me.  Mr.  Briggs  promptly  paid  the  postage  and  took  the 
letter  to  mother. 

Previous  to  this  an  exchanged  prisoner  had  reported  that  he 
knew  me  in  Andersonville,  had  divided  his  last  morsel  with  me 
and  saw  me  die.  A  funeral  sermon  was  preached  in  Eau  Claire 
by  reason  of  that  report  to  which  all  gave  credence. 

I  reached  home  a  few  days  after  the  Free  Press  announced 
(May  25,  1865)  that  I  was  still  alive. 


The  Free  Press  of  June  30,  1864,  records  the  return  of 
Compauj'  C,  Capt.  Victor  "Wolf,  and  the  survivors  of  the 
Eagle  company.  There  were  but  fifty-six  left,  and  of  this 
number  thirty  re-enlisted  for  the  remainder  of  the  war. 

Nearly  every  issue  records  the  death  of  one  or  more  sol- 
diers who  went  out  from  this  county. 

In  the  summer  of  1864  an  attempt  was  made  to  recruit 
Chippewa  Indians  for  service  in  the  war,  but  the  plan 
proved  a  failure. 

In  the  Free  Press  of  September  8,  1864,  is  found  a  very 
complimentary  mention  of  Lieut.-Col.  Charles  "Whipple. 
This  Charles  "Whipple  was  a  brother  of  Capt.  D.  C.  "Whipple 
and  was  an  early  Chippewa  river  steamboat  man.  He 
received  a  commission  as  lieutenant-colonel  and  served  for 
a  time  in  the  navy,  later  being  transferred  to  the  Nine- 
teenth "Wisconsin  Infantry. 

In  the  Free  Press  of  September  22,  1864,  is  recorded  the 
return  of  Capt.  (later  Major)  John  R.  "Wheeler,  of  the 
Sixteenth  Wisconsin,  severely  wounded  in  both  legs. 

In  the  Free  Press  of  November  10,  1864,  complimentary 
mention  is  made  of  Capt.  A.  M.  Sherman,  of  the  Second 
Cavalry,  who  had  just  resigned  his  commission  and 
returned  to  Eau  Claire. 

In  the  Free  Press  of  February  16  is  recorded  the  promo- 
tion of  Capt.  John  R.  Wheeler  of  the  Sixteenth  Wisconsin 
to  major  of  the  regiment,  and  a  very  complimentary  men- 
tion of  the  man. 

The  Free  Press  of  March  9,  1865,  records  the  departure 



of  Lieut,  (later  Captain)  H.  M.  Stocking  with  his  company 
for  Milwaukee  to  join  the  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry. 
The  Free  Press  of  April  20,  1865,  appears  with  heavy 
black  lines,  and  the  announcement  of  the  assassination  of 
President  Lincoln. 


In  the  preparation  of  this  Civil  War  chapter  my  only 
aim  has  been  to  give  a  true  and  unbiased  presentation  of 
the  part  taken  by  Eau  Claire  county  in  the  Civil  War.  The 
extracts  from  Civil  War  letters,  newspapers  and  records 
have  been  given  as  found,  and  these  records  and  the  pic- 
tures furnished  will  be  allowed  to  speak  for  themselves.  It 
is  for  the  reader  to  judge  whether  or  not  our  county  meas- 
ured up  to  its  full  duty  during  those  trying  years  from- 
sixty-one  to  sixty-five. 


EAGLE  POST,  G.  A.  R. 


L.  A.  BRACE. 

The  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  was  organized  at  Decatur, 
Illinois,  April  6,  1866,  by  Dr.  B.  F.  Stephenson,  of  Springfield, 
Illinois,  who  had  served  as  surgeon  of  the  Fourteenth  Illinois 
Infantry.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he  resumed  his  practice  in 
Springfield,  where,  in  February,  1866,  he  first  suggested  the 
organization  of  the  G.  A.  R.,  and  made  a  draft  of  a  ritual. 
Through  his  efforts,  assisted  by  comrades,  the  first  post,  known 
as  No.  1,  was  organized  at  Decatur,  Illinois,  April  6,  1866,  Dr. 
Stephenson  being  in  general  charge  of  the  organization  of  posts 
in  other  states.  On  October  31,  1866,  he  issued  a  call  for  a 
national  convention  of  the  G.  A.  R.,  which  was  held  in  Indian- 
apolis, November  20,  1866.  Gen.  John  M.  Palmer,  the  first  depart- 
ment commander,  presided. 

An  appropriate  monument  has  been  erected  iu  the  city  of 
Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  in  honor  of  and  love  for  the 
comrade  who  so  faithfully  labored  for  the  success  of  the  G.  A.  R. 
and  through  the  efforts  of  the  comrades  of  the  G.  A.  R.  Dr.  Steph- 
enson will  long  be  remembered,  not  only  by  members  of  the 
organization,  but  by  an  appreciative  people  who  may  chance 
to  see  it. 

On  December  31,  1913,  the  members  of  the  G.  A.  R.  numbered 
180,203,  of  which  Wisconsin  furnished  5,703.  The  losses  by  death 
for  the  year  11,338,  of  which  Eagle  Post  lost  eight.  The  whole 
number  of  posts  in  the  states  and  territories,  5,663. 

Eagle  Post,  No.  52,  Department  of  Wisconsin,  G.  A.  R. 
Eagle  Post  takes  its  name  from  "Old  Abe,"  the  war 
eagle,  which  was  carried  through  the  war  by  Company  C  of  the 
Eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry,  Victor  Wolf,  captain,  after  the  death 
of  Capt.  J.  E.  Perkins,  its  first  commander.  Eagle  Post  was  organ- 
ized on  the  eighth  day  of  November,  A.  D.  1882,  with  thirteen 
charter  members.  E.  jM.  Bartlett,  who  served  as  lieutenant 
colonel  of  the  Thirteenth  Wisconsin,  was  elected  its  first  eom- 


mander,  with  Bentley  S.  Phillips  its  first  adjutant.  Since  organi- 
zation there  has  been  added  to  the  post  by  muster  and  transfer 
427  members.  Lost  by  death,  transfer  and  other  causes,  337,  still 
leaving  a  membership  of  104. 

Eagle  Post  has  always  held  a  position  in  the  front  rank  of 
the  state  department,  has  had  the  honor  of  giving  two  depart- 
ment commanders,  Michael  GrifSn  and  Charles  H.  Henry,  two 
adjutant  generals  in  the  persons  of  George  A.  Barry  and  R.  B. 
Rathbun,  and  senior  and  junior  vice  commander  in  the  person 
of  L.  A.  Brace.  Eagle  Post  has  been  highly  favored  and  owes 
much  to  the  Women's  Relief  Corps,  No.  20,  for  its  successful 
growth  and  present  prosperous  condition,  which  is  evidenced  by 
the  regular  attendance  of  so  many  comrades,  several  of  whom  are 
past  the  eightieth  milestone. 

The  following  named  comrades  served  as  commanders  for  the 
years  indicated  in  the  roster: 

1882-1883,  E.  M.  Bartlett ;  1884,  M.  Griffin ;  1885,  L.  A.  Brace ; 
1886,  M.  Griffin;  1887,  B.  J.  Farr;  1888,  L.  P.  Hotehkiss;  1889, 
George  A.  Bari-y;  1890,  R.  H.  Chute;  1891,  M.  Griffin;  1892, 
George  M.  Withers;  1893,  A.  W.  Hunger;  1894,  William  Palmer; 
1895,  W.  H.  Nichols;  1896,  S.  G.  Church;  1897,  E.  M.  Bartlett; 
1898,  J.  F.  McGrath;  1899,  Henry  Spauldiug;  1900,  C.  N.  Bost- 
wick;  1901,  Austin  Chrisler;  1902,  C.  H.  Buffington;  1903,  C.  H. 
Henry;  1904,  E.  W.  Allen;  1906,  Jerre  Murphy;  1906,  J.  M. 
Jewett ;  1907,  A.'  J.  Cheesbro ;  1908,  J.  M.  Botsf ord ;  1909,  L.  A. 
Brace;  1910,  J^^Eljis;  1911,  R.  B.  Rathbun;  1912,  E.  G.  Jordon. 

The  following  members  were  enrolled  for  the  year  1912,  with 
their  company  and  regiment :  William  Allen,  Company  A,  Seven- 
teenth Wisconsin  Infantry;  Benjamin  W.  Brown,  Company  H, 
Twenty-ninth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  G.  L.  Beardsley,  Company  F, 
Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  John  C.  Barland,  Company  H, 
Sixteenth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  George  W.  Britton,  Company  G, 
Seventh  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Robert  K.  Boyd,  Company  H, 
Eleventh  Minnesota  Infantry ;  L.  A.  Brace,  Company  K,  Twenty- 
eighth  New  York  Infantry ;  W.  II.  Biesecker,  Company  A,  Twen- 
tieth Wisconsin  Infantry ;  J.  M.  Botsford,  Company  E,  Thirteenth 
Wisconsin  Infantry ;  Charles  E.  Bruce,  Company  A,  Fourteenth 
Maine  Infantry ;  G.  N.  Bostwick,  Company  H,  Sixtieth  New  York 
Infantry;  Thomas  0.  Bowman,  Company  E,  Eighteenth  Illinois 
Infantry;  R.  N.  Brewer,  Company  B,  One  Hundred  and  Forty- 
seventh  Illinois  Infantry ;  George  Bagley,  Company  B,  Sixteenth 
Maine  Infantry;  Willis  Britton,  Company  I,  Fiftieth  Wisconsin 
Infantry;  Frederick  Batzold,  Company  G,  Twenty-seventh  Wis- 

EAGLE  POST,  G.  A.  R.  195 

eonsin  Infantry ;  Henry  "W.  Butler,  Company  K,  Thirty-sixth  "Wis- 
consin Infantry ;  C.  H.  Buffington,  Company  — ,  One  Hundred  and 
Forty-seventh  Illinois  Infantry ;  William  F.  Bailey,  Company  K, 
Ninety-fifth  New  York  Infantry;  Charles  E.  Brown,  Company  I, 
Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantrj^;  George  F.  Banister,  Company  L, 
Second  Wisconsin  Cavalry;  George  W.  Churchill,  Company  A, 
Ninety-second  Illinois  Infantry;  Jerome  A.  Cheesbro,  Company 
I,  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-sixth  New  York  Infantry;  John 
Craig,  Tenth  Wisconsin  Light  Artillery ;  Euos  S.  Culver,  Jr.,  Com- 
pany G,  Thirty-fifth  Pennsylvania  Infantry;  R.  H.  Chute,  Com- 
pany F,  Fifty-ninth  Massachusetts  Infantry;  Benjamin  N.  Castle, 
Company  G,  First  Wisconsin  Cavalry;  J.  G.  Cleghorn,  Company 
H,  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  L.  P.  Crandall,  Company  — , 
First  New  York  Dragons;  Austin  Crisler,  Company  G,  Forty- 
second  Wisconsin  Infantry  ;  J.  F.  Cranston,  Twelfth  Illinois  Infan- 
try ;  John  Cranie,  Company  K,  Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  J.  B. 
Demarest,  Company  C,  Eiglith  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  A.  N.  Dickey, 
Company  K,  Third  Iowa,  and  Company  B,  Forty-fourth  Wiscon- 
sin Infantry;  J.  F.  Ellis,  Company  K,  Fifth  Wisconsin  Infantry; 
Edwin  J.  FariV~Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  David  H.  Fort, 
Company  G,  Fifth'  New  York  Artillery ;  Frank  Ferris,  Company 
I,  Thirty-seventh  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Ira  Flagler,  Company  G, 
Fortieth  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  J.  H.  Goodwin,  Company  K,  Second 
Iowa  Cavalry ;  A.  S.  Garnet,  Company  D,  Eighty-fifth  New  York 
Infantry;  John  S.  Green,  Company  E,  Ninety-third  New  York 
Infantry;  Peter  Gebhard,  Company  L,  Fourth  Wisconsin  Cav- 
alry: James  D.  Grant,  Company  D.  Sixth  New  York  Heavy 
Artillery;  Thomas  J.  Hill,  Company  C,  Eighth  Wisconsin  Infan- 
try; Charles  H.  Henry,  Company  K,  Twenty-fifth  Wisconsin 
Infantry ;  Dwight  L.  Hazen,  Company  K,  Fifth  Wisconsin  Infan- 
try ;  Patrick  A.  Hackett,  Company  K,  Fifth  Wisconsin  Infantry ; 
William  Hall,  Company  C,  Twentieth  Indiana  Infantry;  Peter 
Haas.  Company  A,  Third  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Edward  H.  Ilussey, 
Company  D,  Second  Ohio  Infantry;  Edward  H.  Hussey,  Com- 
pany C,  One  Hundred  and  Eighth  Ohio  Infantry;  A.  C.  Hath- 
away, Company  F,  Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  James  II.  Hazen, 
Company  G,  Sixteenth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  George  F.  Hallas, 
Company  B.  Forty-seventh  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Melvin  Hubbell, 
Company  H,  Seventh  Iowa  Cavalry;  G.  K.  Ives,  Company  H, 
Ninth  Maine  Infantry ;  Lafayette  Johnson,  Company  A,  Twenty- 
first  Pennsylvania  Cavalry;  Lafayette  Johnson,  Company  G, 
Forty-sixth  Pennsylvania  Infantry;  J.  M.  Jewett,  Twelfth  Wis- 
consin Battery ;  E.  G.  Jordan,  Company  B,  First  Maine  Heavy 


Artillery;  E.  G.  Jordan,  seaman  gunboat  "Pontiac";  John  A. 
Jones,  Company  I,  Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  John  A.  Jones, 
Company  C,  Eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Lorenzo  Johnson,  Com- 
pany F,  Thirty-first  United  States  C.  T. ;  L.  L.  Lancaster,  Com- 
pany L,  Second  Wisconsin  Cavalry;  George  Linton,  Company  D, 
Fifteenth  New  York  Cavalry;  Henry  Laycock,  Company  C, 
Eighth  Illinois  Cavalry;  William  Lord,  Company  I,  Sixth  Maine 
Infantry;  L.  W.  Little,  Company  E,  Fourth  Iowa  Cavalry;  John 
Lorenz,  Company  B,  Twenty-ninth  Indiana  Infantry ;  A.  W.  Mun- 
ger,  Company  B,  One  Himdred  and  Eighty-fourth  Pennsylvania 
Infantry;  Jerre  Murphy,  Company  B,  Sixth  Wisconsin  Infantry; 
Henry  Mitchell,  Company  B,  First  Iowa  Cavalry;  Abram  Man- 
chester, Company  K,  Ninth  Maine  Cavalry;  John  Mahoney,  Com- 
pany E,  Forty-seventh  Wisconsin  Cavalry;  James  H.  Niblett, 
Company  A,  Twelfth  Michigan  Infantry;  Charles  E.  Newman, 
Eighth  Wisconsin  Battery;  Mannum  Olin,  Company  G,  Forty- 
eighth,  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Martin  Page,  Company  A,  Thirty- 
seventh  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  Thomas  Powell,  Company  L,  Second 
Wisconsin  Cavalry;  John  Pepper,  Company  I,  One  Hundred  and 
Thirty-fifth  Illinois  Infantry;  Martin  Pickett,  Company  II, 
Eleventh  United  States  Infantry ;  James  Pope,  Company  F,  Forty- 
eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  E.  A.  Prink,  Company  E,  First  Wis- 
consin Cavalry;  James  M.  Pixley,  Second  Vermont  Battery; 
Edward  P.  Palmer,  Company  H,  Two  Hundred  and  Sixth  Penn- 
sylvania Infantry;  Jerry  Plemon,  Company  B,  First  Wisconsin 
Cavalry;  Joseph  Quinlan,  Company  I,  One  Hundred  and  Thirty- 
second  Pennsylvania  Infantry;  John  C.  Rorig,  Company  K,  Sixth 
United  States  Infantry;  Ranous,  John  G.,  Company  G,  Sixteenth 
Wisconsin  Infantry;  R.  B.  Rathbun,  Company  I,  Fortieth  New 
York  Infantry;  Theo.  H.  Rockwood,  Company  I,  Fourth  Wis- 
consin Cavalry ;  Sidney  A.  Russell,  Company  H,  Fiftieth  Wiscon- 
sin Infantry;  George  H.  Swartz,  Company  G,  One  Hundred  and 
Fourth  Pennsylvania  Infantry;  W.  E.  Stevens,  Company  K, 
Twelfth  Michigan  Infantry;  A.  M.  Sherman,  Company  L,  Second 
Wisconsin  Cavalrj';  Charles  A.  Seaman,  Company  G,  One  Hun- 
dred and  Thirty-seventh  New  York  Infantry;  Julius  Semich, 
Company  A,  Twenty-sixth  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  II.  M.  Stocking, 
Company  G,  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Joseph  Schimean, 
Company  I,  Fifth  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  Z.  B.  Stilwell,  Company  I, 
Forty-second  Wisconsin  Infantry;  AVilliam  Small,  Company  K, 
Twenty-fourth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Herbert  Skeels,  Company  G, 
Thirteenth  New  York  Infantry;  Martin  L.  Smith,  Company  B, 
Third  Minnesota  Infantry;  Charles  Steinfort,  Compay  G,  Thirty- 

EAGLE  POST,  G.  A.  R.  197 

eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry ;  H.  J.  Steady,  Company  K,  First  Wis- 
consin Infantry ;  H.  J.  Steady,  Company  B,  Thirty-fifth  Wisconsin 
Infantry;  Thomas  C.  Sullivan,  Company  H,  Sixth  New  Hamp- 
shire Infantry ;  Charles  Strasburg,  Company  C,  Eighth  Wisconsin 
Infantry;  Henry  P.  Tanner,  Company  A,  Sixtieth  New  York 
Infantry ;  George  Turner,  Company  A,  Fourth  Wisconsin  Cavalry ; 
Joseph  Vermilyea,  Company  H,  Twenty-seventh  Wisconsin  Infan- 
try; Charles  Vermilyea,  Company  II,  Twenty-seventh  Wisconsin 
Infantry;  Charles  Veitsch,  Company  A,  Fifty-first  Wisconsin 
Infantry;  W.  F.  Vinton,  Company  G,  One  Hundred  and  Fifty- 
fourth  New  York  Infantry ;  George  M.  Withers,  Company  D,  One 
Hundred  and  Fourth  Ohio  Infantry ;  R.  H.  Wyman,  Company  G, 
One  Hundred  and  Second  New  York  Infantry;  J.  H.  Waggoner, 
Company  E,  Second  Wisconsin  Cavalry;  S.  U.  Washburn,  Com- 
pany H,  One  Hundred  and  Fourth  Ohio  Infantry ;  A.  H.  Wilson, 
Company  F,  First  Pennsylvania  Cavah'y;  Wales  II.  Willard, 
Company  B,  Sixty-eighth  New  York  N.  G. ;  Ephram  Wilcox,  Com- 
pany C,  Eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry;  Samuel  Williamson,  seaman 
United  States  steamship  "Wabash";  G.  H.  Wooley,  Company  D, 
Ninth  New  York  Cavalry. 

John  E.  Perkins  Post,  No.  98,  was  organized  in  Augusta  on 
August  3,  1883,  ill  what  Avas  called  Beebe's  Hall.  Two  years 
later  the  hall  was  burned,  including  books  of  record  and  entire 
working  paraphernalia.  It  was  not  long,  however,  before  that 
indomitable  pluck  so  characteristic  of  our  Wisconsin  boys  was 
again  brought  into  action,  and  things  began  to  come  our  way, 
and,  Phoenix  like,  out  of  the  old  came  the  new,  being  now  located 
in  William's  Hall,  where  we  remained  until  forced  to  vacate  on 
account  of  remodeling  and  enlarging  of  the  building.  It  was 
some  time  before  we  were  again  located  in  our  present  cjuarters 
in  Teare's  Hall,  where  we  continued  along  the  same  old  line  of 
teaching  patriotism  and  love  for  "Old  Glory,"  as  well  as  seeking 
out  and  caring  for  and  administering  to  our  needy  eo-ijartners  of 
the  great  conflict  of  long  ago. 

Our  post  at  this  date  (1914)  has  only  twenty  members  in 
good  standing,  some  of  which  are  getting  old  and  feeble  and  soon 
will  have  finished  here  and  pass  on  to  fairer  climes  to  join  the 
great  majority.  We  continue  to  pay  our  annual  tribute  to  the 
dead  by  strewing  flowers  over  the  graves  of  the  Blue  and  the 
Grey.    Why  not?    One  country  and  one  flag  is  our  slogan. 

The  time  and  place  of  meeting  is  Teare's  Hall  every  second 
and  fourth  Friday  evenings.  The  following  are  the  commanders 
of  John  E.  Perkins  Post  since  its  inception  to  the  present  time: 


Capt.  R.  D.  Campbell,  C.  W.  Culbertson,  C.  A.  Kirkham,  F.  N. 
Thomas,  H.  H.  Kyle,  W.  H.  H.  Coolidge,  G.  F.  Caldwell.  We  have 
a  large  and  flourishing  Women's  Relief  Corps,  alert  and  watchful 
contributors  to  the  old  boys'  best  interests.  "God  bless  the 
Women's  Relief  Corps  of  the  old  Badger  state." 

G.  F.  Caldwell,  Senior  Vice  Commander. 


MARSHALL  COUSINS.  |^v^^^rv^ 

In  the  days  previous  to  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  no  military 
organizations  are  known  to  have  existed  in  this  part  of  Wisconsin. 
The  militia  was  organized  on  paper,  however,  into  eleven  divisions 
of  two  brigades  each  with  two  regiments  to  each  brigade.  The 
organization  was  complete  throughout  the  entire  state  in  that  all 
officers  from  Colonel  to  Major  were  commissioned  and  assigned. 
It  is  hard  to  understand  in  this  day  why  such  an  organization 
should  have  been  planned  as  the  population  of  the  state  was  far 
from  sufficient  to  fill  the  ranks  to  the  maximum. 

Eau  Claire  County,  together  with  Pierce,  Dunn  and  Pepin 
counties  Avas  in  the  territory  assigned  to  the  Second  Brigade, 
Eleventh  Division,  Wisconsin  Militia,  and  William  P.  Bartlett, 
still  living,  was  commissioned  a  Major  in  the  43rd  regiment.  He 
has  been  a  resident  of  Eau  Claire  for  nearly  sixty  years. 

This  organization  fell  to  pieces  when  troops  were  actually 
needed  in  1861. 

Under  another  chapter  the  military  history  of  Eau  Claire 
County  in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  is  taken  up.  This  paper  re- 
lates only  to  militia  or  National  Guard  organizations. 

From  the  files  of  old  newspapers  it  appears  an  armed  and 
uniformed  military  organization  known  as  the  "Sharpshooters" 
was  organized  in  April  1875.  Prom  the  Free  Press  the  following 
items  have  been  taken: 

Free  Press,  April  26,  1875. 

The  Sharpshooters,  a  new  organization  deriving  their  being 
from  the  Norden  Society,  w^ent  through  the  first  drill  above  Uni- 
versity Square  yesterday  afternoon. 

Only  about  fifteen  had  received  their  arms  and  the  rest  were 
not  present,  though  quite  a  large  crowd  of  spectators  were.  They 
made  a  handsome  appearance  marching  and  will  no  doubt  make 
a  fine  volunteer  company.  They  were  armed  with  military  rifles. 
G.  L.  Johnson  acted  as  drill  master. 



Free  Press,  June  6,  187J 

Sharpshooters   mentioned    as   in   parade. 
Marshall  of  the  day. 

Captain   Sherman, 

Free  Press,  December  23,  1876. 

Colonel  Kelley,  of  the  Governor's  staff,  received  an  order  a 
short  time  since  to  inspect  the  company  of  State  Militia  in  this 
city,  also  the  Clark  County  Zouaves. 

The  company  at  this  place  was  inspected  on  Tuesday.  Forty- 
six  men  appeared  with  accoutrements. 

In  the  absence  of  a  Muster  Roll  of  the  "Sharpshooters"  the 
Avriter  has  been  unable  to  locate  any  one  who  could  give  further 
information  concerning  this  organization. 

February  11,  1878,  the  City  Guards  were  organized  and  it  is 
understood  several  members  of  the  Sharpshooters,  which  company 
had  disbanded,  joined  the  new  organization.  The  following  is  a 
muster  roll  of  the  City  Guards : 

MUSTER   ROLL   OF   THE    CITY   GUARDS    W.    S.    M.,    EAU 

Dorwin  C.  Whipple,   Captain.        B.  Frank  Teal,  5th  Sgt. 

Michael  E.  0  'Connell,  1st  Lt. 
Edward  "W.  Allen,  2nd  Lt. 
Robert  K.  Boyd,  1st  Sgt. 
John  S.  Owen,  2nd  Sgt. 
George  W.  Churchill,  3rd  Sgt. 
E.  S.  Radcliffe,  4th  Sgt. 

Chas.  Jefferson,  Corporal. 
Geo.  W.  Smith,  Corporal. 
J.  M.  Smith,  Corporal. 
J.  C.  Bartlett,  Corporal. 
"W.  S.  Winters,  Corporal. 
George  Burt,  Corporal. 
J.  E.  McGrath,  Corporal. 


^^harles  L.  AllenT] 
Sever  E.  Brimi, 
D.  C.  Baker, 
S.  A.  Cuddy, 

A.  B.  Converse, 
J.  C.  Churchill, 

B.  J.  Demorest, 
W.  W.  Downs, 
Chas.  H.  Dunn, 
Godfrey  Dawe, 

Hugh  Fitzpatriek, 
E.  B.  Bartlett, 
M.  W.  Burns, 
J.  H.  Brooks, 
B.  S.  Phillips, 
Chas.  H.  Graham, 
Wm.  H.  Huyssen, 
D.  J.  Harrington, 
John  L.  Joyce, 
John  E.  Joyce, 


Thos.  E.  Kemp,  M.  C.  Whipple, 

Edward  Kemp.  Charles  H.  Daub, 

Lloyd  Morrison,  Chris.  Hogan, 

Wm.  C.  Merrill,  William  Bonell, 

S.  R.  Mann,  J.  H.  Thomas, 

N.  A.  Norluig,  Thomas  L.  Gadsby, 

E.  B.  Putnam,  A.  Garden, 

C.  W.  Rickard,  A.  Furgerson, 

C.  A.  Stouch,  Zach  Severtson, 

Chauncey  Smith,  Geo.  W.  Pond, 

Wm.  W.  Searles,  Frank  R.  Sebeuthall, 

Frank  Hunter,  S.  W.  Hutchinson, 

R.  B.  Wall,  Emanuel  B.  Flescher. 
William  Wall, 

The  arms  and  accoutrements  were  furnished  by  the  State  to 
the  Company  but  they  had  to  furnish  their  own  uniforms.  Shortly 
after  organization  a  committee  consisting  of  E.  W.  Allen,  B.  J. 
Demorest  and  Geo.  W.  Churchill  was  appointed  on  ways  and 
means.  They  arranged  for  a  play  to  be  put  on  under  the  aus- 
pices of  the  Company.  The  title  of  the  piece  was  the  "Color 
Guard''  and  March  19,  20,  21  and  22,  1878,  it  drew  fine  houses 
at  the  Music  Hall.  Among  many  others  whose  names  appear  on 
the  program  as  taking  parts  we  find  those  of  C.  W.  Loekwood, 
Wesley  Butterfield,  Frank  R.  Sebeuthall,  Judge  M.  D.  Bartlett 
and  Miss  Russie  Tinker. 

The  City  Guard  at  one  period  during  their  activity  went  into 
camp  on  the  Fair  Grounds. 

In  1880  the  City  Guard  appear  to  have  disbanded,  for  in  the 
"Eau  Claire  Leader"  of  April  10,  1880,  we  find  the  following 
item  : 

"Eau  Claire  Light  Guards  will  meet  Monday  night  at  the 
Armory  at  seven  o'clock,  to  perfect  the  enlistment  under  the  new 
law,  and  receive  recruits  to  increase  the  numerical  strength  of 
the  Company.    By  N.  B.  Rundle,  Capt." 

Military  matters  seemed  to  have  lain  dormant  for  many 
months  but  again  on  September  20,  1881,  the  "Leader"  says: 

"The  Militia  last  night  met  only  to  disperse.  The  Chairman  of 
the  Committee  on  uniforms,  Captain  Wolf,  has  placed  in  the 
hands  of  Mr.  Rust  the  subscription  list,  which  will  be  referred  to 
the  principal  business  men  of  the  city  at  his  convenience." 

Owing  to  the  loss  of  the  records  the  story  of  the  struggle  to 
re-organize   and   perfect  the   company   cannot   be   told.     Efforts 


however,  were  finally  successful  and  the  company  was  mustered 
into  the  State  Service  as  C  Company. 

C  COMPANY,  1885. 

C  Company  was  mustered-iu  June  29,  1885,  by  Captain  John 
W.  Curran,  A.  D.  C,  by  order  of  Governor  Jerry  Rusk.  Fifty- 
nine  names  were  on  the  roll.  The  company  took  the  place  in  the 
Third  Regiment  made  vacant  by  the  mustering-out  of  the  La 
Crosse  Light  Guard.    The  officers  were : 

Victor  Wolf,  Captain, 

Louis  Babb,  First  Lieutenant, 

Louis  Schmidt,  Second  Lieutenant. 

C  Company  attended  the  regimental  encampments  at  Chip- 
pewa Palls,  September  7  to  September  12,  1885,  and  at  Wausau, 
June  14  to  June  19,  1886. 

On  account  of  internal  dissensions  the  company  was  mustered 
out  of  the  state  service  June  10,  1887. 

Captain  Wolf  had  tendered  his  resignation  some  days  before. 
At  an  assembly  of  the  company  June  10,  resolutions  of  respect 
and  regard  for  the  sturdy  old  soldier  were  adopted.  Captain 
Wolf  had  served  as  captain  of  C  Company,  Eighth  Wisconsin 
Volunteer  Infantry,  in  the  Civil  War,  with  great  credit. 

Captain  Wolf  was  born  December  24,  1824,  in  Obendorf,  Ger- 
many, and  came  to  America  at  age  of  twenty-two  years.  He  came 
of  soldier  family  and  almost  at  once  enlisted  in  New  York  for 
service  in  the  war  with  Mexico.  Much  to  his  disappointment  his 
company  was  sent  to  Governor's  Island  for  garrison  duty,  instead 
of  into  Mexico.  In  1850,  meeting  Lieutenant  Buckner,  who  later 
became  a  well  known  general,  he  asked  him  to  intercede  for  him, 
and  was  sent  to  Florida  as  second  in  command,  with  a  company 
of  one  hundred  men,  for  service  in  the  Seminole  War.  With  H 
Company,  of  Fourth  Artillery,  he  fought  in  the  swamps  and  at 
Key  West.  Was  discharged  in  1856  after  nine  years  and  ten 
months'  service.  Settled  in  Eau  Claire  in  1858.  In  August  1861, 
was  commissioned  First  Lieutenant  of  C  Company,  Eighth  Wis- 
consin Volunteer  Infantry,  and  became  Captain  May  11,  1862,  on 
the  death  of  Captain  Perkins,  killed  in  action.  This  was  the 
company  that  carried  Old  Abe  throughout  the  war.  He  died  at 
the  age  of  eighty-five  years,  January  21,  1910,  and  was  given  a 
military  funeral. 

The  company  kept  up  its  organization  and  remained  an  inde- 
pendent company  until  again  mustered  into  the  Guard  as  L  Com- 
pany. May  18.  1889.     It  was  through  the  efforts  of  General  Grif- 


fin,  Senator  William  A.  Rust  and  Captain  Ilobart  M.  Stocking, 
assemblyman,  the  company  was  again  admitted  to  the  state  serv- 
ice. General  Griffin  was  the  mustering  officer,  and  he.  Senator 
Rust  and  Captain  Stocking  all  made  addresses  following  the 

The  officers  at  this  time  were:  John  Beisang,  Captain;  Chris- 
topher Schlosser,  First  Lieutenant;  Otto  H.  Kitzman,  Second 

During  the  two  years  the  company  was  out  of  the  state  serv- 
ice it  built  an  armory  costing  $12,000.00.  This  building  was  lo- 
cated on  Railroad  street,  between  North  Barstow  and  Dewey 
streets.  It  was  burned  December  31,  1890.  Another  armory  was 
at  once  built  on  the  west  side  of  North  Barstow  street,  between 
the  C.  M.  &  St.  P.  tracks  and  Eau  Claire  river.  The  building  was 
72  feet  front  by  186  feet  deep,  three  stories  in  front  part,  with 
drill  floor  70  by  120  feet,  and  cost  .$25,000.00.  This  armory  was 
burned  February  15,  1902. 

Captain  Beisang  resigned  and  was  succeeded  as  captain  by 
Christopher  Schlosser  December  20,  1893 ;  Otto  H.  Kitzman  being 
promoted  to  first  lieutenant  and  Peter  Schlosser  to  second  lieu- 
tenant on  same  date.  L  Company  was  again  mustered-out  of 
service  June  30,  1896. 

The  company  reorganized  with  the  election  of  Otto  H.  Kitz- 
man as  captain,  C.  L.  Brown  as  first  lieutenant  and  George  L. 
Prehn  as  second  lieutenant.  Lieutenant  Brown  served  but  a 
short  time  when  removal  from  city  caused  him  to  resign.  Lieu- 
tenant Prehn  was  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  and  Karl  A.  Frank- 
lin was  commissioned  second  lieutenant.  In  a  few  months  Lieu- 
tenant Prehn  resigned  on  account  of  leaving  the  city  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Lieutenant  Franklin  and  August  Wuerch  was  com- 
missioned second  lieutenant. 

Following  the  muster  of  the  First,  Second,  Third  and  Fourth 
Regiments  into  the  volunteer  service,  the  state  began  the  organ- 
ization of  other  regiments  of  the  National  Guard,  to  be  prepared 
for  another  call  by  the  Washington  Government,  and  Captain 
Kitzman 's  company  was  assigned  to  the  Fifth  Infantry,  as  B 
Company.  It  was  mustered  July  25,  1898,  by  Captain  George 
Graham,  of  Tomah. 

The  service  of  the  Fifth  Infantry  was  not  required  by  Presi- 
dent McKinley,  and  the  regiment  was  mustered-out  in  1899,  on 
the  re-entry  into  the  Guard  of  the  First,  Second  and  Third  Regi- 
ments, Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry.  On  the  failure  of  E  Cora- 
]iany  of  the  Third  Infantry  to  reorganize,  B  Company  was  trans- 


ferred  to  the  Third  as  E  Company,  on  the  recommendation  of 
Captain  J.  M.  Ballard. 

Lieutenant  Wuereh  resigned  in  January,  1899,  on  removal 
from  the  city,  and  was  succeeded  by  Wm.  J.  Kessler  on  May  16, 
1899.  The  officers  at  the  time  of  the  transfer  to  the  Third  Infantry 
were  as  follows : 

Captain  0.  H.  Kitzman,  First  Lieutenant  Carl  A".  Franklin, 
Second  Lieutenant  Wm.  J.  Kessler. 

On  January  16,  1902,  Earle  S.  Pearsall  was  commissioned  as 
captain.  This  was  his  entry  into  the  Wisconsin  National  Guard. 
He  had  served  with  the  First  Nebraska  Volunteer  Infantry  in  the 
Philippines,  and  had  beeu  a  resident  of  Eau  Claire  for  about  two 
years  at  the  time  he  was  commissioned.  He  is  still  in  command 
of  the  company.  Other  changes  in  the  commissioned  staff  are 
noted  in  a  list  further  on  in  this  article. 

Captain  Pearsall  had  been  in  command  less  than  one  month 
when  the  armory  burned,  February  15,  1902.  He  secured  quarters 
for  the  company  in  what  was  known  as  "Putnam  Hall,"  where 
they  made  their  home  for  several  years.  They  are  now  occupy- 
ing a  small  hall  on  the  second  floor  of  a  building  on  River  street. 
The  quarters  are  entirely  unsuited  for  military  purposes. 

Few  matters  of  particular  interest  have  occurred  in  the  history 
of  the  company  since  1899,  other  than  the  loss  of  the  armory. 
The  company  has  attended  the  annual  encampments.  It  was  with 
the  regiment  at  the  manuever  camp  at  Fort  Benjamin  Harrison, 
September  21  to  30,  1898. 

September  14,  15  and  16,  1911,  the  company  participated  in  a 
special  military  camp  on  the  State  Fair  Grounds,  Milwaukee. 
This  was  by  invitation  of  the  State  Fair  Association. 

A  call  for  service  was  made  in  the  fall  of  1911.  On  Sunday, 
October  8,  late  in  the  afternoon,  Captain  Cousins  received  a  tele- 
phone message  from  Major  Williams,  at  Camp  Douglas,  advising 
the  governor  had  ordered  Company  D,  of  Mauston,  Captain 
Witherby,  and  Company  E,  Eau  Claire,  Captain  Pearsall,  to  Black 
River  Falls,  Jackson  county.  That  city  had  suffered  great  losses 
by  flood  a  few  days  before  and  the  troops  were  required  for  the 
preservation  of  order  and  protection  of  property.  At  10:15  P.  M. 
Captain  Cousins  wired  Madison  as  follows: 

Adjutant  General,  Madison,  Wis. 

E  Company,  three  officers  and  forty-nine  men,  left  for  Black 
River  Falls  at  ten  tonight.  Will  send  other  men  tomorrow  morn- 
ing. Cousins,  Adjutant. 


Major  Williams  had  been  ordered  from  Camp  Douglas  to 
Black  River  Falls  and  was  in  charge  of  the  troops  and  relief 
work.  For  some  days  the  companies  were  on  duty  and  rendered 
valuable  assistance. 

The  officers  and  men  of  the  company  nave  made  repeated 
efforts  to  secure  a  suitable  home  and  it  is  hoped  that  in  time  an 
armory  will  be  erected.  At  the  present  E  Company  is  the  poorest 
provided  of  an.v  company  in  the  regiment  for  quarters. 




Otto  H.  Kitzman July  25,  1<S98 

Earle  S.  Pearsall Jan.  16,  1902 

1st  Lieutenants. 

Karl  A.  Franklin July  25,  1898 

Thomas  W.  Gruber May     5,  1902 

Charles  W.  Dinger Feb.  28,  1909 

Karl  C.  Kraemer June  13,  1909 

Richard  F.  Sortomme July     5,  1914 

2nd  Lieutenants. 

Wm.  J.  Kessler May  16,  1899 

Edward  D.  McMillan July  14,  1902 

Chas.  W.  Dinger Nov.  29,  1904 

Karl  C.  Kraemer Feb.  28,  1909 

Harry  0.  Hanson June  13,  1909 

Richard  F.  Sortomme July  11,  1912 

Carl  H.  Johnson   July     5,  1914 


Ill  the  Summer  of  1887  a  number  of  the  younger  men  of  the 
City  of  Eau  Claire  assembled  to  discuss  the  formation  of  a  mili- 
tary company.  A  preliminary  meeting  was  held  early  in  July, 
and  on  the  evening  of  July  13,  1887,  a  second  meeting  to  effect 
a  temporary  organization  was  held  in  Smith's  Hall,  corner  of 
South  Barstow  street  and  Gray  street.  Harry  B.  McMaster  was 
elected  chairman  and  Thomas  B.  Culver  performed  the  duties  of 
secretary.  A  large  number  were  in  attendance  and  the  meeting 
was  an  enthusiastic  one.  Committees  were  appointed  to  perfect 
the  organization.  Interested  gentlemen  who  had  been  investi- 
gating the  financing  of  the  company  made  a  favorable  report. 
Measures  were  taken  to  secure  the  Roller  Skating  Rink  at  the 
corner  of  Second  avenue  and  Ann  street,  on  the  west  side  for  use 
as  an  armory. 

July  27,  1887,  another  meeting  was  held  of  which  Harry  B. 
McMaster  was  chairman  and  A.  J.  Sheridan  acting  secretary.  A 
civil  organization  was  formed  with  the  election  of  Joseph  M.  Bal- 
lard as  president.  Homer  D.  Cooley  as  vice-president  and  William 
P.  Chrissinger  as  secretary  and  Thomas  B.  Culver  as  treasurer. 
These  gentlemen  with  H.  B.  McMaster,  George  B.  Mason  and 
Moses  W.  Burns  composed  the  board  of  directors. 

The  committee  on  armory  made  a  report  that  the  old  skating 
rink,  corner  Ann  street  and  Second  avenue,  could  be  secured  for 
a  rental  of  fifty  dollars  per  year  and  that  the  premises  could  be 
bought  outright  for  three  hundred  dollars. 

In  honor  of  a  prominent  citizen,  the  name  "Griffin  Rifles" 
was  adopted  by  a  unanimous  vote,  by  acclamation. 

The  meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  a  Captain  and 
on  an  informal  ballot  Harry  B.  McMaster  received  forty-two 
votes  and  Walter  J.  Fitch  four.  The  election  of  Captain  McMas- 
ter was  made  unanimous.  A  ballot  for  First  Lieutenant  was 
taken  and  Walter  J.  Fitch  received  twenty-four  votes,  John  P. 
Sheridan  nineteen  and  scattering  four.  Mr.  Fitch  declined  the 
election  on  the  ground  that  he  had  in  contemplation  a  business 
arrangement  which  would  cause  his  removal  from  the  city.  An- 
other ballot  was  then  taken  and  John  P.  Sheridan  received  forty 


votes,  John  Fred  Farr  four,  George  B.  Mason  two,  and  J.  M. 
Ballard  one.  The  election  of  Lieutenant  Sheridan  was  made 
unanimous.  An  informal  ballot  for  Second  Lieutenant  was  then 
taken,  resulting  in  John  Fred  Farr  receiving  twenty-seven  votes, 
George  B.  Mason  nine,  J.  M.  Ballard  three,  and  scattering  seven. 
Lieutenant  Farr  was  thereupon  unanimously  elected. 

The  meeting  then  appointed  a  committee  on  by-laws  and 
articles  of  association  consisting  of  Messrs.  Fitch,  McMaster  and 
Cooley  and  arranged  for  the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  solicit 
honorary  memberships. 

In  August  the  old  rink  became  the  armory  of  the  new  com- 
pany and  frequent  meetings  and  drills  were  held  to  perfect  the 
organization.  The  citizens  responded  liberall}^  in  taking  out  hon- 
orary memberships.  The  Griffin  Rifles  Armory  Association  was 
organized  to  take  over  the  building  and  remodel  it.  This  associa- 
tion was  a  stock  company  and  the  citizens  freely  subscribed  for 
stock.  October  11  to  October  15  the  company  gave  a  fair  at  the 
old  Music  Hall,  then  standing  at  the  corner  of  South  Barstow 
and  Kelsey  streets,  now  the  site  of  the  Kahn-Truax  building.  A 
report  of  the  treasurer  following  the  fair  gave  the  net  receipts 
as  $943.97.  The  ladies  rendered  great  assistance  to  the  members 
of  the  company  in  making  the  fair  a  success.  The  money  thus 
obtained  was  used  in  the  purchase  of  uniforms.  Events  of  this 
fair  being  of  great  interest  were  the  cane  contest  and  the  hat 
contest.  The  cane  was  won  by  John  S.  Owen,  who  received  950 
votes.  George  B.  Shaw  was  close  competitor  and  Frank  McDon- 
ough  came  in  third.  John  Ure  won  the  silk  hat  with  Ralph  E. 
Rust  and  Frank  Moon  second  and  third  contestants. 

October  19  First  Lieutenant  John  P.  Sheridan  tendered  his 
resignation,  owing  to  removal  from  the  city,  and  First  Sergeant 
Joseph  M.  Ballard  was  unanimously  elected  to  the  position. 

On  October  26  Captain  McMaster  announced  the  Adjutant 
General  had  advised  arras  would  soon  be  shipped  to  the  company. 
The  drilling  in  the  foot  movements  was  already  under  way.  At 
this  same  meeting  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider  plans 
for  the  remodeling  of  the  building  and  to  provide  for  heating.  In 
December  the  company  got  down  to  hard  drill.  Sc[uad  drills  were 
held  from  8 :30  to  9 :30  and  then  company  drills  for  one  hour. 

At  the  annual  meeting  December  6  A.  J.  Sheridan  was  chosen 
recording  secretary  of  the  Civil  Association,  C.  H.  Greene  financial 
secretary  and  Thomas  B.  Culver  treasurer.  The  by-laws  had  been 
amended  to  provide  for  the  captain  of  the  company  being  presi- 
dent of  the  Civil  Association. 


On  November  22  the  rifles,  the  old  Springfield,  were  received 
from  the  State  and  the  company,  which  had  heretofore  been 
drilling  in  foot  movements,  took  up  the  manual  of  arms.  The 
uniforms  did  not  come  until  December  15.  These  were  purchased 
by  the  company  and  each  man  received  a  pair  of  blue  trousers, 
a  dark  blue  blouse  and  a  dress  coat.  These  coats  were  highly 
decorated  with  facings  and  brass  buttons,  and  fitted  very  tight. 

The  armory  had  been  put  in  condition  for  drills  and  all 
through  the  winter  the  company  worked  hard.  In  spite  of  great 
stoves  at  either  end  kept  at  a  red  heat  the  men  suffered  from 
the  cold  while  drilling  and  many  rifles  fell  to  the  floor  from  the 
benumbed  fingei-s  of  recruits.  Captain  McMaster  was  rapidly 
molding  the  company  into  shape.  In  the  selection  of  his  non- 
commissioned officers  he  used  great  care.  Joseph  M.  Ballard  when 
the  company  first  organized  in  the  summer  was  First  Sergeant 
and  on  his  election  to  First  Lieutenant  was  succeeded  by  William 
P.  Chrissinger.  Charles  H.  Green  early  in  the  history  of  the 
company  was  made  Quartermaster  Sergeant. 

During  the  winter  of  1887-88  the  Germania  Guard,  of  Wausau, 
was  mustered  out  of  the  State  service  and  the  Griffin  Rifles,  to- 
gether with  two  other  independent  companies,  made  application 
for  the  vacancy.  Adjutant  General  Chandler  P.  Chapman 
ordered  the  three  applicants  to  prepare  for  a  competitive  drill, 
and  in  this  contest  the  Rifles  were  the  victors. 

March  29  was  the  date  set  for  the  inspection.  The  other  two 
competitors  for  the  place  had  already  been  inspected.  The 
armory  was  filled  with  friends  of  the  company  to  witness  this 
critical  event  in  the  career  of  the  Rifles.  General  Chapman  de- 
parted for  Madison  on  completion  of  the  inspection  and  that  the 
company  made  a  satisfactory  and  successful  showing  is  evidenced 
by  a  telegram  received  on  March  30  from  General  Chapman  con- 
veying the  information  that  Governor  Rusk  had  directed  the 
vacancy  in  the  Third  Infantry  be  filled  by  the  mustering  in  of  the 
Eau  Claire  Company.  On  April  6  notice  was  given  muster  would 
take  place  on  April  20. 


On  the  evening  of  April  20,  1888,  the  company  assembled  at 
Smith's  Hall,  owing  to  the  armory  being  again  under  repairs, 
and  with  due  ceremony  were  mustered  into  the  State  service  by 
that  grand  old  soldier.  General  Chapman.  The  muster  roll  of 
April  20  was  as  follows : 


Captain  Harry  B.  McMaster. 
First  Lieutenant  Joseph  M.  Ballard. 
Second  Lieutenant  J.  Fred  Farr. 
First  Sergeant  William  P.  Chrissinger. 
Quartermaster  Sergeant  Charles  H.  Green. 
Sergeant  T.  Frank  Thomas. 
rSergeant  J.  Eugene  Horan. 
Sergeant  Edward  G.  Kehr. 
Sergeant  Edward  B.  Kendall. 
Corporal  Allen  J.  VanValkenburg. 
Corporal  Homer  D.  Cooley. 
Corporal  Andrew  T.  Simms. 
Corporal  Dan  MeGillis. 
Musicians  Percy  Cochrane,  Will  C.  Off. 

Privates  Fred  H.  Allen,  Percy  C.  Atkinson,  Frank  H.  Bartlett, 
Sumner  P.  Bartlett,  C.  M.  Boardman,  William  Bonell,  Jr.,  John 
M.  Bostwick,  Frank  S.  Bouchord,  M.  W.  Burns,  William  L.  Butler, 
Carlos  L.  Carle,  George  A.  Carlson,  Will  J.  Carpenter,  George  B. 
Chapman,  Jr.,  James  M.  Charles,  James  I.  Chrissinger,  Walter  J. 
Conway,  Marshall  Cousins,  Sam  F.  Crabbe,  Charles  A.  Fleming, 
Edward  E.  Fleming,  Louis  Fredricks,  Arthur  M.  Fort,  Henry  A. 
Glenn,  Charles  H.  Graham,  M.  C.  Griffin,  Walter  H.  Hainer,  Will 
P.  Hart,  Clare  S.  Howland,  C.  Burt  Johnson,  John  Kemp,  Jr., 
Gilbert  L.  Larson,  Hugh  «McGough,  Arthur  A.  Meggett,  Frank  L. 
Morrison,  Albert  E.  Palmer,  Robert  E.  Parkinson,  Eugene  L. 
PomO^au  0.  Ray,  U.  Grant  Richards,  Will  J.  Seney,  Ollie  R. 
Seevers,  Herbert  W.  Smith,  Isaac  B.  Spencer,  Harvey  G.  Stafford, 
Elmer  E.  Stanton,  John  H.  Stockbridge,  John  C.  Thompson,  Ed.  V. 
Wall,  George  R.  Watson. 


The  Griffin  Rities  were  now  to  be  known  as  E  Company  of 
the  Third  Infantry.  Of  this  regiment  Colonel  Martin  T.  Moore, 
of  La  Crosse,  was  in  command.  In  the  following  summer  the 
company  went  into  its  first  state  camp.  This  was  at  Menomonie. 
Tlie  company  was  designated  by  the  men  of  the  other  companies 
as  the  "Babies,"  owing  to  the  fact  they  had  but  so  recently 
entered  the  service.  They  were  under  constant  and  critical  ob- 
servation by  the  regimental  officers  and  inspectors  and  came  home 
with  an  excellent  record. 

June  17  to  25,  1889,  the  Third  Infantry  encamped  at  the  newly 
established  Wisconsin  Military  Reservation  near  Camp  Douglas. 



The  Third  was  the  first  regiment  to  make  use  of  the  grounds. 
Previous  to  this  time  the  regiments  had  camped  at  various  towns 
in  the  State.  General  Chapman  and  Captain  George  Graham, 
of  Tomah,  were  the  first  to  consider  the  grounds  near  the  village 
of  Camp  Douglas  for  military  purposes  and  in  the  summer  of  1888 
made  an  investigation.  They  found  the  present  reservation  as 
well  fitted  for  encampment  purposes  and  maneuvering.  No  funds 
being  available  for  the  purpose,  General  Chapman  at  his  own  risk 
purchased  four  hundred  and  forty  acres  from  seven  different 
owners.  On  April  22,  1889,  a  conference  of.  officers  recommended 
the  State  purchase  of  the  grounds  from  General  Chapman. 

Nearly  all  the  reservation  was  covered  by  second  growth  tim- 
ber and  brush.  The  first  drill  of  the  regiment  after  reaching 
the  reservation  and  making  their  camp  was  fatigue  work.  All 
hands  turned  to  and  proceeded  to  clear  uprooted  stumps  and 
brush.  This  was  piled  in  a  huge  heap  near  the  guard  quarters 
and  made  a  magnificent  bonfire  which  burned  throughout  the 

The  annual  encampments  since  1889  have  been  at  the  Wis- 
consin Military  Reservation. 

The  Griffin  Rifles  were  one  of  the  several  companies  invited 
to  the  inauguration  ceremonies  of  Governor  William  D.  Hoard, 
at  Madison,  January  7,  1889.  They  left  Eau  Claire  in  evening 
of  Sunday,  January  6,  and  returned  Tuesday  morning. 

October  14  to  19,  1889,  the  company  gave  a  second  "Fair 
and  Art  Loan,"  which  proved  to  be  a  great  success.  A  cane 
contest  evoking  great  interest  was  a  feature  of  this  fair.  Richard 
T.  Farr,  a  lumberman,  was  voted  the  cane.  His  principal  com- 
petitor Avas  Horace  Rust,  another  lumberman,  and  the  race  be- 
tween these  two  gentlemen  was  fierce  but  good  natured.  Net 
receipts  of  this  fair  were  about  $800.00. 


Late  in  the  evening  of  July  19,  1889,  a  telegram  was  received 
by  Captain  McMaster,  reading  as  follows: 

"Madison,  Wisconsin. 
July  19,  1889. 
To  Captain  H.  B.  McMaster,  Eau  Claire : 

Muster  your  company  and  proceed  at  once  to  West  Superior 
and  report  for  duty  to  ]\Iayor  of  West  Superior  and  Sheriff. 

William  D.  Hoard, 




A  large  party  was  in  progress  at  the  residence  of  Clarence  A. 
Chamberlin  and  several  members  of  the  company  were  there  as 
guests,  among  them  the  Captain.  Those  present  were  immediately 
dispatched  as  messengers  to  notify  other  members  of  the  company. 
An  hour  after  receipt  of  the  telegram  fifty  men  were  at  the 
armory  in  uniform,  fully  equipped  and  ready  to  march.  The 
limited  number  of  ball  cartridges  on  hand  were  issued.  As  the 
sun  was  rising  on  the  morning  of  the  20th  the  company  took  the 
four  o'clock  train  on  the  Omaha  for  West  Superior.  General 
Griffiu  accompanied  the  troops. 

The  riotous  demonstration  by  several  hundred  strikers 
prompted  the  West  Superior  officials  to  call  for  troops.  A  gen- 
eral strike  had  been  inaugurated.  The  police  officers  and  deputy 
sheriffs  were  unable  to  guard  property  and  protect  those  men 
who  desired  to  work.  The  extensive  coal  docks  were  threatened 
with  destruction  and  work  on  public  improvements  had  been 
stopped.    Mob  rule  prevailed. 

The  company  arrived  at  Superior  at  9 :30.  Their  arrival  was 
unexpected  by  the  rioters  and  produced  an  excellent  effect.  The 
company  marched  through  the  city  to  the  city  hall,  where  their 
barracks  were  established.  The  men  had  hardly  reached  the 
city  hall  when  they  were  ordered  out  to  intercept  a  body  of 
strikers  reported  to  be  moving  on  the  water  works  trenches 
where  laborers  were  working.  A  press  dispatch  of  that  date 
reads  as  follows : 

■'The  strikers  were  encountered  and  were  much  surprised  at 
the  soldiers'  sudden  appearance,  and  many  faint-hearted  strikers 
began  to  steal  away  from  the  scene.  The  prompt  action  of  Gov- 
ernor Hoard,  and  the  fine  appearance  and  soldierly  conduct  of 
the  troops  are  subjects  of  much  favorable  comment." 

Sunday  was  spent  in  a  comparatively  quiet  manner.  On  Mon- 
day morning  a  mob  of  about  two  hundred  men  started  out  to 
"run  the  town,"  while  the  greater  portion  of  the  Rifles,  under 
Captain  McMaster,  were  protecting  laborers  at  the  coal  docks. 
The  mob  was  encountered  by  Lieutenant  Ballard  with  nineteen 
men  and  by  the  firmness  of  General  Griffin,  who  had  hurried  to 
the  scene,  was  dispersed  under  the  most  critical  circumstances. 
A  thousand  rounds  of  ammunition  hurriedly  forwarded  were 
received  from  Madison  for  the  Griffin  Rifles,  while,  late  in  the 
afternoon.  Company  L  were  placed  under  arms  in  their  armory 
at  Eau  Claire,  in  accordance  with  telegraphic  orders,  and  held  in 
; ,  readiness  to  start  for  Superior  till  10  o'clock  that  night,  when 
:;r     they  were  dismissed,  but  notified  to  promptly  respond  to  a  given 


signal.  The  needed  lesson  had  been  taught,  however,  for  the  mob 
element  realized  that  the  military  authorities  "meant  business." 
and  Tuesday  was  spent  by  the  troops  in  the  comparatively  simple 
duty  of  protecting  laborers  and  standing  ready  to  quell  any 
riotous  proceedings.  Most  of  "Wednesday  passed  in  much  the 
same  way.  It  had  become  evident  that  much  of  the  not  spn-it 
had  been  subdued  and  the  troops  departed  for  home  on  the  after- 
noon train  of  that  day.  During  the  whole  tour  of  duty,  the 
purpose  of  sustaining  the  civil  authorities,  suppressing  disorder 
and  preserving  the  peace  was  steadily  maintained  by  General 
Griffin,  and  his  judicious  management  fully  accomplislied  this 
design  without  bloodshed,  the  civil  authorities  being  enabled  to 
make  arrests,  with  the  troops  at  hand  to  support  them. 

On  their  arrival  at  Eau  Claire  that  night,  the  Rifles  were  met 
at  the  depot  and  escorted  to  their  armory  by  their  gallant  com- 
rades of  Captain  Beisang's  Company  L  with  a  band.  At  the 
armory  the  members  of  Company  E  were  welcomed  by  a  large 
number  of  ladies,  who  had  prepared  for  the  soldier  boys  an 
elegant  repast.  The  "war"  was  over;  the  Rifles  had  endeavored 
to  do  their  duty  as  citizen  soldiers ;  their  superiors,  including 
General  Griffin  and  the  commander-in-chief,  were  satisfied  with 
the  conduct  of  the  members  of  Company  E,  and  the  boys  were 

Governor  Hoard  in  General  Orders  No.  13,  1889,  made  public 
acknowledgment  of  the  excellent  service  rendered  by  the  com- 
pany.    The  order  reads  as  follows: 

General  Orders,  Adjutant  General's  Office, 

No.  13.  Madison,  July  27,  1889. 

Late  in  the  evening  of  the  19th  inst.  the  Governor  received 
a  message  from  the  Mayor  of  Superior  and  the  Sheriff  of  Douglas 
coimty,  representing  that  the  civil  authorities  there  were  unable 
to  maintain  the  peace  and  protect  the  persons  and  property  of 
the  citizens  and  requesting  that  a  company  of  the  National  Guard 
might  be  sent  to  their  assistance.  Complying  with  this  request, 
an  order  was  issued  to  Captain  Harry  B.  McMaster,  commanding 
Company  E,  Third  Regiment,  Wisconsin  National  Guard,  at  Eau 
Claire,  to  muster  his  command  and  proceed  by  first  train  to  West 
Superior  and  report  to  the  Mayor.  A  message  was  also  sent  to 
Brigadier  General  M.  Griffin,  Quartei-master  General,  requesting 
him  to  accompany  the  troops,  not  only  to  provide  quarters  and 
subsistence,  but  to  act  as  the  personal  representative  of  the 


These  messages  did  not  reach  theii-  destination  until  after  one 
0  'clock  in  tlie  morning,  but  when  delivered  they  were  acted  upon 
with  such  promptness  and  celerity  that  the  several  members  of 
the  company  were  called  from  sleep  at  their  homes,  and  it  is 
represented  forty-nine  officers  and  men  reported  for  duty  within 
an  hour.  Leaving  Eau  Claire  at  about  4  o'clock  a.  m.,  in  five 
hours  thereafter  the  company  reached  West  Superior,  147  miles 
distant,  and  reported  as  directed. 

All  reports  concur  in  ascribing  the  avoidance  of  most  serious 
trouble,  involving  destruction  of  property  if  not  loss  of  life,  to 
the  timely  arrival,  soldierly  bearing  and  complete  discipline  of 
tliis  detachment  of  the  National  Guard  of  the  State,  aided  as  it 
was  by  the  experienced  .judgment  and  wise  direction  of  General 

A  most  delicate  and  unwelcome  duty  was  performed  with 
eminent  credit  to  all  concerned,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the 
Commander-in-Chief,  and  with  great  profit  to  the  community 
calling  for  assistance,  and  therefore  to  the  State  at  large. 

Most  happily  bloodshed  was  avoided,  but  the  power  and  the 
dignity  of  the  military  arm  of  the  State  were  manifest,  and  thus 
aided,  the  civil  authorities  were  enabled  to  reinstate  order  in 
place  of  chaos,  and  law  in  place  of  mob  rule — demonstrating  once 
again  the  wisdom  of  establishing  and  maintaining  an  efficient  body 
of  well  instructed  and  properly  disciplined  state  troops  and  once 
again  warning  all  persons  that  Wisconsin  can  and  will  protect 
its  citizens  in  their  right  to  labor  as  and  when  and  where  they 

The  Commander-in-Chief  takes  pleasure  in  extending  to  Briga- 
dier General  Griffin  and  to  Captain  McMaster  and  the  officers  and 
men  of  liis  company  this  public  expression  of  his  estimate  of  the 
value  of  their  services.  By  Order  of  the  Governor, 

Geo.  W.  Burchard, 
Adjutant  General. 

The  second  call  for  active  duty  for  Company  E  was  in  the 
summer  of  1894.  At  12 :20  a.  ni.,  July  9,  1894,  Captain  Ballard 
received  the  following  dispatch  from  Adjutant  General  Falk: 

Milwaukee,  Wis.,  July  8,  1894,  11 :40  p.  m. 
Captain  J.  M.  Ballard, 

Commanding    Company   E,    Third    Infantry,   W.    N.    G.,   Eau 
Claire,  Wis. 
■     Assemble   your   command   at   armory    immediately,    equipped 
for  the  field  with  two  days'  rations.     Take  all  ammunition  on 


hand.  Will  probably  require  your  service  in  the  morning.  Expect 
Colonel  Moore  to  be  in  Eau  Claire  tomorrow  morning.  Will  wire 
further  instructions  later.     Answer  at  once. 

(Signed)  Palk, 

Adjutant  General. 

Immediately  upon  the  receipt  of  this  order  Captain  Ballard 
communicated  with  his  First  aud  Second  Lieutenants,  and  or- 
dered them  to  notify  each  non-commissioned  officer  to  report  to 
him  at  once  at  the  armory  with  his  squad.  At  2 :15  a.  m.  he 
instructed  the  First  Sergeant  to  fall  the  company  in  and  call  the 
roll.  There  were  found  to  be  fifty-seven  officers  and  enlisted  men 
in  the  ranks  present  for  duty.  The  company  remained  constantly 
in  the  armory  ready  to  respond  to  all  orders,  and  had  a  regular 
tour  of  duty.  Guard  mount  at  8  a.  m.,  drill  at  9  a.  m.  and  3  p.  m., 
and  dress  parade  at  7:30  p.  m.  daily  from  the  time  it  assembled 
at  2:15,  July  9,  until  8  p.  m.  July  11,  1894,  when  the  company 
was  dismissed. 

Companies  L  (Eau  Claire),  H  (Menomonie)  and  C  (Hudson) 
were  also  assembled  and  held  in  readiness  at  their  armories  dur- 
ing this  pfiriod. 

Colonel  Moore  and  Major  Julius  E.  Kircheis  arrived  at  au 
early  hour  July  9  and  established  quarters  at  the  Eau  Claire 
Hovise.  The  Regimental  Sergeant  Major,  Marshall  Cousins,  re- 
ported to  Colonel  Moore  for  duty.  The  great  railroad  strike  of 
1894  Avas  then  at  its  height  and  the  sheriff  at  Spooner  on  the 
Omaha  railway  had  made  a  call  on  the  Governor  for  aid  in  pro- 
tecting property  and  securing  the  movement  of  trains.  Fortu- 
nately the  assembling  of  troops  at  their  armories  was  accepted 
by  the  sti'ike  leaders  as  a  proof  of  the  Governor's  determination 
to  prevent  violence.  General  Louis  Auer,  Quartermaster  General, 
visited  Spooner  and  conferred  with  the  strike  leaders,  and  order 
was  soon  restored.  The  officers  of  the  guard  and  men  of  the 
company  were  well  pleased  they  were  not  required  to  visit  the 
scene  of  the  disturbance. 

Following  this  little  occurred  out  of  routine  military  work 
up  to  the  call  for  troops  in  April,  1898.  Rifle  practice  was  taken 
up  by  E  Company  very  soon  after  it  was  mustered  into  the  State 
service.  Moses  W.  Burns,  a  private  in  the  company,  was  in- 
structor in  rifle  work.  A  range  was  fitted  up  on  the  prairie  south 
of  the  city  which  the  men  reached  by  crossing  the  Milwaukee 
railroad  bridge  in  the  Fourth  Ward.  Mention  of  Private  Burns 
will  be  made  later.     The  company  soon  developed  a  number  of 


shots  who  were  much  above  the  average  and  among  them  may  be 
mentioned  Captain  Ballard,  Sergeants  Wall,  Cousins  and  Farr, 
and  Privates  Burns,  Burroughs,  Ray,  Parkinson,  Larson,  Charles 
and  Carlson.  The  E  Company  rifle  team  won  first  place  in  the 
National  Guard  of  Wisconsin  at  Camp  Douglas  in  1890  and  in 
1891,  in  competition  with  teams  from  all  other  companies  in  the 
State,  won  a  handsome  and  costly  trophy,  generously  presented 
by  Robert  K.  Boyd,  of  Eau  Claire.  In  1892  E  Company  lost  the 
Boyd  trophy  by  a  few  points.  In  1891  Moses  W.  Burns  qualified 
as  sharpshooter  and  Captain  J.  M.  Ballard,  Sergeant  Marshall 
Cousins,  Private  Robert  E.  Parkinson  and  Sergeant  Edward  V. 
Wall  as  marksmen.  In  the  following  season,  1892,  Private  Edward 
S.  Burroughs  was  awarded  the  decoration  of  marksman. 

At  a  camp  of  instruction  and  interstate  rifle  competition  held 
at  Fort  Sheridan,  Illinois,  October  24  to  29,  1892,  Private  Edward 
S.  Burroughs  was  one  of  the  contestants  and  Private  M.  W.  Burns 
Avas  present  on  detail  as  an  instructor. 

In  the  social  life  of  the  city  E  Company  in  its  earlier  days 
took  a  prominent  part  and  its  dancing  parties  were  the  events  of 
the  season. 


Rank.  Name.  Date  of  Election. 

Captain,  Harry  B.  McMaster July  27,  1887 

First  lieutenants,  Walter  J.  Fitch July  27,  1887 

John  P.  Sheridan July  27,  1887 

Joseph  M.  Ballard October  19,  1887 

Second  lieutenant,  John  Fred  Farr July  27,  1887 


Rank.                   Name.  Date  of  Rank. 

Captains,  Harry  B.  McMaster April  20,  1888 

Joseph  M.  Ballard April  15,  1890 

First  lieutenants,  Joseph  M.  Ballard April  20,  1888 

^      ,       John  E.  Horan April  15,  1890 

i  ^"^^    "ETward  G.  Kehr September  25,  1890 

Thomas  P.  Cochrane March  19,  1891 

Second  lieutenants,  John  F.  Farr April  20,  1888 

John  E.  Horan^ April; 24,  1889 

..     Edward  E.  Kehr April  15,  1890 


Thomas  P.  Cochrane September  25,  1890 

Samuel  F.   Crabbe March  19,  1891 

Wesley  0.  Smith December  5,  1895 

John  E.  Barron August  20,  1897 


Sketches  of  those  prominently  identified  with  the  company 
in  its  earlier  days  are  of  special  interest. 

The  Griffin  Rifles  was  named  in  honor  of  General  Michael 
Griffin  of  Eau  Claire.  He  was  born  in  County  Clare,  Ireland, 
September  9,  1842.  Enlisted  in  the  Twelfth  Wisconsin  Infantry, 
September  11,  1861.  Wounded  in  battle  of  Bald  Hill,  Ga.,  on 
February  11,  1865.  With  Sherman  on  the  march  from  Atlanta 
to  the  sea.  Commissioned  First  Lieutenant  July  5,  1865.  In 
1894  was  elected  to  Congress  and  served  two  terms.  Was  De- 
partment Commander  of  the  G.  A.  R.  Died  suddenly  December 
29,  1899. 

General  Griffin  was  Quartermaster  General  during  the  admin- 
istration of  Governor  Hoard,  1891  and  1892.  He  was  an  active 
and  sincere  fi'iend  of  the  company  from  its  organization  to  the 
time  of  his  death. 

Harry  B.  McMaster,  Captain  from  the  organization,  resigned 
and  received  his  discharge  January  28,  1890.  He  had  two  years' 
experience  at  West  Point  and  served  the  interests  of  the  com- 
pany with  zeal,  and  established  it  upon  a  firm  foundation. 

John  Eugene  Horan,  a  charter  member  of  the  company,  was 
discharged  as  First  Lieutenant  August  25,  1890.  He  was  a  model 
officer,  capable,  indefatigable,  and  thoroughly  informed.  He  is 
now  a  prominent  lawyer  in  the  State  of  Washington,  residing  in 

Edward  G.  Kehr  was  discharged  as  First  Lieutenant  March 
13,  1891.  He  rendered  the  company  valuable  service  and  was 
a  particularly  efficient  and  popular  officer. 

John  Fred  Farr,  now  a  prominent  practicing  physician  of 
this  city,  resigned  and  was  discharged  April  4,  1889.  His  re- 
tirement was  the  subject  of  much  regret.  He  was  an  able,  ener- 
getic officer.  In  1898  he  resided  at  Stanley,  Wis.,  and  organized 
a  company  for  service  in  the  Spanish-American  War,  which  was 
offered  to  the  Government.  The  war  ended  before  the  services 
of  this  company  were  required.  Several  years  later  Dr.  Farr 
again  established  his  home  in  Eau  Claire. 

W.  Burns  was  the  father  of  small  arms  practice  in  E 


Company  and  was  among  the  first  in  the  State  to  take  up  this 
branch  of  the  military  work.  No  attention  had  been  paid  to 
practice  until  after  the  establishment  of  Camp  Douglas  ranges. 
There  in  1889  Cajitain  Phillip  Reade,  of  the  regular  army,  started 
the  work  and  from  that  day  to  this  Wisconsin  has  been  a  shooting 
State  and  the  Third  Infantry  has  the  reputation  of  being  one 
of  the  best  shooting  regiments  in  the  National  Guard  of  the 
country.  Private  Burns  was  made  the  team  Captain  of  E  Com- 
pany and  took  entire  charge  of  the  instruction.  For  years  he 
had  been  interested  in  rifle  shooting  and  had  made  a  reputation 
as  a  rifle  shot  before  he  began  with  the  military  rifles.  With 
him  rifle  shooting  had  been  reduced  to  a  science.  As  an  in- 
structor he  was  very  efficient  and  took  great  satisfaction  in 
imparting  to  the  beginner  information  on  the  many  fine  points 
of  the  shooting  game.  He  took  more  delight  in  coaching  a  recruit 
into  a  good  score  than  to  make  one  himself. 

He  had  been  a  member  of  the  old  City  Guards,  which  existed 
in  the  seventies,  and  became  a  charter  member  of  the  Griffin 
Rifles.  He  served  five  years  in  the  company,  when  ill  health 
compelled  his  retirement.     He  died  October  1,  1894. 





All  through  the  month  of  April  the  people  of  the  nation 
watched  the  gathering  war  clouds  with  deep  concern.  With  all 
others  of  the  National  Guard  of  the  country,  the  members  of 
E  Company  were  particularly  close  observers  of  developments, 
and  as  day  by  day  went  by  the  feeling  became  more  certain  war 
would  result.  The  Armory,  then  situated  at  the  corner  of  First 
avenue  and  Ann  street,  facing  on  the  Chippewa  river,  was  open 
every  evening  and  the  rendezvous  of  the  men  of  the  company. 

At  12:19  on  the  morning  of  Thursday,  April  28,  the  following 
telegram  was  received  by  the  company  commander: 

"Captain  J.  M.  Ballard, 
Eau  Claire,  Wis. 
Assemble   all  men   enrolled  at  Armory  ready   to   entrain   at 
10:30  a.  m.,  Omaha.     Bring  all  extra  property,  one  day's  rations. 
By  Command  of  the  Governor, 

C.  R.  Boardman, 
Adjutant  General  ' ' 

Many  men  were  in  the  Armory  when  the  call  was  received 
and  immediately  were  dispatched  to  carry  the  word  to  all  other 
members  of  the  company.  It  was  a  busy  night  and  by  eight 
o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  28th  the  company  was  assembled 
at  its  Armory  ready  to  take  up  the  march  to  the  depot. 

Captain  Ballard  had  been  advised  by  General  Boardman  sev- 
eral days  before,  the  maximum  strength  of  volunteer  companies 
was  fixed  at  101  and  the  minimum  at  89.  These  figures  included 
officers.  Instructions  had  been  given,  however,  not  to  enlist  over 
65  men  in  the  National  Guard  Company. 

All  business  in  the  city  was  practically  suspended.  At  ten 
o'clock  banks,  stores  and  factories  closed.  Shortly  after  ten 
the  company  left  the  Armory  and  began  the  march  to  the  Omaha 
Station.  An  immense  cheering  assembly  greeted  the  men  as,  in 
heavy  marching  order,  in  column  of  fours,  they  moved  out  onto 
First  avenue.  An  escort  column  was  made  up  as  follows : 


Metropolitau  Band. 

Mayor,  Aldermen  and  other  City  Officials, 

Eagle  Post,  Grand  Army  of  the  Kepublie,  150  strong. 

Griffin  Rifles,  E  Company. 

From  Armory  to  the  depot  was  one  grand  ovation.  At  the 
depot  it  was  estimated  fully  half  of  the  people  of  Eau  Claire 
had  assembled.  The  troop  train  from  Hudson  did  not  arrive 
until  11:15  and  the  company  immediately  boarded  the  car  as- 
signed to  them.  Plentiful  lunches  had  been  provided  by  the 
Grand  Army  and  the  Women's  Relief  Corps.  Carnations  and 
roses  from  the  ladies  decorated  the  blue  uniform  of  every  soldier. 
Ninety-seven  men  and  officers  were  on  the  company  roll. 

On  this  train  was  C  Company,  of  Hudson,  and  H  Company,  of 
Menomonie.  At  Merrillau  A  Company,  of  Neillsville,  was 

The  Regimental  Sergeant  Ma.jor,  Marshall  Cousins,  traveled 
with  E  Company. 

Among  those  who  accompanied  the  troop  train  from  Eau  Claire 
were  Captain  Charles  H.  Henry,  a  veteran  of  the  War  of  the 
Rebellion ;  Harrj^  M.  Atkinson,  editor  of  the  Leader,  and  Pro- 
fessor M.  S.  Frawley  of  the  Eau  Claire  High  School. 

Harry  Atkinson  was  determined  to  enlist.  He  had,  for  a  short 
period  several  years  before,  been  a  member  of  the  Guard.  His 
brother,  Percy  C,  had  already  enlisted,  but  it  required  long 
argument  on  the  part  of  Captain  Ballard,  Captain  Henry,  Pro- 
fessor Frawley  and  others  to  convince  Harry  his  first  duty  was 
to  remain  with  his  paper.  He  only  gave  up  when  assured  should 
a  second  call  come,  he  would  be  permitted  to  go. 

In  Captain  Ballard's  Company  were  a  number  of  high  school 
boys,  among  them  members  of  the  spring  graduating  class.  The 
graduation  essays  of  several  of  the  young  soldiers  were  then  in 
the  hands  of  Professor  Frawley.  At  frequent  intervals  through- 
out the  day  the  professor  would  take  out  these  essays  and  gaze 
at  them  with  tear-dimraed  eyes. 

It  was  a  bright  sunny  day  and  at  every  village  and  city  along 
the  route  the  troops  received  an  ovation.  Madison  was  reached 
late  in  the  afternoon.  There  were  assembled  thousands  of  stu- 
dents and  citizens.  Several  state  officers  boarded  the  train  to 
extend  their  greetings,  among  them  being  the  noted  newspaper 
correspondent,  Hon.  Gilbert  E.  Vandercook,  then  Assistant  Sec- 
retary of  State,  and  Hon.  Sewall  A.  Peterson,  State  Treasurer, 
a  former  officer  of  H  Company.     Nels  Nelson,  a  University  stu- 


dent,  had  served  an  enlistment  with  E  Company.  He  boarded 
the  Eau  Claire  car  to  bid  his  former  comrades  goodbye,  but  soon 
changed  his  mind  and  announced  to  his  classmates  on  the  plat- 
form he  was  going  on  with  the  company.  He  finished  his  course 
at  Madison  after  the  war. 

The  Wisconsin  troops  were  mobilized  at  the  State  Fair 
Grounds,  near  Milwaukee,  the  camp  being  named  "Camp  Har- 
vey," in  honor  of  the  War  Governor,  Louis  P.  Harvey,  drowned 
April  19,  1862,  at  Pittsburg  Landing,  in  the  Tennessee  river, 
while  on  a  visit  to  the  wounded  Wisconsin  soldiers  at  Shiloh. 

Sometime  after  dark  the  train  reached  the  camp  and  was  met 
at  the  depot  by  Governor  Scofield,  General  Boardman,  Colonel 
Patton  and  Colonel  Ginty.  The  trotting  horse  stables  were  as- 
signed to  Colonel  Moore's  Third  Infantry,  and  to  these  quarters 
the  troops  from  the  northwest  were  conducted.  The  writer  of 
this  sketch  recalls  the  trip  in  the  darkness  with  Governor  Scofield 
as  a  guide,  from  the  station  to  the  Administration  Building,  where 
the  Governor  had  established  his  military  headquarters.  Lan- 
terns were  few  and  the  night  dark,  but  the  companies  moved 
without  confusion  to  the  quarters. 

The  large  roomy  box  stalls  had  been  plentifully  supplied  with 
fresh  straw  and  the  tired  men  were  glad  to  roll  themselves  in 
their  blankets  and  seek  rest  in  these  improvised  barracks. 

From  this  point  on,  the  war  history  of  the  company  becomes 
intermingled  with  that  of  the  other  companies  of  the  regiment. 
The  history  of  the  regiment  will  be  given  with  such  additions 
as  pertain  particularly  to  the  Eau  Claire  Company. 

On  the  regimental  roster  when  the  regiment  was  called  to 
service  were  the  following  field  and  staff  officers : 

Colonel  Martin  T.  Moore,  La  Crosse. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Benjamin  F.  Parker,  Milwaukee. 

Major  Thomas  J.  George,  Menomonie. 

Major  Julius  E.  Kircheis,  La  Crosse. 

Major  Randolph  A.  Richards,  Sparta. 

Captain  Orlando  Ilolway,  Adjutant,  La  Crosse. 

Captain  George  A.  Ludington,  Quartermaster,  Neillsville. 

Major  John  B.  Edwards,  Surgeon,  Mauston. 

Captain  Edward  H.  Grannis,  Assistant  Surgeon,  Menomonie. 

Captain  Charles  F.  King,  Assistant  Surgeon,  Hudson. 

Marshall  Cousins,  Regimental  Sergeant  Major,  Eau  Claire. 

In  addition  to  the  above,  the  regiment  carried  as  a  National 
Guard  Organization  three  Battalion  Adjutants,  but  at  the  first 


call  for  troops  the  Battalion  Adjutants  were  not  included.     They 

First  Lieutenant  E.  Bartlett  Farr,  First  Battalion,  Eau  Claire. 
First  Lieutenant  Louis  Sehalle,  Second  Battalion,  Tomah. 
First  Lieutenant  Henry  W.  Klopf,  Third  Battalion,  Neillsville. 

A  few  days  after  the  regiment  arrived  at  Camp  Harvey,  Con- 
gress passed  a  law  accepting  National  Guard  Organizations  as 
they  had  existed  in  the  states  and  the  Battalion  Adjutants  were 
ordered  into  the  camp. 

Immediately  on  arrival  of  the  regiment  at  Camp  Harvey, 
Colonel  Moore  looked  about  for  a  regimental  headquarters.  Be 
tween  the  barracks  occupied  by  his  men  and  the  race  track, 
under  a  spreading  tree  (not  a  chestnut)  was  the  blacksmith  shop, 
where  the  trotters,  the  former  occupants  of  the  barracks,  had 
their  shoes  adjusted.  This  being  the  only  available  building, 
was  quickly  converted  into  the  headquarters  of  the  Third 

The  morning  of  April  29  opened  cold  and  raw.  Throughout 
the  stay  of  the  troops  at  Camp  Harvey  the  weather  was  uncom- 
fortably cold.  The  men  sleeping  in  the  barracks  or  box  stalls, 
being  well  supplied  with  straw,  did  not  suffer  greatly  from  cold 
during  the  nights,  but  those  officers  who  had  been  supplied  with 
tents  would  get  up  in  the  morning  chilled  through  and  through. 
The  dressing  room  facilities  at  this  camp,  while  perhaps  suitable 
for  the  former  occupants  of  the  barracks,  were  not  exactly  con- 
venient for  the  young  soldiers,  but  they  made  the  best  of  it. 
Going  across  the  race  track  from  quarters  they  would  break  the 
ice  on  the  brook  and  make  their  toilets,  talking  and  laughing 
even  with  chattering  teeth. 

The  period  at  Camp  Harvey  was  full  of  excitement  and  uncer- 
tainty. Tlie  air  was  charged  with  rumors  of  battles  fought  and 
orders  to  the  front.  It  was  fully  expected  the  Wisconsin  regi- 
ments would  be  rushed  into  Cuba.  Governor  Scofield  made  every 
effort  to  prepare  the  men  properly  for  service.  He  looked  with 
no  enthusiasm  upon  war  and  much  deplored  it,  although  heartily 
endorsing  the  course  of  President  McKinley.  He  had  made  a 
brilliant  record  for  himself  in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  and  re- 
ceived promotion  to  the  rank  of  Major  for  gallantry  on  the 
field  of  Gettysburg.     He  knew  what  war  meant. 

The  troops  were,  immediately  on  arrival  at  Camp  Harvey, 
put  on  the  regular  army  ration.  To  this  the  Governor,  however, 
insisted   there  should  be   added  milk   and  butter.     He   said  the 


great  dairy  state  of  Wisconsin  could  well  afford  to  supply  her 
soldiers  with  these  articles  while  they  were  still  in  the  state; 
that  there  would  be  time  enough  later  for  them  to  do  without. 

A  change  in  the  personnel  of  the  regimental  staff  took  place 
during  the  period  the  regiment  was  in  preparation  for  muster  in. 
Captain  George  A.  Ludington,  who  had  for  so  many  years  served 
faithfully  and  well  as  Regimental  Quartermaster,  owing  to  his 
physical  condition  was  rejected  by  the  surgeons.  Charles  R. 
"Williams  for  some  years  had  been  in  charge  of  Camp  Douglas 
Reservation  and  held  the  rank  of  Captain  in  the  Quai-tei-master 's 
Department.  He  was  transferred  to  the  regiment  as  Quarter- 
master, and  Captain  Ludington  became  depot  Quartermaster  at 
Camp  Douglas.  Captain  Williams  came  to  the  regiment  splen- 
didly equipped  owing  to  his  familiarity  with  the  supply  depart- 
ments of  the  army  and  proved  to  be  a  most  efScient  officer. 

Another  change  in  the  staff  occurred  at  this  time.  Lieutenant 
E.  B.  Farr,  of  Eau  Claire,  was  rejected  by  the  surgeons  and 
Marshall  Cousins,  then  Regimental  Sergeant  Major,  was  conunis- 
sionecl  as  Battalion  Adjutant  and  assigned  to  the  First  Battalion, 
commanded  by  Major  George.  Tliis  position  had  been  offered 
to  Lieutenant  Cousins  in  1895,  but  he  had  declined  it  in  order 
to  find  a  place  as  a  commissioned  officer  for  Lieutenant  Farr. 

May  1  was  the  first  Sunday  in  the  camp  and  the  newspapers 
of  Milwaukee  estimated  60,000  visitors  passed  through  the 
grounds.  Daily  during  the  time  the  troops  were  at  Camp  Harvey 
thousands  of  citizens  visited  the  camp.  Monday  morning,  May  2, 
the  camp  was  aroused  at  an  early  hour  by  the  cry  of  the  news- 
boys annouucing  Dewey's  great  victory  at  Manilla,  "and  many 
Spaniards  killed."  Cheer  after  cheer  went  up  from  the  young 
soldiers  and  the  chilly  sunrise  temperature  was  forgotten. 

Active  preparations  were  going  on  night  and  day  to  complete 
the  organization  and  to  fully  and  completely  prepare  the  troops 
for  active  service.  Lieutenant  Colonel  Tildeu,  Deputy  Surgeon 
General  of  the  United  States  Army,  organized  and  swore  the 
Regimental  Surgeons  as  Government  Examining  Surgeons,  and 
on  May  5  the  examination  of  officers  and  men  was  begun.  A  few 
of  the  Eau  Claire  boys  failed  to  pass  this  physical  examination. 
Several  of  them,  on  being  informed  by  the  kindly  Dr.  Tilden 
they  could  not  be  mustered  in,  could  not  restrain  the  tears. 

Wednesday,  May  11,  1898,  was  an  eventful  day  in  the  history 
of  the  soldiers  of  the  Third  Infantry,  as  well  as  of  Wisconsin. 
For  on  this  day  at  1:30  o'clock,  Captain  William  L.  Buck,  of 


,  the  United  States  Army,  began  mustering-  tlie  regiment  into  the 
United  States  service. 

Shortly  after  noon  Captain  Buck  entered  regimental  head- 
quarters, formerly  the  blacksmith  shop,  where  he  found  Lieuten- 
ant Cousins  on  duty.  The  headquarters'  rolls  were  in  readiness 
and  Captain  Buck  asked  they  be  immediately  signed  by  the 
officers  of  the  field  and  staff,  handing  a  pen  to  the  Lieutenant. 
That  officer,  however,  suggested  Colonel  Moore  be  given  the  honor 
of  first  signing  the  oath  as  a  soldier  of  the  United  States.  Pol- 
lowing  Colonel  Moore,  the  Lieutenant  signed  and  became  the 
second  to  muster.  After  the  headquarters  had  been  mustered, 
one  by  one  the  companies  were  taken  up,  the  roll  called  and  in 
an  impressive  manner  the  men,  with  uncovered  heads,  took  the 
oath  as  United  States  Volunteer  Soldiers.  ]\Iany  spectators  wit- 
nessed this  interesting  ceremony. 

The  Third  Infantry  was  the  first  Wisconsin  organization  to  be 
mustered  into  the  Federal  service. 


Joseph  M.  Ballard,  Thomas  P.  Cochrane,  John  E.  Barron, 
Fred  Arnold,  Seymour  H.  Knight,  Francis  Deline,  Guido  H.  Faber, 
Horace  L.  Whittier,  Frank  Hill,  Donald  Boyd,  Joseph  Bellmer, 
Percy  C.  Atkinson,  Henry  A.  Bitter,  Harry  Stanard,  Samuel  Hill- 
stad,  Wilfred  A.  Kutzner,  Hugh  0.  Beadle,  Roy  M.  Baston, 
Sumner  P.  Bartlett,  Russell  C.  Bailey,  Ezra  L.  Catheart,  Roy 
Fowler,  ^EgjJJiJVbo,  George  Herron,  Adam  Ahneman,  James  G. 
Brackett,  Hei'bert  E.  Bush,  Herbert  L.  Boleman,  William  H. 
Bruce,  Dwight  C.  Brace,  Fred  W.  Bandoli,  Holford  F.  Calvert, 
William  J.  Cameron,  William  P.  Carroll,  Malcolm  J.  Cernahan, 
William  Cheators,  Carl  F.  Bandeliu,  Charlie  Curry,  Patrick  De- 
chaine,  Charles  E.  Day,  William  H.  Dodge,  George  E.  Ecklund, 
Eugene  Eldridge,  Philip  C.  Elbert,  Charles  Eek,  William  F.  Elbut, 
Lawrence  A.  Flaghr,  Harry  F.  Fowler,  Jerome  E.  Gillett,  Samuel 
E.  Grout,  Charles  W.  Hall,  Edward  Haggerty,  Roy  W.  Hebard, 
George  M.  S.  Hort,  Julius  W.  Holberg,  Clarence  H.  Hutchinson, 
Frank  Humes,  Martin  H.  Johnson,  John  F.  Joyce,  Charles  E. 
Kelley,  Prank  S.  Kopleberger,  Hans  S.  Lund,  Augus  McKay,  Al. 
S.  Morgan,  Charles  T.  Mosher,  Nels  B.  Nelson,  Bernie  Nelson, 
Charles  R.  Nichols,  Carl  G.  Nyquist,  Joseph  Nelson,  George  C. 
Ranous,  Harry  M.  Samuels,  Samuel  L.  Stafford,  George  Sherman, 
Christ  H.  Schroeder,  George  L.  Slosson,  Carl  M.  Toft,  Herman 


Watsou,  Harry  W.  "Werner,  Felix  H.  H.  Watterbury,  Rosswell  B. 
Van  Wagenen,  Charles  Russell. 

The  above  is  a  list  of  officers  and  men  who  were  mustered  into 
the  United  States  Volunteer  Infantry  May  11.  1898,  by  W.  L. 
Buck,  Captain  U.  S.  A.  When  the  orders  came  for  volunteers, 
it  called  for  three  officers  and  101  men.  Company  E  left  Eau 
Claire,  Wis.,  April  28,  1898,  with  three  officers  and  99  men,  for 
Camp  Harvey.  Before  the  time  for  mustering  in,  an  order  was 
issued  reducing  each  company  to  84  officers  and  men,  the  surplus 
being  sent  home.  After  ai'riving  at  Camp  Thomas  an  order  came 
to  increase  company  to  106  officers  and  men.  Following  is  a  list 
of  same : 

Simon  Rohm,  John  Ahearu,  Alfred  G.  Ballerd,  William  J. 
Baxter,  Jolin  H.  Cheever,  Thomas  F.  Dowling,  Lester  Frost, 
Eugene  E.  Hanson,  William  Hall,  W.  H.  Ilawley,  Harry  Huey, 
Charles  H.  Johnson,  W.  P.  Kennedy,  Arthur  Kalanguin,  Gilbert 
N.  Krohg,  John  Kungerman,  August  Kessler,  Herbert  S.  Lyons, 
Louis  Larson,  Leonard  Loken,  Albert  J.  McClintock,  Niles  E. 
Meservey,  Timothy  J.  Reagan,  Ward  Ross,  John  S.  Shallenburger, 
Arthur  S.  Sherman,  Homer  W.  Sloan,  John  Somerville,  Arthur 
Thompson,  Graham  B.  Thompson. 

The  following  named  men  came  to  Camp  Harvey  with  E  Com- 
pany, but  were  rejected  by  the  examining  surgeon  and  ordered 
sent  to  their  homes: 

Richard  Hollen,  LeRoy  Binder,  William  Myre,  S.  Edward 
Bostwick,  0.  Olson,  J.  Frederick,  Floyd  Jones,  William  A. 
Schwahn,  J.  A.  Cooper,  J.  B.  Noble,  Lieutenant  E.  Bart  Farr. 
Most  of  these  men  were  rejected  owing  to  being  under  weight. 

Officers  of  the  regular  army  assisting  in  the  organization  and 
muster  of  the  Wisconsin  troops  were  Lieutenant  Frank  M.  Cald- 
well of  the  Seventh  Cavalry.  Lieutenant  Caldwell  went  to  West 
Point  from  Oshkosh  and  took  a  warm  personal  interest  in  Wis- 
consin. He  was  on  an  inspection  tour  of  the  Wisconsin  companies 
when  the  call  came  and  he  was  directed  to  report  at  Camp  Harvey. 
He  was  detailed  as  Post  Quartermaster  and  Commissary.  When 
the  Fourth  Regiment  was  organized  Lieutenant  Caldwell  was 
commissioned  as  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  rendered  valuable  and 
able  service  with  that  regiment. 

Captain  William  L.  Buck,  Thirteenth  Infantry,  was  the  chief 
mustering  officer.  Captain  Buck  had  several  years  previous  to 
the  war  served  a  detail  as  United  States  inspector  with  the  Wis- 
consin troops. 


A  very  popular  oiBcer  paid  a  visit  to  the  regiment  unofficially. 
Captain  Phillip  Reade.  It  was  under  Phil  Reade's  instruction 
the  first  rifle  practice  was  had  at  Camp  Douglas.  This  was  the 
subject  in  which  Captain  Reade  was  greatly  interested  and  the 
Wisconsin  men  quickly  partook  of  his  enthusiasm.  He  had  a 
personal  acquaintance,  through  the  close  contact  on  the  range,  of 
many  officers  and  enlisted  men,  and  has  always  been  exceedingly 
popular  with  the  Wisconsin  Guard.  Several  years  ago  he  retired 
as  a  Brigadier  General. 

The  medical  department  of  the  army  was  represented  by  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  Henry  R.  Tilton,  Deputy  Surgeon  General  of  the 
army.  He  called  to  his  assistance  Dr.  Ladd,  of  Milwaukee,  and 
Dr.  Reynolds,  of  Geneva.  These  three  distinguished  surgeons 
arranged  for  and  supervised  the  physical  examination  of  the 
troops  previous  to  their  acceptance  by  the  Federal  Government. 

Two  interesting  events  occurred  during  the  period  the  regi- 
ment was  in  Camp  Harvey.  One  of  these  was  the  marriage  of 
Sumner  P.  Bartlett  and  Miss  Olga  Arnold,  one  of  Eau  Claire's 
beautiful  daughters. 

Charles  W.  Hall,  of  the  company,  was  also  married  to  a  Mil- 
waukee young  lady. 

The  marriage  of  Corporal  Bartlett  was  kept  a  secret  from 
his  comrades  until  shortly  before  his  death  in  Porto  Rico. 

During  the  period  the  regiment  was  at  Camp  Harvey  many 
friends  from  home  visited  E  Company.  Among  them  may  be 
mentioned  General  Michael  Griffin,  Captain  C.  H.  Henry,  Major 
William  P.  Bartlett,  Captain  John  Kelley,  John  C.  Fennessey,  John 
F.  Roberts,  Captain  Chris  Schlosser,  Mayor  S.  S.  Kepler,  D.  A. 
Cameron,  Aldermen — Hugh  J.  Forest,  J.  H.  Young,  Frank  Gre- 
goire,  Martin  Severson,  John  H.  Fleming,  M.  S.  Beecher,  Charles 
S.  Lee,  N.  J.  Mclutyre,  Chief  of  Police  John  Higgins,  William  K. 
Atkinson  and  wife,  Harry  M.  Atkinson,  Florence  Atkinson,  Miss 
Clara  Zwickey,  Mrs.  Thomas  Hutchinson,  Mrs.  J.  M.  Ballard,  Mi-s. 
II.  L.  Whittier,  Mrs.  Henry  Cousins  and  Miss  Mary  Cousins. 
Other  welcome  visitors  were  George  B.  Early,  of  Chippewa  Falls, 
and  Lieutenant  Governor  Emil  Baensch. 

This  subject  cannot  be  passed  without  special  reference  to  the 
visit  of  Miss  Vera  I.  Moore,  daughter  of  Colonel  Moore.  For  a 
long  period  Miss  Moore  had  been  known  as  "The  daughter  of 
the  regiment,"  and  annually  encamped  with  the  regiment,  for 
which  she  felt  the  same  love,  admiration  and  pride  as  her  worthy 



The  organization  in  tli€  Wisconsin  regiments  differed  in  a  few 
respects  from  the  organization  under  the  United  States  laws. 
The  Wisconsin  regiments  had  regularly  appointed  Quartermasters 
with  rank  of  Captain,  and  also  had  regularly  appointed  Battalion 
Adjutants  with  rank  of  First  Lieutenant,  mounted,  and  Battalion 
Sergeants  Major.  In  the  regular  service  these  positions  were 
tilled  by  detail  of  line  officers. 

General  Charles  King,  some  years  previous  to  the  war,  had 
recommended  to  the  Governor  and  Legislature  the  passage  of  a 
law  making  these  positions  permanent  ones,  and  Marshall  Cousins, 
when  a  member  of  the  Legislature,  had  prepared  and  secured 
the  passage  of  such  a  law.  On  the  reorganization  of  the  army, 
following  the  Spanish-American  War,  the  Federal  laws  were 
amended  and  now  closely  follow  the  Wisconsin  regulations  of 
that  day. 

As  previously  stated,  the  Battalion  Adjutants  and  Battalion 
Sergeants  Major  were  not  included  in  the  first  call,  but  a  few 
days  after  the  call  Congress  enacted  a  law  accepting  the  organi- 
zations as  they  had  existed  in  the  states,  and  those  affected  were 
ordered  into  camp.  In  the  Wisconsin  establishments  the  Regi- 
mental Adjutant  and  Regimental  Quartermaster  held  the  rank 
of  Captain.  Assistant  Surgeons  also  held  rank  of  Captain.  When 
these  officers  were  mustered  into  the  United  States  service,  how- 
ever, their  rank  was  reduced  to  First  Lieutenant. 

When  the  call  was  made,  Marshall  Cousins,  of  Eau  Claire, 
went  into  the  camp  as  Regimental  Sergeant  Major,  which  position 
he  had  held  for  several  years.  On  the  rejection  of  Lieutenant 
Farr  by  the  Surgeons,  the  Sergeant  Major  was  commissioned 
Battalion  Adjutant  with  rank  of  First  Lieutenant,  and  assigned 
to  the  First  Battalion,  commanded  by  Major  Thomas  Jefferson 
George,  of  Menomonie.  Samuel  E.  Grout,  of  Eau  Claire,  was  the 
Battalion  Sergeant  Major. 


In  the  State  organization  the  regiment  was  divided  into  three 
battalions,  and  companies  were  grouped  on  geographical  lines 
as  far  as  possible.  They  took  their  numerical  designations  from 
the  rank  of  their  Majors.  The  same  assignments  and  designations 
continued  in  the  United  States  service,  as  follows: 


First  Battalion.  Second  Battalion.         Third  Battalion. 

E— Eau  Claire.  B— La  Crosse.  A — Neillsville. 

C — Hudson.  K — Tomali.  D — Mauston. 

H — Menomonie  L — Sparta.  F — Portage. 

I — Superior.  M — La  Crosse.  G — Wausau. 

May  13  formal  orders  were  received  for  the  regiment  to  move 
on  Saturday,  May  14.  Their  designation  was  Camp  Thomas, 
Chickamauga  Park,  Ga.  Friday  was  spent  in  packing  up  and 
saying  good-bye  to  friends.  Saturday  morning  bright  and  early 
the  camp  was  astir  and  baggage  hauled  to  the  train.  At  3:30 
o'clock  the  first  section  pulled  out.  The  regiment  moved  in 
three  sections.  Colonel  Moore,  Major  George  and  Major  Kircheis, 
respectively,  in  charge  of  sections.  In  the  second  section,  under 
Major  George,  were  about  five  hundred  men,  being  companies 
of  B,  C,  E,  H,  I  and  M.  Chicago  was  reached  after  dark  and 
some  time  passed  in  switching  in  and  about  the  stock  yards. 
It  was  well  along  in  the  night  before  the  train  pulled  away 
for  the  Southland. 

Sunday  morning  dawned  on  the  regiment  making  its  way 
through  Indiana.  At  every  station  the  troops  were  greeted  by 
large  crowds.  The  season  was  well  advanced  over  that  of  Wis- 
consin. The  ladies  were  out  in  summer  frocks  and  bright  colors. 
The  grass  was  green  and  foliage  well  out.  Leaving  Indiana  the 
regiment  passed  through  Kentucky  and  into  Tennessee.  At 
Nashville  they  found  Quartermaster  Sergeant  Ludington  await- 
ing them.  He  had  left  the  first  section  and  reported  a  pleasing 
compliment  paid  the  regiment  by  an  officer  of  the  regular  army. 
For  some  time  the  first  section  stood  in  the  Nashville  depot. 
After  they  had  pulled  out  an  officer  of  the  army,  noticing  Ser- 
geant Ludington,  inquired  of  him  what  regiment  had  just  pulled 
out.  The  Sergeant  reported  it  was  the  Third  Wisconsin,  to 
which  the  officer  replied,  "No,  it  was  some  regular  army  regi- 
ment. No  volunteer  regiment  carried  itself  as  the  regiment 
which  just  left."  The  Sergeant,  however,  convinced  him  it  was 
the  Third  Wisconsin. 

Monday  morning.  May  16,  tlie  regiment  found  itself  in  Chat- 
tanooga and  after  several  hours  on  the  road  reached  Lytic,  the 
detraining  station  for  Camp  Thomas.  Between  Chattanooga  and 
Lytle  they  had  their  first  view  of  Lookout  Mountain.  The  First 
Battalion  under  Major  George  was  quickly  vmder  way  after 
detraining  and  was  conducted  by  a  guide  to  the  Kelley  Field, 
where  they  were  instructed  to  await  the  arrival  of  the  remainder 


of  the  regiment.  While  the  battalion  was  resting  on  the  field 
they  first  met  their  Brigade  Commander,  General  Andrew  S. 
Burt.  The  General,  alone  and  dismounted,  came  out  from  under 
the  shade  and  approached  Lieutenant  Cousins.  He  wore  a  plain 
service  uniform,  showing  considerable  wear,  and  was  close  up 
to  the  Battalion  Adjutant  before  that  officer  discovered  the  stars 
on  the  shoulder  straps.  The  General  hardly  waited  for  the 
formal  salute,  but  stepped  forward  and  extended  his  hand,  in- 
troducing himself,  remarked,  "Possibly  the  order  has  not  yet 
reached  you,  but  I  have  the  lionor  to  be  your  Brigade  Commander. 
My  name  is  Burt." 

General  Andrew  S.  Burt  had  for  many  years  been  Colonel 
of  the  25th  Infantry,  colored,  and  had  made  a  soldierly,  well- 
disciplined  body  of  men  out  of  that  regiment.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  officers  in  the  regular  service  promoted  to  Brigadier 
General  of  Volunteers.  He  had  a  long  and  splendid  record 
and  the  Third  Infantry  of  Wisconsin  was  pleased  to  be  assigned 
to  his  brigade.  General  Burt  also  expressed  pleasure  at  having 
the  Wisconsin  men  assigned  to  him. 

Grounds  for  the  camp  were  assigned  to  the  regiment  just 
oft'  the  Kelley  Field.  Streets  were  mapped  out,  all  facing  north. 
Baggage  was  very  late  in  arriving  and  many  of  the  companies 
were  unable  to  put  up  their  tents  before  night  fall.  Major 
George's  tent  and  that  of  his  Adjutant  were  but  a  few  feet 
from  the  monument  of  the  First  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry, 
where  they  did  severe  fighting  on  September  23,  1863.  There 
were  other  monuments  in  all  directions. 

The  camp  was  very  well  shaded  and  ground  level.  The  Kelley 
Field,  just  to  the  west  of  the  camp,  furnished  fine  opportunity 
for  drilling  and  parade.  There  were  also  fine  grounds  to  the 
east  of  the  camp  in  the  woods,  and  here  the  battalion  drilled 
during  the  stay  at  Camp  Thomas  in  the  battle  exercises. 

On  Tuesday  evening  the  17th,  the  Third  put  on  evening 
parade  on  the  historical  Kelley  Field  and  the  exercises  attracted 
a  number  of  spectators. 

The  regiment  began  daily  drills,  but  during  the  mid-day  hours, 
ten  to  four  o'clock,  owing  to  the  heat,  to  which  the  men  were 
unaccustomed,   Colonel  Moore  ordered  a  general  rest. 

Friday,  May  20,  unwelcome  news  reached  the  regiment  that 
General  Burt,  to  whom  they  had  become  much  attached,  had 
been  transferred  and  ordered  to  Tampa.  The  command  of  the 
brigade  devolved  upon  Colonel  C.  B.  Hunt,  of  the  First  Ohio 
Volunteer  Infantry. 


Sunday,  May  22,  occurred  the  first  death  in  the  regiment, 
that  of  Private  Charles  Eck,  of  E  Company.  He  had  been  re- 
ported sick  on  Saturday  and  died  at  4:20  Sunday  morning. 
Captain  Ballard  was  with  him  at  the  time  of  his  death.  The 
body  was  removed  during  the  day  and  later  interred  in  the 
National  Cemetery  at  Chattanooga.  Private  Eck  was  one  of 
those  who  had  joined  the  company  at  the  call  for  troops  and 
his  death  was  deeply  regretted  by  all  his  comrades. 

Monday,  May  23,  a  division  review  was  held  in  the  morning. 
Fifty-four  hundred  men  passed  the  reviewing  officer.  The  Third 
Wisconsin  and  the  Sixteenth  Pennsylvania  were  pronounced  the 
best  appearing  regiments. 

Wednesday,  May  25,  a  battle  exercise  was  held.  The  division 
took  part  in  the  exercise.  The  first  battalion  of  the  Third 
marched  to  Snodgrass  Hill,  where  they  took  post,  and  later 
under  orders  fell  back  towards  McFarlane's  Gap.  This  was  the 
ground  over  which  Wisconsin  troops  fought  in  September,  1863. 
Evening  parade  was  before  General  James  II.  Wilson,  who  re- 
viewed the  regiment  following  parade. 

May  27  the  regiment  was  vaccinated  from  the  Colonel  down 
and  many  sore  arms  were  the  result  for  some  days.  Some  of 
the  men,  after  passing  the  surgeons  themselves,  found  much 
amusement  in  watching  the  others  wliile  the  surgeons  were  per- 
forming their  task  upon  them.  Sonu^  nu'u  would  walk  up  with- 
out a  flinch  or  change  of  expression  and  smile  while  the  virus 
was  being  applied.  Others  showed  the  greatest  concern  and 
several  fainted. 

May  28,  through  the  Chattanooga  papers,  the  pleasing  in- 
formation reached  the  regiment  that  their  long-time  friend,  Cap- 
tain Charles  King,  had  been  named  by  President  McKinley  for 
Brigadier  General  of  Volunteers.  Major  George's  battalion 
Avired  him  their  congratulations.  This  day  was  taken  up  with 
a  tiresome,  thorough  inspection  of  equipment.  Late  in  the  after- 
noon General  Charles  R.  Boardman  arrived  from  Jacksonville. 
He  represented  Governor  Seofield  and  presented  new  commis- 
sions made  out  on  parchment.  The  regiment  paraded  before 
him.  He  was  much  pleased  with  the  inspections  reports  on  the 
Wisconsin  troops. 

On  Monday,  May  30,  the  regiment  assembled  about  the  First 
Wisconsin  monument  at  10:30  and  held  Memorial  day  services. 
Addresses  were  made  by  Colonel  Moore  and  the  Chaplain.  Never 
before  did  the  men  of  the  regiment  so  fully  appreciate  the  mean- 
ing of  the  day.     On  this  historical  spot  the  First  Wisconsin  and 


the  Tenth  Wisconsin,  on  September  19  and  20,  1863,  rendered 
valiant  service  for  the  Union  cause.  The  Tenth  "Wisconsin  monu- 
ment shows  a  full-size  figure  of  a  soldier  made  to  represent  the 
brave  Lieutenant  Colonel  John  A.  Ely,  whose  regiment  was 
driven  back  across  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  Third  In- 
fantry camp  to  the  LaFayette  road  beyond  the  old  Kelley  Field. 
Colonel  Ely  fell  at  daybreak  on  September  20.  Out  of  the  240 
men  of  the  Tenth  Infantry  engaged,  the  total  loss  was  211  killed 
and  wounded. 

June  1  a  rumor  reached  the  camp  the  Third  would  in  all 
probability  be  ordered  to  the  Philippines,  but  nothing  further 
was  heard  concerning  such  an  order.  Several  years  afterwards 
it  was  learned  it  had  been  seriously  considered  by  the  authorities 
and  it  was  probably  only  a  rule  established  many  years  previ- 
ously by  a  division  commander  that  prevented  the  Tliird  from 
going  to  the  Philippines  in  General  King's  brigade. 

Had  battalion  drill  on  June  2,  Captain  Ballard  of  E  Company 
commanded.  He  was  the  senior  captain  of  the  battalion  as  well 
as  of  the  regiment,  and  at  frequent  intervals  during  the  absence 
or  sickness  of  Major  George  Captain  Ballard  was  in  command. 
He  was  fully  competent  to  handle  the  battalion  and  reflected 
credit  not  only  upon  himself  but  his  company. 

On  June  3,  Colonel  Moore  was  in  command  of  the  brigade 
owing  to  the  absence  of  Colonel  Culver,  of  the  Fifth  Illinois, 
and  Colonel  Hunt,  of  Ohio.  The  brigade  was  reviewed  by  Colonel 
Moore  in  the  evening. 

Large  detail  from  the  regiment  engaged  June  8  and  9  in 
building  bath  houses.  Captain  Hommel,  of  A  Company,  took 
charge  of  this  work  and  made  the  plans,  and  by  the  use  of 
canvas  partitions  a  very  serviceable  row  of  bath  houses  was 
erected  in  the  woods  east  of  the  camp.  The  pipes  supplying 
the  water  to  the  baths  were  placed  very  near  the  surface  of  the 
ground  and  the  hot  sun  heated  the  water  to  a  point  where  it 
was  scalding  when  the  showers  were  turned  on.  However  the 
baths  were  exceedingly  popular  and  served  their  purpose  well. 

June  9  orders  were  received  to  recruit  the  companies  to  106 
men  and  a  Lieutenant  from  each  battalion  and  a  noncommis- 
sioned officer  from  each  company  were  detailed  to  go  to  the 
home  stations  for  this  purpose.  Lieutenant  Hiram  Nye,  First 
Lieutenant  C  Company,  Hudson,  went  from  the  First  Battalion, 
together  with  Sergeants  Horace  L.  Whittier,  of  E  Company, 
Eau  Claire ;  Milton  F.  Swant,  of  H  Company,  Menomonie ;  Charles 


W.  Newton,  of  I  Company,  Superior,  and  Alfred  P.  Goss,  of  C 
Company,  Hudson. 

On  the  11th  a  division  review  was  hold.  The  Third  Wis- 
consin was  the  first  regiment  to  pass  and  had  the  opportunity 
of  seeing  the  other  regiments  march  by. 

On  June  15  an  order  came  from  headquarters  directing  that 
a  Lieutenant  from  each  company  not  already  represented  at 
home  stations  be  sent  on  recruiting  service  at  once.  Lieutenant 
Cochrane,  of  E  Company,  was  sent  on  this  duty  to  Eau  Claire. 
On  this  day  General  O.  H.  Ernest  assumed  command  of  the 
brigade.  The  Third  is  in  the  First  Brigade,  First  Division,  First 
Army  Corps.  Colonel  Hunt,  of  the  First  Ohio,  had  been  in 
command  since  the  departure  of  General  Burt. 

Sunday,  June  26,  orders  were  received  to  prepare  to  move 
at  once.  Twelve  regiments,  it  was  announced,  would  probably 
go.  The  First  Kentucky  was  dropped  from  the  First  Brigade 
and  the  Eighth  Massachusetts  took  its  place. 

This  day  arrived  the  E  Company  recruits.  The  names  appear 
elsewhere  in  this  article,  following  the  names  of  the  original 
muster  roll.  The  rookies  were  given  a  hearty  welcome  by  the 
veterans  of  the  company. 

Friday,  July  1,  was  a  welcome  day,  as  Major  Doyan  paid  off 
the  regiment  in  crisp  new  bills.  The  Major  was  a  Wisconsin 

July  8,  Sunday,  just  after  parade,  received  an  order  to  pre- 
pare to  start  at  any  moment  for  the  front. 

Independence  Day  was  a  day  of  rush  and  uncertainty.  It 
opened  with  a  salute  by  the  Ohio  battery  in  honor  of  the  birth 
of  the  nation.  The  regimental  commissary  had  gone  to  the 
depot  at  live  o'clock  to  draw  travel  rations  in  accordance  with 
orders.  There  the  commissary  found  orders  which  directed  the 
issue  be  withheld  until  three  o'clock.  In  the  meantime  the  regi- 
ment was  breaking  camp  and  preparing  for  the  march  to  the 
trains.  Shortly  after  three  came  an  order  directing  the  remak- 
ing of  the  camp  and  putting  up  of  tents.  It  had  been  expected 
the  regiment  would  march  to  Ringgold  at  eight  in  the  evening. 
It  was  a  disgusted  and  tired  regiment  at  sundown. 

Early  July  5  the  commissary  again  reported  for  rations  and 
after  hours  of  delay  the  travel  ration  was  issued.  Again  came 
the  order  to  pack  up  and  march  to  Ringgold.  At  three  o'clock 
the  regiment  swung  into  the  road  for  the  twelve-mile  march  to 
the  waiting  trains. 


The  recruits  who  joined  in  June  had  not  been  fully  equipped 
or  drilled  and  were  left  behind.  They  numbered  about  twenty 
in  each  company,  or  two  hundred  and  forty  in  all.  Major 
George,  of  the  First  Battalion,  was  left  in  command  of  the  re- 
cruits and  Captain  Ballard,  of  E  Company,  commanded  the  bat- 
talion. Among  other  officers  left  behind  was  the  popular,  able 
and  soldierly  First  Lieutenant  of  I  Company,  William  H.  Smith. 
Major  Jeff  and  Billy  Smith,  as  they  were  popularly  called  by 
their  fellow  officers,  with  tear-dimmed  eyes  watched  the  de- 
parture of  the  regiment. 

The  march  led  through  a  beautiful  country  and  the  regiment 
was  heartily  greeted  by  the  wayside,  excepting  in  one  instance. 
In  this  ease  an  unreconstructed  rebel  paraded  his  premises  with 
an  old  musket  over  his  shoulder,  shouting  threats  of  destruction 
upon  the  marching  column.  At  one  point  a  group  of  pretty 
girls  came  out  with  buckets  of  cooling  drinks  for  officers  and 
men.  Ringgold  was  reached  about  dark  and  the  regiment  quickly 
entrained  in  three  sections  and  was  away  for  the  coast. 

Wednesday  morning  found  the  trains  in  Atlanta  and  all  that 
day  they  were  traveling  from  Atlanta  to  the  sea.  The  train 
service  was  slow  and  a  number  of  breakdowns  of  the  engines 
occurred.  It  was  not  until  the  morning  of  Friday,  July  7,  the 
regiment  reached  Charleston.  After  considerable  delay  the 
Third  was  assigned  to  its  barracks,  which  were  the  old  ware- 
houses on  the  docks,  and  into  these  they  quickly  moved.  From 
the  docks  could  be  seen  Fort  Sumter,  and  two  torpedo  boats 
were  anchored  but  a  few  rods  from  the  docks.  Down  the  bay 
were  two  recently  captured  Spanish  prizes.  On  Friday,  July  8, 
the  day  following  arrival,  the  regiment  marched  through  the 
city  to  Marion  Square  and  there  held  evening  parade  just  back 
of  the  heroic  statue  of  John  C.  Calhoun  and  between  the  statue 
and  the  South  Carolina  Military  Academy.  This  academy  had 
been  an  institution  of  learning  previous  to  the  Civil  War  and 
when  Charleston  fell  was  taken  by  the  Federal  troops,  who 
maintained  a  large  garrison  there  for  several  years. 

The  people  and  officials  of  Charleston  extended  a  hearty  wel- 
come to  the  troops.  Every  courtesy  was  shown  them.  Mer- 
chants sold  the  soldiers  at  cost  price.  Committees  of  ladies 
visited  the  organizations  with  a  view  to  giving  attention  to  the 
sick.  They  advised  the  city  hospitals  would  care  for  those  men 
the  surgeons  thought  needed  such  care.  The  mayor  of  Charles- 
ton supplied  each  regiment  with  one  thousand  pounds  of  ice 
daily.     Many  invitations   from   citizens   to   officers  and  men   for 


meals  were  extended.  All  clubs  were  thrown  open  to  ofiScers. 
The  people  of  Charleston  did  what  they  could  to  make  the  stay 
of  the  troops  pleasant  and  comfortable. 

Thursday,  July  14,  came  the  news  of  the  surrender  of  San- 
tiago. "When  the  regiment  left  Camp  Thomas  it  was  intended 
to  rush  it  through  to  Santiago  for  the  reinforcement  of  General 
Shafter,  who  had  called  for  additional  troops.  In  the  mean- 
time, however,  General  Miles  had  gone  into  Santiago  and  quickly 
brought  the  Spaniards  to  terms.  It  was  now  announced  the 
Third  would  go  to  Puerto  Rico  in  an  expedition  under  command 
of  General  Miles.  The  work  of  loading  began  on  the  13th,  and 
officers  slept  on  board  that  night.  Throughout  the  night  a  large 
force  was  engaged  in  coaling  and  loading.  Ma.ior  George  and 
Lieutenant  Smith,  with  the  recruits  left  at  Camp  Thomas,  arrived 
and  were  given  a  hearty  welcome.  Lieutenant  Smith  at  once 
took  command  of  the  Superior  Company,  it  having  been  with- 
out officers  for  several  days.  Captain  Newton  and  Lieutenant 
Swift  both  being  sick  in  the  hospital. 

On  the  morning  of  the  l-4th,  orders  came  to  unload.  The 
same  condition  of  indecision  appeared  to  prevail  as  just  before 
the  regiment  left  Camp  Thomas.  A  fire  in  the  hold  of  the  vessel 
during  the  day  burned  a  part  of  the  bedding  rolls  belonging  to 
officers,  but  did  no  other  damage. 

July  15  the  orders  were  first  to  load  and  then  to  unload. 
This  was  repeated  several  times. 

On  Satui'day,  July  Hi,  tlu'  n-onnent  was  ordered  out  for  one 
of  the  |H-;irti<M-  iiiai-i'hcs  which  m-rasioned  so  much  comment  in 
the  Wisconsin  papers,  ^lany  meii  fell  out  during  the  march 
and  some  were  very  ill  after  being  taken  back,  to  the  barracks. 
The  day  was  particularly  hot  and  very  few  of  the  men  were 
properly  prepared  for  a  long  march.  Some  had  eaten  little  or 
no  breakfasts  and  for  some  distance  the  line  of  march  lay  through 
tlie  city. 

Another  sucli  march  was  taken  on  Monday,  the  18th,  over  a 
different  route,  and  while  some  men  fell  out  the  number  was 
not  as  great  as  on  Saturday.  On  Monday's  marcli  the  column 
crossed  a  long  bridge,  which  swayed,  and  the  motion  caused 
several  men  to  become  sick. 

These  marches  caused  much  criticism  in  Wisconsin  and  the 
brigade  and  division  commanders  were  severely  censured.  Gov- 
ernor Scofield  demanded  an  investigation  by  the  war  department. 

The  marches  were  severe  and  uncalled  for,  but  a  few  weeks 
later  the  regiment  thought  nothing  of  making  considerably  longer 


marches  under  worse  conditions,  without  a  man  falling  out  or 
grumbling.  Had  these  marches  been  made  to  meet  an  enemy- 
there  would  have  been  no  falling  out.  As  it  was,  the  men 
were  heartily  tired  of  the  indecision  and  uncertainty  as  to  move- 
ments. They  were  anxious  to  be  in  Spanish  territory.  Time 
and  time  again  had  the  boat  been  loaded  and  then  unloaded. 
Just  before  the  march  began,  a  rumor  came  the  regiment  was 
to  go  up  the  coast  several  miles  and  go  into  a  bivouac  camp  for 
a  couple  of  weeks.  The  disappointment,  and  the  failure  to  prop- 
erly prepare  themselves  for  the  march  were  largely  responsible 
for  the  unfortunate  results. 

On  the  19th  again  they  were  loading.  Men  worked  all  night 
of  the  18th-19th,  loading  the  transportation  into  Transport  No. 
21.  About  five  o'clock  on  the  20th  the  men  were  ordered  aboard 
the  Obdam.  This  was  a  freighter  which  had  been  purchased  by 
the  government.  Its  official  title  was  "Transport  No.  30,  Quar- 
termaster's Department,  U.  S.  A."  It  was  illy  fitted  for  car- 
rying a  large  body  of  men.  All  the  afternoon  thousands  of 
citizens  had  been  crowding  the  dock  and  at  six  o'clock  the 
Obdam  pushed  off,  the  regimental  band  playing  national  airs 
and  men  and  citizens  wildly  cheei-ing.  Just  beyond  Sumter 
anchor  was  dropped  for  the  night. 

Eleven  companies  of  the  Third  traveled  on  the  Obdam.  one 
company  being  detached  and  sent  on  No.  21  with  the  transpor- 
tation. The  officers'  horses  were  carried  on  the  Obdam.  General 
Wilson  and  staff  traveled  with  the  Third  and  General  Ernst 
and  staff  with  the  Second,  which  was  on  the  "Grand  Duchess." 
Early  on  the  morning  of  July  21  the  Charleston  bar  was  crossed 
and  the  troops  were  on  their  way  to  Puerto  Rico. 

July  25  land  was  sighted  in  the  afternoon  about  four  o'clock. 
It  was  expected  to  meet  a  warship  at  this  point.  None,  how- 
ever, was  in  sight.  At  dark  all  lights  were  ordered  out  and  the 
Obdam  cruised  at  half  speed  in  a  circle  throughout  the  night. 
During  the  night,  out  of  the  darkness,  came  "The  Wasp."  Great 
consternation  and  fright  was  caused  by  her  searchlight  being 
suddenly  thrown  on  the  boat.  She  had  come  up  with  all  lights 
out  and  discovered  tke  Obdam  before  the  lookout  on  that  boat 
knew  another  boat  was  anywhere  about.  The  searchlight  came 
through  the  blackness  like  a  shaft  of  fire. 

Orders  were  then  received  to  proceed  to  Guanico,  where  Gen- 
eral Miles  had  effected  a  landing  the  day  before. 

The  Obdam  proceeded  under  full  steam  and  about  daylight 
was  met  by  a  warship,  the  Columbia.     This  great  fighting  ma- 


ehiue  looked  decidedly  grim  in  the  morning  light.  She  wore 
lier  battle  garb  of  bluish-gray  paint  and  was  stripped  for  action. 
Cxuided  by  the  Columbia,  the  Obdam  made  its  way  into  the 
beautiful,  tranquil  harbor.  Here  a  glorious  view  unfolded  itself 
to  the  interested  soldiers.  They  were  not  allowed  to  disembark 
and  after  an  interval  again  steamed  out  into  deeper  water,  where 
they  came  to  anchor.  The  Massachusetts,  in  all  her  grim  glory, 
lay  but  a  few  rods  away. 

At  daylight,  July  28,  Thursday,  the  naval  vessels  and  trans- 
ports were  on  their  way  to  Ponce.  Accompanying  the  Obdam 
were  the  Massachusetts  and  the  cruisers  Gloucester  and  Dixie. 
Orders  were  given  to  disembark  and  the  Third  Infantry  was 
given  the  honor  of  leading  the  way.  The  shallow  harbor  made 
it  necessary  to  use  lighters  and  the  ships  were  anchored  at  a 
considerable  distance  from  the  shore.  Major  George,  First  Bat- 
talion, was  given  the  lead,  and  Captain  Ballard,  with  E  Com- 
pany, entered  the  first  lighter,  which  was  slowly  propelled 
towards  the  shore.  The  men  were  in  readiness  to  fight  for  a 
landing.  As  the  ships  came  to  anchor  they  were  surrounded  by 
small  boats  containing  natives  cheering  for  the  "Americanos," 
hut  on  the  dock  could  be  seen  many  men  in  uniform.  These, 
from  the  ships,  resembled  soldiers.  It  was  found  later,  how- 
ever, they  were  members  of  the  Ponce  fire  department.  Their 
red  shirts  made  them  very  conspicuous.  They  were  there  to 
welcome  and  not  repel.  Captain  Ballard  landed  without  resist- 
ance and  was  directed  by  General  Miles,  who  had  run  in  ahead 
of  the  lighter  in  a  launch,  to  take  immediate  possession  of  the 
custom  house.  The  other  companies  were  disembarked  as  rap- 
idly as  possible.  Before  landing  of  the  troops  the  civil  authori- 
ties, through  the  foreign  representatives,  had  surrendered  the 
city  to  the  naval  officers.  The  gai'rison  had  withdrawn  and  was 
fleeing  down  the  military  road  in  the  direction  of  Coamo.  The 
story  of  the  surrender  and  the  lauding  of  the  troops  is  told  in 
the  La  Nueva  Era,  a  newspaper  published  at  Ponce,  in  the  issue 
of  July  30,  ]898.  The  paper  was  printed  principally  in  the 
Spanish  language,  but  a  few  columns  gave  the  account  of  the 
landing  of  the  troops  in  English,  and  it  is  quoted  herewith: 

"On  the  27th  inst.,  at  2  p.  m.,  a  fleet  approaching  the  port 
was  signalled  from  the  signal  hill,  and  truly  from  all  the  roofs 
and  points  of  vantage  of  the  city  could  be  seen  three  ships  near- 
ing  our  harbor  at  great  speed,  of  which  two  were  apparently 
transports  and  the  other  a  tug.  It  did  not  take  them  long  to 
come  into  port  and  anchor.     After  a  while  a  boat  was  seen  to 


leave  the  side  of  one  of  the  ships  bearing  a  white  flag,  reached 
the  shore  shortly  afterwards  with  an  officer,  who  on  landing  bent 
his  steps  to  the  captain  of  the  port's  office  in  search  of  the  mili- 
tary commander  of  the  town,  for  M'hom  he  had  a  despatch. 

"The  captain  of  the  port  answered  him  that  he  had  no  mili- 
tary jurisdiction  and  sent  for  the  military  commander,  residing 
up  town  here,  to  take  delivery  of  the  despatch  brought  by  said 
officer.  At  about  this  time  a  small  volunteer  force  got  into  posi- 
tion near  the  custom  house,  and  the  two  companies  of  the  regu- 
lars, which  on  the  first  alarm  of  the  approach  of  the  American 
fleet  had  been  ordered  to  the  port,  were  stationed  on  the  road 
leading  from  here  to  the  harbor.  With  the  latter  forces  came 
the  late  military  commander  of  this  district.  Colonel  Sanmartin. 

"On  the  latter  being  informed  that  there  was  an  Amei-ican 
officer  bearing,  under  flag  of  truce,  a  despatch  for  him,  he  replied 
that  without  direct  authority  from  the  governor  general  he  could 
not  receive  it.  On  getting  this  reply  the  American  officer  in- 
formed the  captain  of  the  port  that  he  would  give  half  an  hour's 
grace  for  the  military  commander  to  come  and  take  delivery  of 
the  despatch. 

"In  the  meantime  Sanmartin  bad  come  up  town  and  liad  a 
conference  with  the  governor  genei-al  by  wire,  laying  before  him 
the  state  of  affairs.  But  as  the  hour  fixed  by  the  American 
officer  was  drawing  to  its  close,  and  he  threatened  to  return  on 
board  with  the  despatch  inidelivered,  two  members  of  the  coun- 
sular  body — Messrs.  F.  M.  Toro,  British  vice  consul,  and  P.  J. 
Rosaly,  vice  consul  of  the  Netherlands — went  down  to  the  port 
together  with  our  mayor — Mr.  R.  U.  Colom — and  one  of  our 
citizens — Mr.  P.  J.  Fournier — with  the  object  of  requesting  an 
extension  of  the  time  fixed  by  the  officer  to  await  the  reply  of 
the  governor  general. 

"It  seems  that  the  latter "s  answer  to  the  military  commander 
was  that  he  should  do  his  duty ;  by  which,  we  suppose,  he  implied 
that  resistance  should  be  made,  in  spite  of  the  immense  superior- 
ity of  the  invading  forces  and  of  the  fleet,  which,  by  this  time, 
had  increased  by  the  arrival  of  several  vessels  more.  As  the 
American  commander  grew  impatient  at  the  non-return  of  the 
first  boat  sent  ashore,  they  sent  another,  bringing  two  officers 
and  a  squad  of  soldiers,  who  bore  with  them  the  American  flag 
and  two  rockets  for  signalling,  we  presume,  in  case  of  need. 
Said  officers  with  the  squad  and  flag  advanced  as  far  as  the  very 
door  of  captain  of  the  port's  office;  but  the  British  vice  consul 
requested  that  the  soldiers  should  witlidraw  to  the  seashore,  the 


officer  with  Old  Glory,  etc.,  remaining,  however,  at  the  door  of 
the  building.  The  consular  and  other  officers  entered  the  build- 
ing. They  were  there  received  by  the  captain  of  the  port,  who, 
by  the  way,  was  dressed  in  a  soiled  white  drill  suit  without  any 
insignia  to  denote  his  rank.  The  German  vice  consul — Mr.  H.  C. 
Fritze — joined  his  colleagues  of  England  and  the  Netherlands  in 
their  good  offices  in  the  matter,  together  with  the  American  mer- 
chant, Mr.  Lucas  Valliviese. 

"Said  consuls  began  to  work  to  bring  about  the  surrender  of 
the  town  (which  had  been  demanded  at  discretion),  in  their 
desire  to  avoid  bloodshed  and  damage  to  the  town,  as  the  Spanish 
forces  were  insignificant,  compared  with  tliose  of  the  United 
States  and  besides  the  Spaniards  having  no  defensive  works  or 
artillery  to  answer  the  fire  of  the  fleet.  At  about  10  p.  m.  it  was 
rumored  that  an  armistice  had  been  arranged,  in  virtue  of  which 
the  Spanish  forces  would  evacuate  the  town  and  that  the  Ameri- 
can troops  would  not  laud  within  a  stipulated  time  to  allow  the 
former  forces  to  get  well  on  their  way  to  Aibonito.  It  was  re- 
ported that  this  arrangement  was  firm  and  the  people  began  to 
treat  more  freely  about  the  peaceful  solution  of  the  conflict. 
But  unhappily  their  joy  was  of  short  duration  as — about  1  a.  m. 
— it  began  to  be  noised  about  that  the  governor  general  had  de- 
posed the  military  commander,  Sanmartin,  ordering  him  to  give 
up  the  command  to  the  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Civil  Guards, 
instructing  the  latter  to  offer  resistance  to  the  invading  forces. 

"On  this  becoming  known  the  alarm  was  great  among  all 
classes,  and  the  exodus  to  the  neighboring  country,  which  had 
already  begun  in  the  afternoon  and  evening,  was  immense,  ap- 
proaching nearly  to  a  panic.  But  the  vice  consuls  continued 
their  labors  to  obtain  that  the  armistice  arranged  with  Colonel 
Sanmartin  by  them  should  be  respected  and  kept  in  good  faith, 
and  the  representative  of  England  and  Germany  protested 
against  its  being  broken  and  brought  to  bear  on  the  negotiations 
all  the  weight  that  their  nations  represent. 

"The  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Civil  Guard,  on  his  part,  seeing 
the  impossibility  of  resistance  to  the  powerful  fleet  of  the  enemy, 
which  had  been  reinforced  by  several  ships  more,  with  the  means 
he  had  at  his  disposal,  decided  at  length  to  evacuate  the  town, 
retiring  with  all  the  forces  under  his  command,  by  the  road 
leading  to  the  interior  of  the  island. 

"As  soon  as  this  decision  was  arrived  at  the  retreat  began, 
but  not  before  attempting  to  set  fire  to  the  railroad  station,  in 
which  they  only  succeeded  in  burning  a  few  cars.    But  even  after 


the  retreat  there  was  anxiety  among  the  inhabitants,  as  it  was 
reported  that  the  powder  magazine  of  the  barracks  would  be 
blown  up  before  the  Spaniards  left  the  town  definitely ;  we  arc 
happy  to  say  that  this  did  not  happen. 

"The  town  was  left  in  charge  of  the  local  first  brigade,  who 
undertook  the  duty  of  keeping  order,  but  their  services  were  not 
called  upon  that  night,  nor  have  been  since,  as  not  the  slightest 
disturbance  has  taken  place.  Ponce  gave  proofs  of  its  good  sense 
as  usual.  At  daybreak  the  next  morning  a  half  dozen  men  of 
the  American  forces  hoisted  the  Stars  and  Stripes  on  the  custom 
house  together  with  the  headquarters'  flag  of  the  commander  in 
chief.     Later  the  flag  was  unfurled  over  the  town  hall. 

"The  lauding  of  the  troops  began  and  were  distributed  about 
in  accordance  with  instructions  of  the  American  commanders. 
The  people  welcomed  the  American  forces  as  liberators  and 
friends  and  with  the  greatest  demonstrations  of  joy  and  hearti- 

"The  commander  of  the  expeditionary  forces  decided  that  the 
municipal  and  judicial  authorities  should  remain  at  their  post 
as  well  as  the  local  police  and  the  employees  of  the  custom  house, 
which  latter  is  in  charge  of  Colonel  Hill,  appointed  inspector  of 
the  port  and  customs.  The  American  troops  have  entered  this 
town  with  the  greatest  order  and  are  fraternizing  with  the  people. 
Said  troops  later  relieved  the  firemen  at  guard  duty  at  the  city 
prison  and  other  places. 

"The  political  prisoners  have  been  set  at  liberty  and  among 
them  our  friends,  Messrs.  Santiago  Geraldino,  Rudolfo  Figueroa, 
Jose  Hilaria  Roche  and  others.  We  heartily  congratulate  them 
all.  The  inhabitants  that  had  gone  into  the  country  have  gradu- 
ally begun  to  return  to  town,  in  which  the  greatest  order  prevails. 

"At  the  town  hall  there  took  place  an  incident  worthy  of 
mention.  Mr.  Figueroa,  who  had  been  just  set  free,  went  up  to 
the  Seasions  hall  and  unslinging  the  portrait  of  the  queen  regent 
with  the  king  and  the  crown  which  overtopped  them,  attempted 
to  throw  them  over  the  balcony,  saying :  '  There  go  the  remnants 
of  Spanish  domination. '  But  an  American  officer  who  was  pres- 
ent interfered  in  a  friendly,  way,  requesting  that  said  picture 
and  crown  should  be  given  him  as  a  historical  niemento  of  the 
occasion,  which  request  was  immediately  granted." 

Notice.  "To  this  office  has  been  brought  a  hat  belonging  to 
one  of  the  guards  of  the  army  at  present  in  the  city.  It  is 
marked  R.  J.  Bilie,  Fort  Wingate,  N.  M.  We  hold  same  at  the 
disposal  of  said  guard." 


After  landing,  the  troops  were  surrounded  by  frantic  natives, 
shouting,  laughing,  waving  flags  and  crying  "Viva  Americanos! 
Viva  Americanos!" 

An  orderly  from  General  Roy  Stone,  of  the  army,  reported 
a  short  time  after  Major  George  had  landed,  to  that  officer,  with 
a  message  from  General  Stone  requesting  a  detail  be  sent  to  him 
at  the  railway  depot  in  the  city.  The  orderly  reported  General 
Stone,  with  two  or  three  staif  officers  and  orderlies,  had  gone 
into  the  city  and  found  the  Spaniards  had  evacuated.  The  Gen- 
ei-al  desired  the  escort  for  which  he  sent  to  accompany  a  train 
he  was  making  up  to  proceed  to  Yauco.  Before  leaving,  con- 
trary to  pledges  given  the  authorities,  the  Spanish  troops  had 
attempted  to  burn  the  depot  and  rolling  stock  and  disable  the 
locomotives.  The  fire  department  had  saved  the  depot  and  most 
of  the  ears.  Mechanics  soon  made  the  locomotives  available  for 

Major  George  directed  Captain  Ballard  to  detail  a  Lieutenant 
and  seventeen  men  from  his  company  to  proceed  to  the  station 
and  report  to  General  Stone.     The  detail  was  made  up  as  follows : 

Corporal  Bartlett,  Corporal  Bailey,  Privates  Carroll,  Kelley, 
Harry  Fowler,  Curry,  Eldridge,  Watson,  Holberg,  Nichols,  Cal- 
vert, Ilibbard,  Charles  Johnson,  Rohn,  McKinnon,  Van  Wagenan, 

The  city  of  Yauco  had  been  in  possession  of  American  troops 
for  several  days.  None  of  the  enemy  were  encountered  on  the 
trip.  The  train  proceeded  with  caution,  but  found  efforts  to 
destroy  the  track  had  failed. 

A  sensational  and  fabulous  story  was  sent  back  from  the 
island  of  the  capture  of  Yauco  by  this  detachment  of  E  Com- 
pany, and  many  of  the  men  were  greatly  annoyed  that  such  a 
story  should  have  been  published. 

About  noon  Major  George,  witli  Companies  11,  Captain  Ohn- 
stad,  and  I,  Captain  Newton,  marched  into  the  city  and  took 
possession  of  the  barracks.  This  was  a  very  fine  building,  built 
of  concrete,  located  in  a  plaza,  and  was  capable  of  housing  a 
regiment.  It  had  been  occupied  up  to  five  o'clock  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  28th,  by  the  25th  Infantry  of  the  Spanish  Army. 
Everything  in  the  barracks  was  in  confusion.  In  the  officers' 
quarters  clothing  and  articles  of  personal  property  were  strewn 
about  everywhere.  Evidently  they  had  picked  out  the  valuables 
but  abandoned  all  else  in  their  haste  to  get  a  change  of  air. 
The  coiirtyard  was  surrounded  by  a  high  stone  wall.  A  ladder 
against  this  wall  showed  that  some  had  departed  by  this  route 


rather  than  to  lose  the  time  to  go  around  by  the  gate.  Before 
leaving  they  had  set  fire  to  the  magazine,  which  stood  in  one 
corner  of  the  courtyard,  but  a  detachment  of  the  fire  department 
had  extinguished  this  blaze. 

In  the  office  of  the  Commandant,  Adjutant  Cousins  found, 
among  other  papers,  a  communication  written  in  Spanish,  ad- 
dressed to  the  commanders  of  detachments  at  other  points,  giving 
the  plan  for  the  defense  of  the  islands.  It  was  intended  all 
troops  should,  after  a  resistance,  gradually  drop  back,  avoiding 
decisive  engagements,  but  retard  the  American  advances  as 
much  as  possible  until  San  Juan  was  reached.  Here  they  pro- 
posed to  annihilate  Uncle  Sam's  men.  This  communication  was 
forwarded  by  Major  George  to  General  Wilson. 

A  large  number  of  machetes  and  other  weapons  were  found 
in  the  barracks,  together  with  ammunition.  Some  of  this  am- 
munition created  comment,  as  the  balls  appeared  to  be  brass 
jacketed.  A  considerable  quantity  of  rations  was  also  captured. 
The  hard  bread  was  a  great  contrast  to  that  in  use  by  the  Ameri- 
cans. It  was  made  up  in  round  disks  about  the  size  of  an  Amer- 
ican pie  and  five-eighths  inch  in  thickness.  To  all  appearances  it 
made  an  excellent  food  and  certainly  looked  appetizing,  being 
nicely  browned. 

H  and  I  Companies  remained  at  the  barracks  for  several 
days.  C  Company,  of  Major  George's  battalion,  was  on  out- 
posts to  the  west  of  the  city.  E  Company  was  left  at  the  port. 
Colonel  Moore,  with  other  companies  of  the  regiment,  estab- 
lished a  camp  north  of  the  city  on  the  road  leading  towards 
San  Juan. 

The  road  from  the  port  to  the  city  is  along  a  beautiful  high- 
way. On  both  sides  the  luxuriant  growth  of  tropical  vegetation 
appealed  to  the  eye.  In  all  directions  could  be  seen  the  flags  of 
France,  England,  Holland  and  other  European  countries.  A  cele- 
bration was  quickly  organized  by  the  citizens. 

To  show  their  pleasure  many  engaged  in  festooning  trees 
and  the  streets  with  strips  of  paper.  These  strips  were  put  up 
in  goodly-sized  rolls  and  the  rolls  could  be  throwai  over  tree 
branches  and  across  streets.  In  many  of  the  yards  foliage  was 
largely  concealed  by  this  form  of  decoration. 

Most  of  the  places  of  business  in  the  city  were  closed  and 
the  windows  protected  by  heavy  wooden  shutters.  Many  of 
the  merchants  and  wealthier  class  had  sent  the  ladies  and  chil- 
dren out  of  the  city,  expecting  bombardment  and  a  battle  be- 
tween the  Spanish  troops  and  the  Americans  for  possession.    The 


Spaniards,  for  a  long  time,  had  industriously  circulated  reports 
of  the  villainies  committed  by  the  American  soldiers  and  many 
of  the  natives  stood  in  fear  of  the  treatment  they  might  receive. 
This  feeling  of  fear  quickly  passed. 

A  brief  sketch  of  the  island  of  Puerto  Rico  and  the  landing 
of  General  Miles  will  not  come  amiss  at  this  point. 


The  island  of  Porto  Rico  was  discovered  in  1493  and  from 
that  day  until  1898  was  under  Spanish  rule.  It  is  one  hundred 
and  eight  miles  in  length  and  about  forty  miles  wide.  It  is  a 
most  healthful  and  delightful  country,  with  mountain  ranges 
and  many  streams.  In  area  it  is  about  thirty-six  hundred  square 
miles  and  the  population  in  1898  was  computed  at  800,000.  It 
is  fourth  in  rank,  according  to  size,  of  the  Greater  Antilles  group, 
but  in  prosperity  and  density  of  population  it  is  first.  The 
white  population  was  claimed  to  outnumber  the  black.  In  few 
of  the  tropical  islands  was  this  the  case.  The  commercial  capital 
and  largest  city  is  Ponce,  situated  three  miles  inland  from  the 
port  of  the  same  name  on  the  southern  coast.  The  city  rests 
on  a  rich  plain,  sui'roiuided  by  gardens  and  plantations.  There 
are  hot  springs  in  the  vicinity  which  are  much  frequented  by 
invalids.  At  the  port  are  extensive  depots  where  products  from 
tlie  interior  are  stored  for  shipment.  There  were  no  docks  and 
sliips  were  loaded  and  imloaded  by  means  of  lighters.  The  last 
enumeration  gave  to  Ponce  the  population  of  37,545,  while  San 
Juan,  the  capital  on  the  north  coast,  had  a  population  of  23,414. 
In  Ponce  are  a  number  of  fine  buildings,  among  them  being  a 
town  hall,  theater,  two  churches,  the  Charity  and  the  Women's 
Asylum,  the  barracks,  the  Cuban  House  and  the  market.  The 
road  connecting  the  city  and  the  port  was  a  beautiful  promenade. 

Besides  Ponce  and  San  Juan,  the  largest  towns  were  Arecibo, 
30,000;  Utuado,  31,000;  Mayaguez,  28,000;  San  German,  20,000; 
Yaueo,  25,000;  Juana  Diaz,  21,000;  and  there  were  reported  to 
be  ten  other  towns  with  population  of  15,000  or  over.  Nearly 
half  the  population  lived  in  the  larger  towns,  where  there  were 
many  fine  residences. 

Porto  Rico  had  been  more  lightly  touched  by  Spanish  rule 
than  other  provinces.  Internal  improvements  had  been  inaugu- 
rated. There  were  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  of  rail- 
road. This  Avas  narrow  gauge  and  skirted  about  the  coast.  A 
system  of  particularly  fine  military  roads  connected  Ponce  and 
San  Juan  with  some  of  the  other  larger  cities. 


In  times  of  peace  the  island  abounded  in  sugar,  coffee,  tobacco, 
honey,  wax  and  fruits.  A  large  part  of  the  trade  had  been  with 
the  United  States.  The  entire  island  is  said  to  be  rich  in  natural 
resources  and  very  healthful. 

The  capital,  San  Juan,  was  the  best  fortified  city  of  Porto 
Rico,  occupying  there  the  relative  position  that  Havana  occupied 
in  Cuba.  When  General  Miles  started  on  his  expedition  the 
expectation  was  it  would  effect  a  landing  at  Fajardo,  on  the 
northeastern  coast.  After  this  ostensible  purpose  had  been  well 
published  the  convoys  and  transports  changed  their  course, 
swung  around  the  east  of  the  island  and  suddenly  arrived  off 
the  harbor  of  Guanica  on  the  southwestern  coast  at  daylight  on 
the  morning  of  July  25. 

A  small  Spanish  garrison  in  a  blockhouse  on  the  beach  was 
utterly  surprised  when  Commander  Wainwright,  of  the  Glouces- 
ter, ran  into  the  beautiful  little  harbor  and  opened  fire  with 
small  guns.  The  Spaniards  attempted  to  reply,  but  were  soon 
driven  off  and  a  party  of  marines  landed  and  hoisted  the  Ameri- 
can flag  over  the  blockhouse,  the  stars  and  stripes  taking  the 
place  of  the  flag  of  Spain,  which  was  first  raised  405  years 
before.  No  Americans  were  injured,  but  the  Spanish  lost  several 
killed  and  wounded.  The  3,500  troops  of  this  expedition  were 
landed  in  the  forenoon  without  difficulty.  The  Guanica  harbor 
is  the  best  in  the  island.  East  of  Guanica  are  the  towns  Yauco 
and  Ponce,  the  former  not  more  than  five  miles  distance  and 
connected  with  Ponce  by  railroad. 

Marching  on  Yauco  on  the  26th,  there  was  a  skirmish  with 
the  enemy  in  which  the  Americans  had  four  men  wounded  and 
the  Spaniards  lost  sixteen  killed  and  wounded.  When  General 
Miles'  troops  entered  Yauco  they  were  received  with  enthusiasm 
and  joy,  not  unmixed,  however,  with  some  anxiety.  The  Alcalde, 
or  Mayor,  Francisco  Megia,  had  issued  in  advance  of  the  troops, 
a  proclamation  which  accepted  annexation  to  the  United  States 
as  an  accomplished  fact:    ' 

Citizens:  Today  the  citizens  of  Porto  Rico  assist  in  one  of 
her  most  beautiful  festivals.  The  sun  of  America  shines  upon 
our  mountains  and  valleys  this  day  of  July,  1898.  It  is  a  day 
of  glorious  remembrance  for  each  son  of  this  beloved  isle,  be- 
cause for  the  first  time  there  waves  over  it  the  flag  of  the  Stars, 
planted  in  the  name  of  the  government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  by  the  Major  General  of  tlie  American  army,  General 

Porto  Ricans,  we  are,  by  the  miraculous  intervention  of  the 


God  of  the  just,  giveu  back  to  the  bosom  of  our  mother  America, 
in  whose  waters  nature  placed  us  as  people  of  America.  To  her 
we  are  given  back,  in  the  name  of  her  government,  by  General 
Miles,  and  we  must  send  her  our  most  expressive  salutation  of 
generous  affection  through  our  conduct  toward  the  valiant  troops 
represented  by  distinguished  officers  and  commanded  by  the  illus- 
trious General  Miles. 

Citizens :  Long  live  the  government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  !  Hail  to  their  valiant  troops !  Ilail,  Porto  Rico,  always 
American ! 

Yauco,  Porto  Rico,  United  States  of  America. 
The  29th,  30th  and  31st  of  Jidy  were  passed  quietly.     Men 
and  officers  alike,  when  opportunity  offered,  were  looking  about 
the  historic  old  city  and  viewing  with  great  interest  the  moun- 
tains in  which  lay  the  enemy. 

Before  daylight  on  the  morning  of  August  1,  E  Company, 
wliich  had  been  relieved  from  duty  at  the  customs  house  by 
General  Miles,  went  on  outpost.  Adjutant  Cousins  this  day  made 
an  arrest  of  a  private  of  the  16th  Pennsylvania  Regiment,  whom 
he  found  trying  to  pass  a  worthless  Confederate  due  bill  for 
$300.00  on  a  merchant.  The  culprit  was  turned  over  to  the 
Provost  Marshal,  who  happened  to  be  his  own  company  com- 
mander. The  prisoner  attempted  to  bribe  the  Adjutant  by  offer- 
ing to  give  him  the  due  bill.  This  incident  is  mentioned,  as 
later  it  became  a  matter  of  considerable  official  agitation.  The 
man  came  from  a  prominent  family  and  was  one  of  the  leaders 
in  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  Sunday  school  work  when  home.  His  regi- 
mental commander.  Colonel  Hulings,  of  the  16th  Pennsylvania, 
and  even  an  officer  superior  in  rank  to  him,  at  different  intei'- 
views  suggested  Adjutant  Cousins  withdraw  his  chafges  against 
the  prisoner.  This  the  Adjutant  would  not  do,  as  the  man,  when 
first  arrested,   had   claimed  to   be   a  Wisconsin  man. 

During  the  stay  in  the  Ponce  camp  the  old  Springfield  rifles 
with  which  the  regiment  were  equipped  at  the  time  of  their 
muster  into  the  volunteer  service,  were  replaced  by  the  new 
Krag.  This  was  a  magazine  rifle  and  entirely  unfamiliar  to 
most  of  the  men.  It  is  a  far  superior  rifle  to  the  old  Springfield, 
being  lighter,  equipped  with  magazine,  and  more  powerful. 

Second  Lieutenant  John  E.  Barron  was  taken  sick  during  the 
stay  at  Ponce  and  left  in  hospital  when  the  command  marched 
into  the  interior.  Later  he  came  on  to  Coamo,  but  after  a  few 
days  was  sent  with  other  sick  soldiers  back  to  Ponce,  and  did 
not  again  join  the  company  until  the  return  to  Eau  Claire. 


On  Sunday,  August  7,  at  7  a.  m.,  the  regiment  marched  towards 
the  interior  along  the  San  Juan  road.  This  is  a  beautiful  macad- 
amized road.  There  are  several  hundred  miles  of  such  roads 
on  the  island.  They  are  known  as  the  military  roads  and  were 
built  and  kept  in  repair  by  the  Government.  The  regiment 
passed  through  the  city  of  Juana  Diaz  about  noon.  The  Mayor 
met  Colonel  Moore  outside  of  the  city,  extending  a  welcome  to 
the  American  troops  and  made  the  request  the  band  play  during 
passage  through  the  city.  An  enthusiastic  welcome  was  extended 
by  the  citizens.  At  three  o'clock  the  regiment  went  into  camp, 
having  marched  about  twelve  miles.  This  camp  was  about  five 
miles  from  the  enemy's  lines.  On  August  8,  men  were  given  an 
opportunity  for  a  little  practice  with  the  new  rifles.  At  noon 
the  regiment,  in  light  marching  order,  advanced  about  three 
miles  and  again  went  into  camp.  All  extra  baggage,  together 
with  the  sick,  were  left  behind,  with  the  band  as  a  guard. 

Camp  was  made  in  front  of  Coama,  within  striking  distance 
of  the  Spanish  troops.  K  Company,  of  Tomah,  Captain  Warren, 
was  put  on  outpost  to  the  front. 

The  main  military  road  from  Ponce  to  San  Juan,  along  which 
the  brigade  had  been  advancing,  becomes  quite  tortuous  before 
reaching  Coamo,  but  has  a  general  northeasterly  direction  enter- 
ing the  town.  About  two  miles  from  Coamo  it  is  joined  by  the 
road  from  Santa  Isabel,  an  excellent  macadamized  highway.  Be- 
fore its  junction  with  the  Santa  Isabel  road  it  crosses,  by  an 
arch  of  masonry,  a  deep  gorge  with  very  precipitous  sides. 

The  town  lies  upon  a  plateau  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Coamo 
river  and  well  above  its  level,  surrounded  by  high  hills.  It  is 
in  the  foothills  of  the  main  ridge  of  the  island,  and  the  sur- 
rounding country  is  rough.  According  to  the  best  information 
obtainable  it  was  occiipied  by  about  400  Spanish  troops  well 
intrenched,  and  resistance  was  expected.  A  small  blockhouse 
of  corrugated  iron  on  the  Santa  Isabel  road  was  occupied  by 
an  infantry  outpost,  which  had  frequently  fired  upon  our  recon- 
noitering  parties.  The  exact  location  of  the  other  defenses  was 
not  known. 

A  trail  had  been  discovered  practicable  for  infantry,  by  which 
a  force  leaving  the  main  road  well  to  the  southwest  of  Coamo 
could,  by  a  wide  detour,  reach  the  road  again  in  rear  of  the 

The  main  body  of  the  brigade,  consisting  of  the  Third  Wis- 
consin Infantry  (Colonel  Moore),  the  Second  Wisconsin  Infan- 
try   (Colonel  Born),   Battery  F,   Third   United   States   Artillery 


(Captain  Potts)  aud  Battery  B,  Fourth  United  States  Artillery 
(Captain  Anderson),  the  two  batteries  being  under  the  command 
of  Major  J.  M.  Lancaster,  Fourth  Artillery,  was  in  camp  about 
two  miles  nearer  Coamo,  to  which  camp  it  had  advanced  that  day. 

The  division  commander  was  present  with  the  troops  and 
directed  their  movements.  With  a  view  to  capturing  the  gar- 
rison, he  directed  that  one  regiment  he  sent  by  the  mountain 
trail  above  mentioned  to  the  rear  of  the  town,  and  that  the  front 
attack  be  deferred  until  this  regiment  could  reach  its  position. 

The  Sixteenth  Pennsylvania  Infantry  was  selected  for  the 
turning  movement.  It  left  its  camp,  650  strong,  at  5:15  p.  m., 
August  8,  and  under  the  guidance  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Biddle, 
marched  six  miles  and  then  went  into  bivouac.  At  6  a.  m., 
August  9,  the  two  other  regiments  of  the  brigade  and  four  guns 
of  Captain  Anderson's  battery  left  their  camps  to  take  position 
for  the  front  advance  upon  the  town. 

The  Third  Wisconsin  Infantry,  788  strong,  was  sent  to  the 
right,  with  orders  to  cross  the  Coamo  river  and  advance  on  the 
Santa  Isabel  road  until  the  latter  should  reach  the  river,  then 
to  leave  the  road  and  advance  up  the  left  bank  of  the  river. 
While  it  was  moving  to  its  position,  fire  was  opened  upon  the 
blockhouse  with  the  four  guns  of  Captain  Anderson's  battery. 

An  advance  on  the  city  by  any  other  route  than  the  pikes 
is  next  to  impossible.  Three  roads  lead  into  the  city,  one  from 
the  southwest,  connecting  with  Ponce ;  one  from  the  northeast, 
connecting  with  San  Juan,  and  the  Santa  Isabel  road  from  the 
south.  These  were  all  military  turnpikes,  and  streams  were 
crossed  by  substantial  iron  and  cement  bridges,  or,  in  ease  of 
smaller  streams,  reinforced  cement  bridges. 

From  the  block  house  above  mentioned  the  Spanish  troops 
had  a  clear  range  of  the  valley  leading  towards  the  city. 

K  Company,  Captain  Warren,  had  been  on  outpost  through- 
out the  night.  K,  together  Avith  G  Company,  Captain  Abraham, 
was  now  posted  on  the  high  hills  commanding  the  San  Juan 
road  and  had  a  full  view  of  the  block  house  and  the  city. 

At  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  a  silent  reveille  was  had. 
The  companies  fell  in  and  in  light  marching  order,  with  only 
rifles  and  belts,  haversacks  with  one  day's  rations,  and  ponchos, 
the  regiment  moved  out  to  the  position  it  was  to  occupy  on  the 
firing  line. 

As  the  regiment  advanced,  Companies  G  and  K  were  left 
behind  on  outpost  duty.  A  Company,  Captain  Ilommel,  was 
guarding  the   city  of  Juana  Diaz  and  this  left  only  nine   com- 


panies  in  the  field.  The  Third  Battalion,  Major  Richards,  with 
his  two  remaining  companies,  D,  Captain  Turner,  and  F,  Captain 
Lee,  was  assigned  to  lead  the  advance.  Following  him  came 
Major  Kircheis,  with  three  companies  of  the  Second  Battalion, 
B,  Captain  Sehultz,  M,  Captain  Peck,  and  L,  Captain  McCoy. 
The  advance  began  at  6 :30  and  at  7 :05  the  first  shell  from  Lan- 
caster's Battery  was  fired.  At  the  third  shot  the  gunners  had 
the  range  and  the  block  house  was  set  on  fire.  With  the  ad- 
vance began  the  opening  fire  by  the  enemy.  The  deep  tropical 
grass  almost  concealed  the  Americans  from  view.  The  regiment 
followed  closely  the  skirmish  line.  The  opening  by  the  battery 
started  a  lively  battle.  When  the  block  house  was  fired  by  the 
shells  the  Spanish  retreated  along  the  road  back  into  the  city. 
Major  Richards  advanced  the  skirmishers  towards  the  east  and 
reached  the  range  of  hills  on  which  the  Spanish  outpost  was 
stationed.  The  Spaniards  were  firing  thick  and  fast  on  the  ad- 
vancing men,  but  little  could  be  done  towards  returning  the 
fire  with  small  arms  on  account  of  the  long,  heavy  grass.  The 
troops  were  advancing  all  along  the  line  and  met  with  many 
natural  obstacles,  sucli  as  ravines,  heavy  growth  of  underbrush 
and  other  obstructions.  The  cactus  hedges  caused  more  anxiety 
than  the  whistling  Spanish  bullets.  The  line  was  still  advancing 
when  infantry  fire  from  the  north  was  heard,  making  known  the 
Sixteenth  Pennsylvania  were  engaged  with  the  enemy  north  of 
Coamo.  Between  the  Third  Wisconsin  and  the  town  was  tlie 
Coamo  river.  On  the  south  side,  where  the  regiment  was  de- 
ployed, the  bank  was  almost  perpendicular.  Colonel  Moore 
directed  Lieutenant  Holway  and  Lieutenant  Cousins  to  make 
effort  to  find  a  place  where  the  column  could  pass  down  in  order 
to  ford  the  river.  After  considerable  search  these  officers  found 
a  place  where  a  path  or  opening  down  the  bluif  had  been  made. 
This  could  only  be  used  by  lowering  one's  self  by  clinging  to 
grape  vines.  The  signal  was  passed  back  to  the  regiment  and 
the  men  came  down  the  grape  vine  ladder  one  at  a  time.  Lieu- 
tenants Holway  and  Cousins  had  moved  on,  forded  the  river 
and  struck  a  trail  leading  toward  the  military  road.  Soon  after 
fording  the  stream  a  barb  wire  barrier  obstructed  the  trail.  While 
engaged  in  cutting  through  this  barrier,  Lieutenant  Cousins  was 
wounded.  Colonel  Moore  had  just  come  up  and  ordered  him 
carried  to  the  rear.  An  emergency  dressing  was  applied  by 
Sergeant  Major  Grout,  and  he  proceeded  with  the  column.  While 
the  wound  was  painful  it  was  not  serious. 

The  column,  after  fording  the  river,  followed  the  trail  until 


the  military  road  was  reached  and  then  marched  into  the  city. 
Before  reaeliing  the  city,  natives  came  out  to  meet  them  and  it 
was  learned  the  Spanish  troops  had  passed  through  the  town 
and  been  engaged  by  the  Pennsylvania  men  on  the  outskirts 
north  of  the  city.  The  troops  were  given  an  enthusiastic  and 
frantic  welcome  by  the  excited  natives,  and  the  Third  Infantry 
flag  was  soon  flying  over  the  city  iiall.  The  Spaniards  had  made 
entrenchments  in  many  of  the  streets  by  ditching  and  sand 
bags.     In  some  cases  iron  water  and  sewer  pipes  had  been  used. 

The  citizens  had  been  on  short  rations  for  some  days.  The 
Spaniards  had  swept  the  whole  country  for  food  stuff  and  those 
from  the  rural  districts  had  been  afraid  to  bring  provisions  into 
the  toMU  for  over  a  week.  Stores  were  closed  and  many  of 
the  merchants  and  business  men,  with  their  families,  had  fled 
the  town. 

When  the  Spanish  troops  were  driven  from  their  blockliouse 
and  entrenchments  by  the  Wisconsin  men,  they  retreated  through 
the  city  and  out  onto  the  turnpike  leading  towards  San  Juan. 
Here  they  walked  into  the  range  of  the  Sixteenth  Pennsylvania 
and  a  sharp,  decisive  battle  occurred.  The  Spanish  commander, 
Major  Marlinez,  made  a  brave  effort  to  hold  his  position.  He 
recklessly  dashed  up  and  down  the  Spanish  lines,  and  finally  fell, 
shot  several  times.  As  far  as  can  be  learned  the  Spanish  loss 
was  six  killed,  twelve  wounded  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  pris- 
oners. Some  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  Spanish  escaped  to 
the  hills,  but  later  some  of  them  were  captured. 

After  a  short  rest  in  the  city  the  regiment  marched  about  a 
mile  on  the  San  Juan  road  and  there  went  into  camp.  It  was 
necessary  to  hold  a  large  bridge  four  miles  further  up  the  road. 
Major  Kircheis,  with  Companies  D,  Captain  Turner,  F,  Captain 
Lee,  L,  Captain  McCoy,  and  M,  Captain  Peek,  was  detailed  for 
this  outpost  duty  and  at  once  marched  to  his  position.  An  out- 
post was  establislied  at  a  point  south  of  Aibonito  Pass.  The 
pass  is  where  the  military  road  goes  over  the  Sierra  Del  Sur 
Mountains.  On  three  hills,  commanding  the  military  road,  the 
Spanish  troops  were  thoroughly  entrenched.  Major  Kircheis 
placed  outposts  in  the  hills  covering  the  Spanish  positions. 

August  12  Lancaster's  Battery  was  ordered  to  the  front  to 
shell  the  enemy's  works.  The  infantry  could  not  have  taken 
the  works  by  assault,  owing  to  the  deep  ravines  and  steep  hills. 
In  order  to  get  a  position  for  firing,  the  artillery  was  compelled 
to  come  out  into  full  view  of  the  Spanish  works  on  the  crest  of 
the  mountains.     The  Spanish  artillery  fired  on  the  battery  as  it 


was  advanced  up  the  road,  but  with  little  effect.  Later  the 
Spanish  gunners  directed  their  fire  towards  the  Wisconsin  troops. 
One  shell  burst  in  the  midst  of  L  Company,  killing  Corporal 
Oscar  R.  Swanson  and  Private  Fred  Vought,  and  wounding  Cor- 
poral Yanke  and  Private  Buntz. 

A  few  moments  later  the  again  opened  on  Lancaster 's 
men  and  held  them  under  a  heavy  fire.  Owing  to  their  better 
position  the  Spaniards  could  fire  upon  the  Wisconsin  line  with 
small  arms,  but  the  elevation  made  the  small  arms  fire  of  the 
Americans  ineffective.  The  fire  of  Lancaster's  guns  was  well 
directed  and  Spanish  infantry  could  be  seen  leaving  their  posi- 
tions and  retiring  to  stronger  works  in  the  rear. 

At  length  the  Spanish  guns  became  silent  and  the  battery 
moved  further  up  the  road  with  F  Company  as  support.  They 
had  advanced  but  a  short  way  when  they  encountered  a  storm 
of  rifle  bullets  from  the  infantry  and  shells  from  the  big  guns, 
and  were  compelled  to  fall  back.  The  Spanish  Infantry  had 
left  their  entrenchment  and  concealed  themselves  in  a  banana 
field  where  it  was  almost  impossible  to  discern  them.  This 
ended  the  direct  attack  on  Aibonito  Pass. 

It  had  been  disclosed  the  Spanish  position  was  such  it  could 
not  be  carried  by  a  direct  attack,  and  General  James  II.  Wilson, 
commanding  the  division,  directed  an  attack  be  made  by  going 
through  the  mountains.  A  mule  pack  train  was  assigned  to  the 
Third  for  carrying  ammunition  and  rations  and  the  command 
was  ordered  to  prepare  to  take  a  trail  up  through  the  moun- 
tains, drive  the  enemy  out  of  Aibonito  and  capture  the  pass  and 
the  city. 

On  the  evening  of  August  12,  Colonel  Moore  called  his  officers 
together  and  informed  them  of  the  work  laid  out  for  them  on 
the  next  day.  All  appreciated  the  movement  would  be  a  hard 
one  and  probably  result  in  considerable  loss.  Colonel  Moore 
spoke  of  the  honor  conferred  upon  the  regiment  by  General 
Wilson  in  designating  it  to  lead  the  advance.  To  Major  George 
and  his  battalion  he  assigned  the  honor  of  opening  the  way. 
Captain  Ballard,  E,  and  Captain  Kinney,  of  C  Company,  were 
designated  by  Major  George  to  lead  the  advance,  with  Companies 
I  and  H  in  support  and  reserve.  Just  before  the  officers'  meet- 
ing was  dismissed  Colonel  Moore  suggested  all  write  letters  home. 
Saturday,  August  13,  everything  was  made  ready  for  the  ad- 
vance on  Aibonito.  The  regiment  was  in  column  of  fours  on  the 
road  and  was  waiting  only  for  the  pack  train  to  form.  Officers 
in  charge  of  the  train  reported  they  would  be  in  position  within 


five  minutes,  but  before  the  five  minutes  had  passed,  a  staff 
officer  froTU  headquarters  directed  Colonel  Jloore  to  withhold 
the  march  until  further  orders.  The  regiment  was  held  in  readi- 
ness to  move  at  any  moment.  At  about  2:30  came  information 
of  the  signing  of  the  protocol  and  that  further  movement  was 
suspended  for  the  time  being. 

Officers  and  men  alike  were  much  disappointed.  They  liad 
made  ready  again  for  a  movement  which  was  cancelled.  Later 
in  the  afternoon,  to  give  the  men  something  to  do,  Colonel  Moore 
marched  up  the  road  some  half  a  mile  and  established  a  new 
camp,  where  tlie  regiment  remained  for  several  weeks. 

The  signing  of  the  protocol  on  August  13,  instead  of  a  week 
later,  prevented  an  interesting  bit  of  history  being  made. 

On  August  31,  Wednesday,  occurred  the  death  of  George 
Edwards,  Quartermaster  Sergeant  of  H  Company,  Menomonie. 
Sergeant  Edwards  had  formerly  been  a  member  of  E  Company 
and  had  many  friends  among  the  Eau  Claire  boys. 

The  month  of  September  was  spent  in  the  camp  just  north 
of  Coamo.  There  was  little  happening  of  a  nature  to  stimulate 
activity  and  much  sickness  developed.  Colonel  Moore  and  the 
medical  department  made  every  effort  to  keep  the  camp  sanitary 
and  officers  looked  closely  after  the  habits  of  their  men  with  a 
view  to  preventing  illness.  The  lack  of  something  to  do  induced 
homesickness  and  the  malaria  and  typhoid  quickly  followed.  The 
following  table  is  taken  from  Captain  Emanuel  Rossiter's  story 
of  I  Company.  The  figures,  while  not  official,  were  gathered 
from   reliable   sources   and   are   approximately   correct: 

September  13 —  September   19 — 

126  men  sick  in  hospital.  138  men  sick  in  hospital. 

200  men  sick  in  quarters.  413  men  sick  in  quarters. 

128  men  sick  in  other  places.      148  men  sick  in  other  places. 

18  men  left  this  day. 

12  men  died  in  Porto  Rico. 

Officers  and  men  were  afflicted  alike.  For  several  weeks  the 
number  of  officers  available  for  duty  was  reduced  to  such  a  point 
that  Lieutenant  Cousins,  acting  regimental  adjutant,  and  Lieu- 
tenant Smith,  of  I  Company,  who  had  been  placed  in  command 
of  P  Company,  alternated  on  serving  as  officer  of  the  day.  This 
detail  was  in  addition  to  their  other  duties  and  there  was  no 
officer  of  the  guard.  Colonel  Moore  wished  to  help  out  by  taking 
his  regular  turn  as  officer  of  the  day,  but  this  the  two  Lieutenants 


would  not  permit  and  they  were  tough  enough  to  handle  the 
situation  between  them. 

On  September  3,  Father  Sherman,  a  Jesuit  priest,  a  son  of 
CTeneral  William  T.  Sherman,  paid  the  regiment  a  visit  and  was 
entertained  at  the  officer's  mess.  He  was  an  old  friend  of  the 
Third,  having  visited  at  the  Camp  Douglas  Reservation. 

On  September  9  a  second  member  of  E  Company  passed  to  the 
great  beyond.  Corporal  Sumner  P.  Bartlett  died  in  the  hospital 
at  one  o'clock  in  the  morning.  He  had  been  taken  to  the  hos- 
pital several  days  before.  Corporal  Bartlett  had  been  a  member 
of  the  company  when  it  was  first  organized,  but  had  been  out  of 
the  service  for  several  years  when  President  McKinley  sounded 
the  call  to  the  colors.  He  was  a  good  soldier  and  popular  with 
his  officers  and  comrades.  At  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of 
the  day  of  his  death  his  remains  were  conveyed  to  the  govern- 
ment cemetery,  where  they  were  deposited  with  military  honors. 
In  addition  to  members  of  his  own  company  several  men  of  other 
companies  attended  tlie  services,  showing  his  cheerful  disposition 
and  nature  had  made  for  him  friends  among  the  men  from  other 

Sergeant  Major  McCall  was  discharged  by  order  of  the  War 
Department  on  September  10,  and  Colonel  Moore  at  once  ap- 
pointed Samuel  E.  Grout  of  Eau  Claire  to  that  position.  He  had 
been  Battalion  Sergeant  Major  of  Major  George's  battalion  and 
in  addition  to  that  duty  had  acted  as  Commissary  Sergeant  a 
large  part  of  the  time.  The  appointment  of  Sergeant  Grout  was 
a  most  deserving  recognition  of  his  able  and  conscientious  serv- 
ices. When  the  call  came  for  troops  in  April  he  was  attending 
the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Minnesota  and  came 
on  to  Camp  Harvey  from  there.  He  lacked  but  a  year  of  com- 
pleting his  course  biit  was  informed  by  the  faculty  leave  would 
be  granted  him  and  every  opportunity  given  on  his  return  to 
complete  his  studies.  Sergeant  Grout  was  of  great  assistance  to 
the  surgeons  in  their  work  and  his  spare  time  was  put  in  at  the 
hospital  or  among  the  sick  in  cjuarters.  His  appointment  as 
Sergeant  Major  was  a  popular  one  with  the  men.  who  liad  for 
him  love,  admiration  and  respect.  He  is  at  present  practicing 
his  profession  in  Alabama  and  has  built  up  a  tine  practice  and 

On  Sunday,  September  11,  just  after  noonday  mess,  came  a 
telegram  from  General  Brooke  at  a  point  on  the  northern  coast, 
advising  a  terrible  hurricane  was  coming  towards  Coamo.  This 
news  broke  the  monotony  of  the  life  the  regiment  was  leading. 


All  hands  turned  tlieir  eye«  iu  the  direction  of  the  north  and 
waited  with  calmness  the  possible  destruction.  If  the  hurricane 
was  coming  they  would  have  to  take  it  on  open  ground,  as  the 
camp  was  not  provided  with  cyclone  cellars.  Nothing,  liowever, 
occurred,  further  than  a  brisk  wind  and  heavy  shower. 

September  12,  General  Ernst,  brigade  commander,  issued  an 
order  fixing  the  price  of  provisions  as  follows: 

Eggs,  each 4c 

Milk,  per  quart 8c 

Chickens,  according  to  size 10  to  20c 

Melons    15c 

Bananas,  small,  i/l  c  ;  large i/oc 

Oranges,  per  hundred 30e 

On  the  13th,  guard  details  were  reduced  to  22  non-commis- 
sioned officers  and  69  privates.  For  some  days  24  non-commis- 
sioned officers  and  93  privates  had  been  required.  Twenty-seven 
men  were  detailed  for  duty  at  hospitals  to  assist  the  regular 
hospital  corps  of  men  in  caring  for  the  sick. 

September  19,  the  regiment  received  pay  and  Major  M.  R. 
Doyan  had  a  long  and  busy  day.  His  money,  mostly  in  crisp  new 
bills,  was  carried  in  three  iron  chests.  The  amount  he  carried 
was  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  thousand  dollars. 

Tuesday,  September  20,  notice  was  received  of  the  third  death 
in  E  Company,  that  of  Pi-ivate  Dwight  C.  Brace,  which  occurred 
in  the  hospital  at  Ponce  on  September  17.  Private  Brace  was 
highly  esteemed  by  his  officers  and  comrades.  Frequently  he  had 
attended  to  paper  work  in  the  company.  He  possessed  consider- 
able talent  as  a  caricaturist,  handling  the  jiencil  or  crayon  with 
much  skill. 

Adjutant  Cousins,  in  response  to  a  request  from  the  Secretary 
of  War,  cabled  the  strength  of  the  regiment  for  duty  on  this  day 
was  617.  In  this  list  B  and  A  Companies  rank  first,  with  68 
and  67  men,  respectively,  and  F  and  L  Companies  last  with  36 
and  37,  respectively. 

September  23  a  detail  of  ten  men  from  E  Company  was  sent 
to  Barranquitas,  a  small  town  about  nine  miles  as  the  crow  flies 
from  Coamo.  By  road  it  is  a  little  longer.  This  detachment  was 
there  until  October  17,  and  had  an  interesting  tour  of  duty.  Cor- 
poral Atkinson  recalls  many  pleasant  hours  spent  in  the  company 
of  an  old  school  master  from  whom  he  heard  many  interesting 
stories  and  traditions  of  the  island. 

On  the  27th  came  orders  to  march  on  San  Juan  on  the  29th. 


This  news  worked  a  miracle  with  those  who  were  on  the  siek 
report.  Many  men  suffering  from  malaria  and  who  could  scarcely 
more  than  walk  pulled  themselves  together  and  reported  to  their 
company  commanders  they  were  again  fit  for  service.  Later  in 
the  day  came  the  disappointing  news  the  order  had  been  rescinded, 
but  on  September  30  orders  were  again  issued  to  prepare  for 
the  march.  Adjutant  Cousins  cabled  the  War  Department  the 
strength  of  the  regiment  was  534  on  this  date. 

Sunday  morning,  October  2,  the  regiment  was  on  military 
road,  advancing  on  San  Juan.  About  ten-thirty  the  column 
passed  through  Aibonito  Pass.  This  was  where  the  Spaniards 
had  expected  to  make  their  stand  and  it  was  at  this  point  the 
regiment  lost  men  in  August.  The  sick  of  the  regiment  were  left 
behind  at  Coamo  with  Major  George  in  command.  He  was  also 
placed  in  command  of  the  sick  of  the  Sixteenth  Pennsylvania 
and  of  the  battery. 

The  animals  of  the  command  were  spared  as  much  as  possible 
owing  to  lack  of  proper  forage.  No  oats  had  been  issued  for 
some  days  and  no  hay.  Horses  and  mules  alike  had  to  feed  on 
corn  and  freshly  cut  grass.  This  forage  was  much  too  heating 
for  the  laboi'S  they  had  to  perform.  Many  of  the  mounted  officers 
walked  a  good  part  of  the  distance  to  save  their  horses.  Thirty 
bull  teams  had  been  issued  to  the  regiment  on  September  29  and 
these  were  used  to  help  out  the  mules.  The  march  was  along 
the  finely  constructed  military  road  and  beautiful  scenery  was 
disclosed  as  the  column  wound  in  and  about  the  mountain  side. 

October  3  the  regiment  was  again  on  the  march.  The  health 
and  spirits  of  the  men  were  revived  by  the  movement  and  the 
scheduled  day's  mareli  was  covered  before  noon.  The  men  re- 
quested their  captains  to  ask  Colonel  Moore  to  continue  the  march 
and  this  request  was  granted.  The  regiment  covered  two  days' 
scheduled  march  in  one.  About  seven-thirty  in  the  morning  the 
column  crossed  over  the  divide.  The  camp  was  made  a  mile  and 
one-half  north  of  Cayey  in  a  field  covered  with  a  beautiful  turf, 
but  soft  and  wet  owing  to  the  severe  rains. 

October  4  and  5  was  spent  in  the  camp  at  Cayey.  On  the  5th 
the  regiment  was  paid  off  by  Major  J.  C.  Muhlenberg. 

October  6,  very  much  to  the  disgust  of  the  command,  orders 
came  directing  the  regiment  to  turn  back  and  march  to  Ponce. 
Over  one-half  of  the  distance  from  Ponce  to  San  Juan  had  been 
covered  and  the  road  to  San  Juan  was  down  grade.  Reveille  was 
sounded  at  four  o'clock  and  in  a  heavy  rain  the  camp  was  broken 
and  march  begun.     Nearly  all  the  way  to  Aibonito  the  rain  came 


down.  Canvas  was  in  such  condition  it  could  not  be  used.  Adju- 
tant Cousins  took  possession  of  the  old  barracks,  a  large  wooden 
building,  and  under  this  covering  the  regiment  passed  the  night. 

On  the  7th  the  march  was  continued  to  Coarao  and  buildings 
were  again  used  here.  October  8,  marched  from  Coamo  to  Juan 
Diaz.  On  the  9th,  Sunday,  the  regiment  reached  Ponce.  For 
the  first  time  in  many  days  there  was  no  rain.  Four  rivers  were 
forded  with  difficulty  owing  to  flooded  condition.  The  regiment 
moved  into  the  already  made  camp  of  the  Nineteenth  Regular 
Infantry.  They  had  been  withdrawn  to  the  barracks.  The 
canvas  was  new  and  tents  provided  with  floors.  The  camp  was 
beautifully  located  on  the  bank  of  tlie  river  about  two  miles 
from  Ponce. 

General  Guy  V.  Henry  was  in  command  at  Ponce  and  on  the 
11th  paid  the  regiment  a  visit.  He  came  entirely  alone,  not  even 
an  oi-derly  accompanying  him,  and  insisted  on  holding  his  own 
horse  while  at  regimental  headquarters.  He  impressed  the  Wis- 
consin officers  most  favorably.  He  showed  great  interest  in  the 
welfare  and  comfort  of  the  regiment.  General  Henry  had  a  high 
reputation  as  a  soldier  and  his  face  bore  the  scars  of  Indian 

October  12,  Surgeon  Major  John  B.  Edwards  was  taken  to 
the  officer's  hospital  in  Ponce  from  a  severe  attack  of  typhoid. 
He  had  a  long  siege  of  the  fever  and  the  regiment  came  home 
without  him.  It  was  many  days  after  the  regiment  had  sailed 
before  the  nurses  dared  to  tell  him  he  had  been  left  behind. 

October  16,  Senator  Thomas  B.  Mills,  of  Superior,  Wis.,  made 
the  camp  happy  by  his  arrival.  He  had  many  personal  friends 
in  the  Eau  Claire  Company,  who  joined  with  the  men  from  Su- 
perior in  extending  to  him  a  welcome. 

October  17  the  steamship  Manitoba  was  assigned  to  the  regi- 
ment for  the  trip  home. 

On  the  20th  this  order  was  revoked  and  the  Chester  assigned. 
The  Chester  was  a  better  boat  for  officers,  but  not  as  well  equipped 
for  carrying  the  men.  Colonel  Moore  registered  a  vigorous  pro- 
test with  General  Henry,  which  resulted  in  the  order  being 
rescinded  and  the  Manitoba  again  assigned. 

Tuesday,  October  18,  was  "Occupation  Day,"  and  the  citizens 
of  the  city  held  a  grand  celebration.  Frank  Dana's  Third  In- 
fantry band,  together  with  three  other  military  bands  and  the 
troops  quartered  in  the  city,  joined  in  the  festivities. 

During  the  night  of  October  18-19,  there  occurred  an  exciting 
and  later  amusing  event.     Some  days  before  this  the  47th  New 


York  had  disembarked  and  were  held  at  the  port  for  several 
days  before  going  into  camp  on  ground  to  the  west  of  the  camp 
occupied  by  the  Third  Wisconsin.  It  developed  afterwards  the 
men  of  the  regiment,  of  the  19th  infantry  and  of  the  regular 
artillery  had  devoted  their  attention  to  filling  the  New  Yorkers 
with  all  kinds  of  tales  of  dangers.  The  New  Yorkers  had  been 
led  to  believe  they  were  in  constant  danger  of  being  sprung 
upon  from  ambush  and  cut  to  pieces.  In  the  early  hours  of  the 
night  a  dummy  figure  had  been  set  outside  the  47th  guard  line. 
It  had  been  so  arranged  long  cords  would  make  movements  of 
the  legs  and  arms.  Between  three  and  four  o'clock  a  sentry  got 
sight  of  this  figure  and  challenged,  and,  receiving  no  reply,  he 
fired.  The  sentry  on  adjoining  post  came  up,  challenged  and 
fired.  Then  came  the  Corporal,  who  challenged  and  fired;  fol- 
lowing him  was  the  relief  and  at  length  the  entire  guard.  The 
firing  awoke  Colonel  Moore  and  Adjutant  Cousins.  Supposing 
something  was  wrong  in  the  camp  of  the  47th,  either  an  attack 
by  guerrillas  or  a  mutiny.  Jack  Hood,  of  the  band,  was  directed 
to  sound  the  long  roll,  and  no  man  living  could  sound  it  better 
than  Jack. 

In  the  darkness  the  men  sprang  into  the  ranks  in  all  stages 
of  dress  and  undress.  Notwithstanding  their  haste,  none  forgot 
their  rifles,  belts  and  shoes.  Some  men  were  even  thoughtful 
enough  to  strap  on  their  wire  cutters,  thinking  barb  wire  barriers 
might  be  encountered.  The  Adjutant,  in  the  meantime,  was 
trying  to  get  in  connection  witli  the  47th  camp  and  about  time 
firing  died  down  there  got  the  Adjutant  of  the  47th  on  the  wire 
and  offered  Colonel  Moore's  assistance.  This  was  respectfully 
but  emphatically  declined  and  no  explanation  given  of  the  firing. 
After  a  reasonable  interval  the  men  were  sent  back  to  their  tents. 
It  was  well  along  in  the  day  before  the  cause  of  the  disturbance 
was  learned.  It  was  not  a  safe  subject  to  discuss  with  the  47th 
New  York  officers  or  men. 

Friday,  October  21,  the  command  was  up  and  astir  at  four 
a.  ra.,  packing  and  making  ready  to  take  the  transport.  In  good 
order  transportation  and  regiment  passed  through  the  city  and 
arrived  at  the  port  in  ample  season.  By  five  p.  ra.  all  were  on 
board.  The  wagon  tvanspoilalion  was  left  behind  by  direction  of 
the  quartermaster's  (Icpaiinwnt.  The  horses  traveled  with  the 
regiment  and  the  last  ol'  them  were  loaded  about  midnight.  Tlie 
boat,  however,  did  not  steam  out  until  the  next  morning,  Satur- 
day, it  being  contrary  to  the  sailors'  habit  to  sail  on  a  Friday. 
At  nine  o'clock  on  Wednesday,  the  26th,  the  Manitoba  arrived 


off  quarautiue  New  York  harbor  and  anchored  for  the  night. 
Early  the  next  morning  Colonel  Moore  directed  Lieutenants 
Hohvay,  Williams  and  Cousins  to  go  ashore  and  report  the  regi- 
ment at  the  army  headquarters.  These  officers  arranged  for  the 
drawing  of  the  warm  clothing  and  the  traveling,  rations  for  the 
trip  from  New  York  to  Wisconsin. 

Later  in  the  day  of  the  27th  the  Manitoba,  having  been  passed 
by  the  quarantine  officers  and  given  a  clean  bill,  steamed  up  to 
the  docks  at  Wechawken.  The  boat  was  still  in  motion  when 
Governor  Scofield  came  down  the  dock,  accompanied  by  Edward 
Mullen,  and  extended  an  official  welcome.  The  Governor  was 
heartily  cheered  by  officers  and  men. 

On  the  28th,  in  three  special  trains,  tlie  regiment  started  for 
Wisconsin  over  the  West  Shore  railway.  Two  sections  of  this 
train  were  pulled  into  Milwaukee,  where  the  citizens  of  that  city, 
on  October  30,  tendered  all  officers  and  men  a  banquet.  The 
other  section,  carrying  the  companies  from  Eau  Claire,  Neills- 
ville,  Menoraonie,  Hudson  and  Superior,  pulled  through  from 
Chicago,  and  by  night  of  October  31  all  the  companies  were  in 
their  home  towns. 

A  delegation  from  Eau  Claire  met  the  troop  train  before  day- 
light. Among  them  were  Captain  Henry,  Hon.  William  P.  Bart- 
lett  and  William  K.  Atkinson.  Eau  Claire  was  reached  about 
9 :30,  and  again  at  the  Omaha  station  the  men  received  an  ovation 
from  the  people  of  Eau  Claire. 

On  November  1  a  furlough  was  granted  to  all  men  of  the 
regiment  and  leave  of  absence  to  officers.  During  this  furlough 
Dr.  McDonald,  army  surgeon,  visited  the  home  station  of  all  com- 
panies to  ascertain  the  health  of  the  command.  Dr.  McDonald 
was  a  favorite  with  officers  and  men.  He  had  accompanied  the 
regiment  in  its  march  up  the  mountains,  returned  with  the  com- 
mand to  Ponce,  and  accompanied  the  regiment  to  Wisconsin. 

Lentil  January  it  was  not  known  what  the  Government  would 
decide  to  do  with  the  regiment.  There  were  reports  it  might 
be  sent  to  Philippines  and  other  reports  it  might  be  put  into  some 
of  the  Western  forts.  Li  the  meantime  Captain  Ballard  was 
busily  engaged  in  preparing  the  company  for  muster  out  or  return 
into  active  service.  In  late  December  the  order  came  for  mus- 
tering out  and  on  January  6,  1899,  Captain  E.  P.  Andrus,  of  the 
army,  arrived  in  Eau  Claire  and  by  midnight  of  that  day  E 
Company  had  been  discharged  from  the  volunteer  service. 

During  the  service  losses  occurred  and  some  men  liad  been 
transferred  to  other  organizations. 


Three  had  been  lost  by  death : 

Private  Charles  Eck  at  Camp  Thomas,  May  22,  1898. 
Corporal  Sxxmner  P.  Bartlett  at  Coamo,  September  9,  1898. 
Private  Dwight  C.  Brace  at  Ponce,  September  17,  1898. 

By  honorable  discharge  one  man  had  been  taken  from  the 
rolls  ■ 

Private  Leonard  Loken,  September  15,  1898. 

Four  were  transferred  to  the  Hospital  Corps,  namely: 

Privates:     Malcolm  J.  Cernahan. 
Alexander  S.  Morgan. 
William  H.  Bruce. 
Charles  E.  Day. 

All  others  of  the  rolls  were  mustered  out  January  6,  1899, 
as  above  stated. 

AU  through  the  winter  of  1898-1899  many  of  the  men  suffered 
from  the  effects  of  the  campaign.  Some  of  those  who  had  malaria 
in  their  systems  still  feel  the  effects  of  it  at  times. 

On  January  14,  1899,  the  officers  of  the  field  and  staff'  and 
non-commissioned  staff  were  mustered  out  at  Camp  Douglas  by 
Colonel  Andrus. 

The  State  of  Wisconsin  at  once  set  about  the  re-organization 
of  the  National  Guard  and  companies  in  the  volunteer  service 
were  given  an  opportunity  to  re-enter  the  guard.  E  Company, 
of  the  Third,  was  the  only  company  in  the  State  which  failed  to 
re-organize.  Captain  Ballard  gave  the  company  two  opportuni- 
ties, and  on  the  second  failure  referred  the  matter  to  the  Adju- 
tant General,  with  the  result  that  B  Company,  of  the  Fifth  In- 
fantry, was  transferred  to  the  Third  Infantry  as  E  Company. 
Captain  Otto  H.  Kitz)nan  commanded  this  company  and  extended 
an  invitation  to  all  the  volunteers  to  enlist,  and  several  of  them 
did  so.  On  the  reorganization  of  the  regiment,  June  10,  1899, 
Captain  Ballard  was  commissioned  as  Major  and  assigned  to  the 
Second  Battalion,  consisting  of  Companies  C,  E,  H  and  I.  Mar- 
shall Cousins  was  appointed  Regimental  Adjutant  with  rank  of 
Captain,  and  Percy  C.  Atkinson  was  appointed  Battalion  Sergeant 
Major.  On  the  creation  of  the  office  of  battalion  quartermaster 
and  commissary,  he  was  promoted  to  that  position  with  rank  of 
Second  Lieutenant,  and  at  a  little  later  date  was  again  promoted 
to  Battalion  Adjutant,  with  rank  of  First  Lieutenant. 

Marshall  Cousins  Avas  promoted  to  grade  of  Major,  December 


14,  1913,  and  was  succeeded  by  Percy  C.  Atkinson  as  Regimental 
Adjutant  on  the  same  date. 

Major  Ballard  continued  in  the  service  until  April  22,  1908, 
when  he  was  discharged  on  account  of  ill  health.  The  Major 
died  October  15,  1909,  and  was  interred  with  military  honors  in 
Forest  Hill  cemetery,  Eau  Claire.  A  number  of  the  officers  of 
the  regiment  from  adjoining  stations  were  present  at  the  service. 
Following  his  retirement  from  active  service  a  regimental  order 
was  issued  making  the  announcement.  This  order  is  reproduced, 
as  it  gives  a  biographical  sketch  of  the  Major. 

General  Orders, 
No.  18. 

Wisconsin  National  Guard 
La  Crosse,  May  11,  1908 

Announcement  is  hereby  made  of  the  retirement,  after  twenty 
years  of  continuous  service,  of  Major  Joseph  M.  Ballard,  on  April 
22,  1908.  For  some  weeks  prior  to  this  time  his  health  had  rap- 
idly failed,  to  the  sincere  regret  of  his  comrades  and  friends. 
Major  Ballard's  service  in  the  military  establishments  of  the  State 
had  been  long  and  honorable,  and  gained  for  him  a  place  of  dis- 
tinction and  high  regard  in  the  hearts  of  all  with  whom  he  had 
come  in  contact. 

Previous  to  his  coming  to  Wisconsin  he  served  in  the  "Worces- 
ter Continentals,"  C  Company,  Second  Infantry,  Volunteer  Militia 
of  Massachusetts.  He  became  corporal  in  this  company  May  7, 
1880,  and  Sergeant  December  27,  of  the  same  year.  A  few  years 
later  he  came  to  Wisconsin,  and  when  the  suggestion  was  made 
to  organize  a  military  company  in  his  home  city  of  Eau  Claire, 
Joe  Ballard  was  one  of  the  first  to  respond  to  the  call  and  be- 
came president  of  the  civil  organization  formed  to  finance  the 
new  company.  He  was  active  in  perfecting  the  organization. 
The  company  was  organized  in  the  summer  of  1887  as  an  inde- 
pendent company,  known  as  the  "Griffin  Rifles."  He  was  com- 
missioned First  Lieutenant  of  the  company  November  14,  1887, 
having  previous  to  that  time  served  as  First  Sergeant.  On  April 
20,  1888,  the  company  was  mustered  into  service  of  the  State  as 
E  Company,  and  he  was  re-commissioned  as  First  Lieutenant  in 
the  Wisconsin  National  Guard.  He  was  promoted  to  Captain 
April  15,  1890,  and  as  such  entered  the  volunteer  service  of  the 
United  States  May  11,  1898.  He  served  throughout  the  Porto 
Rican  campaign  with  credit  and  honor  to  his  country,  his  regi- 


ment,  his  company  and  himself.  E  company,  under  his  command, 
was  the  first  to  land  at  the  Port  of  Ponce  July  28,  1898,  the  day 
of  the  surrender  of  that  city  by  the  Spaniards.  By  direct  verbal 
command  of  Lieutenant  General  Miles,  Captain  Ballard  took  pos- 
session of  Government  Buildings  and  threw  a  guard  and  patrol 
about  the  port.     On  August  9  he  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Coamo. 

He  was  mustered  out  with  the  regiment  of  January  6,  1899, 
and  on  the  re-organization  of  the  regiment  he  was  commissioned 
Major,  with  rank  from  June  11,  1899,  and  commanded  tlie  Second 
Battalion  from  that  date  until  his  retirement,  April  22,  1908. 

He  was  always  ready  and  always  willing  to  do  promptly  and 
do  well  every  task  assigned  to  him.  His  cheerful  disposition  was 
contagious,  and  made  many  a  march  and  bivouac  more  endurable. 

A  faithful  friend,  patriotic  soldier,  efficient  officer,  and  brave 
man;  to  this,  we,  his  comrades,  bear  testimony  at  the  hour  of 
his  retirement.     Maj'  his  future  path  be  a  pleasant  one. 
By  order  of  Colonel  Holway. 

Marshall  Cousins. 
Captain  Third  Infantry,  Adjutant. 

Major  Ballard  was  born  February  18,  1853,  at  Gardiner,  Me. 
His  father  was  Augustus  Ballard,  a  prominent  and  successful 
shipbuilder  on  the  Kennebec  river.  For  seven  years  he  resided 
in  Worcester,  Mass.,  following  his  profession,  that  of  druggist, 
and  then  removed  to  Chicago.  November  19,  1883,  he  came  to 
Eau  Claire,  buying  a  drug  store  from  E.  H.  Playter.  He  was 
married  April  25,  1883,  to  Miss  Emily  A.  Browne,  of  Boston,  who 
survived  him  and  still  resides  in  Eau  Claire. 

This  sketch  Avould  not  be  complete  without  a  reference  to  the 
Regimental  and  Battalion  Commanders.  Colonel  Martin  T.  Moore 
commanded  the  regiment.  He  was  born  at  Wauwatosa,  Wis., 
August  9,  1847,  and  when  scarcely  fifteen  years  of  age  enlisted 
in  E  Company,  24th  Infantry,  Wisconsin  Volunteers,  August  5, 
1862.  On  account  of  wounds  received  May  18,  1864,  he  was,  in 
August  of  that  year,  assigned  to  duty  with  the  Fifth  United 
States  Veteran  Corps  of  Infantry.  He  was  discharged  as  a  Ser- 
geant June  5,  1865.  Colonel  Moore's  service  in  the  National 
Guard  of  Wisconsin  began  August  14,  1878,  as  First  Lieutenant 
of  the  La  Crosse  Light  Guards.  He  became  Captain  August  22, 
1879.  Aided  in  the  organization  of  the  Third  Battalion,  W.  N.  G., 
of  which  he  was  the  first  and  only  Lieutenant  Colonel,  from  or- 
ganization. May  19,  1881,  until  disbandment  early  in  1883.  On 
the  organization  of  the  Third  Infantry  he  was  commissioned  its 


first  Colonel,  June  11,  1883,  and  remained  such  until  mustered  out 
of  service,  Januarj'  14,  1899.  Colonel  Moore  died  in  La  Crosse 
March  24,  1903. 

The  First  Battalion,  composed  of  Companies  E  of  Eau  Claire, 
H  of  Menomonie,  C  of  Hudson  and  I  of  Superior,  was  commanded 
by  another  veteran  of  the  Civil  War,  Major  Thomas  Jefferson 
George,  who  was  born  in  Ohio,  November  18,  1842,  first  enlisted 
May  8,  1861,  and  was  discharged  on  account  of  sickness,  by  order 
of  General  Benjamin  P.  Butler,  April  11,  1862.  He  served  as 
First  Lieutenant  Wisconsin  State  Militia  during  the  Indian  dis- 
turbances, September,  1862,  and  was  in  the  United  States  police 
service  from  1863  to  1865.  From  January  11,  1877,  to  June  11, 
1883,  he  was  Captain  of  the  Guard  Company  of  Menomonie.  On 
the  latter  date  he  was  commissioned  Major  in  the  Third  Infantry 
and  remained  as  such  until  the  final  muster  out  of  the  regiment, 
January  14,  1899.  Major  George  is  living  at  Menomonie  in  good 
health  and  respected  and  loved  by  all.  For  Major  George  officers 
and  men  of  Wisconsin  National  Guard  entertain  a  warm  and 
kindly  sentiment. 

Another  officer,  while  not  a  member  of  the  regiment,  richly 
deserves  mention  in  this  sketch.  Captain  William  A.  Bethel,  of 
the  army,  was  Assistant  Adjutant  General  on  the  staff  of  the 
brigade  commander.  He  performed  the  trying  duties  of  his  posi- 
tion with  intelligence,  energy  and  tact  and  a  mutual  feeling  of 
admiration  soon  sprang  up  between  him  and  the  Third  Infantry. 
Officers  and  men  alike  felt  free  to  go  to  Captain  Bethel  for  infor- 
mation and  instruction.  Following  the  war  he  was  ti*ansferred 
to  the  Judge  Advocate  General's  Department  and  served  a  detail 
as  instructor  in  military  law  at  West  Point.  He  now  holds  -the 
rank  of  Lieutenant  Colonel. 


The  good  people  at  home,  through  the  reports  sent  out  by 
sensational  newspaper  correspondents,  formed  the  idea  the  regi- 
ments in  Porto  Rico  were  suffering  from  neglect.  On  September 
14  a  mass  meeting  was  held,  of  which  D.  A.  Cameron  was  chair- 
man and  James  T.  Joyce  secretary.  Addresses  were  made  by 
Hon.  William  II.  Frawley,  Mayor  S.  S.  Kepler,  Richard  F.  Wilson, 
A.  A.  Cutter  and  others,  and  committees  appointed.  At  a  second 
meeting,  held  on  September  15,  it  was  agreed  to  send  Robert  K. 
Boyd  to  Porto  Rico  with  funds.  On  September  19  Mr.  Boyd, 
accompanied  by  General  Griffin,  left  Eau  Claire  for  Washington. 


The  War  Department  furnished  him  with  transportation,  passes 
and  letters,  and  he  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  Steamer  Chester, 
October  2.  He  lauded  at  Ponce  and  reached  the  regiment  on 
October  7,  at  Coamo  on  their  return  march.  Owing  to  the  high 
water,  he  was  compelled  to  swim  several  rivers. 

Mr.  Boyd  was  accorded  a  royal  reception  by  E  Company.  lie 
found  conditions  on  the  island  very  much  improved.  The  men 
had  become  acclimated.  He  remained  with  the  regiment  and 
accompanied  it  home,  sending  in  the  meantime  reports  which 
allayed  the  anxiety  of  the  friends  at  home. 

By  an  E  Company  Man. 

Will  the  publishers  of  the  Eau  Claire  County  History  give 
one  of  the  men  of  the  Puerto  Rican  expedition  a  little  space  to 
make  mention  of  Happy  Jack?  He  was  the  horse  ridden  by 
Adjutant  Cousins  during  the  Spanish-American  War  and  for 
years  after  the  war.  Jack  was  a  Kentucky  thoroughbred,  born 
in  the  state  of  fine  horses  and  beautiful  women,  but  as  a  young 
colt  was  sent  to  a  Georgia  plantation,  about  forty  miles  from 
Chickamauga  Park.  It  was  at  Chickamauga  Park  he  was  pur- 
chased by  the  Eau  (Claire  officer  on  May  25,  1898.  The  planter 
from  whom  he  was  bought  frankly  stated  he  did  not  thiuk  the 
horse  suited  for  military  purposes  as  he  was  a  plantation  saddler 
and  had  never  been  in  the  city  or  been  among  large  bodies  of 
men.  Jack  was  accepted,  however,  and  in  a  few  days  had  estab- 
lished friendly  terms  witli  matters  military  aud  with  officers  and 
men.  He  quickly  learned  bugle  calls  and  seemed  to  recognize 
the  uniform.  He  was  a  particularlj'  handsome,  well-bred  animal, 
and  could  take  the  single  foot  gait  at  considerably  better  than 
a  three-minute  gait.  He  was  as  intelligent  as  he  was  handsome. 
He  received  a  painful  Avouiid  while  on  the  island,  Avhich  was 
dressed  and  attended  to  by  Captain  E.  H.  Grannis,  one  of  our 
regimental  surgeons. 

Jack  came  home  with  the  regiment  and  lived  in  Eau  Claire 
until  February  10,  1912,  when  he  passed  quietly  away.  From 
1899  on  he  annually  attended  the  regimental  encampments  at 
Camp  Douglas,  and  hundreds  of  men  will  recall  his  attitude  as 
he  would  stand  before  the  regiment  at  evening  parade  while  his 
master.  Captain  Cousins,  Regimental  Adjutant,  published  the 


Jack,  although  spirited  and  lively,  was  never  vicious  except- 
ing when  colored  people  were  about.  For  the  negro  race  he 
seemed  to  have  a  particular  aversion  and  would  not  hesitate  to 
use  his  hoofs  or  teeth  to  impress  upon  them  his  dislike.  Jack 
rendered  his  country  good  and  faithful  service,  and  was  a  kind, 
affectionate  and  agreeable  friend  and  comrade. 


The  Constitution  of  18-48  divided  the  state  of  Wisconsin  into 
five  judicial  circuits.  Chippewa  county,  which  then  embraced 
territory  extending  from  La  Pointe  county  on  the  north  to  Craw- 
ford county  on  the  south,  except  wliat  was  embraced  in  St.  Croix 
county,  was  attached  to  Crawford  county  for  judicial  purposes. 
In  1850  the  sixth  circuit  was  formed  in  part  out  of  territory 
in  Chippewa  county,  and  in  1854  the  remainder  of  Chippewa 
county  was  divided  to  form  in  part  the  eighth  circuit.  As  late 
as  1857,  this  circuit  included  the  counties  of  Eau  Claire,  Chip- 
pewa, Dunn,  St.  Croix,  La  Pointe  and  Douglas. 

Its  first  judge  was  S.  S.  N.  Fuller,  whose  terra  extended  from 
January,  1855,  to  1860.  He  was  truly  a  pioneer  judge,  but  a 
very  indifferent  lawyer. 

In  the  spring  of  1859,  L.  P.  Weatherby,  a  Hudson  lawyer, 
was  elected  to  succeed  Judge  Fuller,  who  early  in  the  fall  re- 
signed. Governor  Randall  appointed  the  late  Judge  Barron  to 
fill  Judge  Fuller's  unexpired  term. 

Judge  Barron  was  not  a  noted  lawyer,  and  three  months  was 
not  a  sufficient  time  in  which  to  achieve  a  judicial  record.  It  is 
but  simple  justice,  liowever,  to  his  memory  to  observe  that  he 
was  a  most  striking  illustration  of  what  is  not  unusual,  tliat  a 
very  ordinary  lawyer  may  make  an  excellent  judge.  Judge 
Barron  was  subsequently  judge  of  the  Eleventh  circuit. 

Judge  Weatherby  came  to  the  bench  in  January,  1860,  as  a 
code  lawyer,  which  his  immediate  predecessor  was  not.  This 
was  a  great  advantage  to  most  of  the  members  of  the  bar  then 
in  Northwestern  Wisconsin,  as  the  code  practice  had  then  been 
but  recently  adopted  by  the  state,  and  the  practice  was  new 
to  them. 

The  guerrilla  and  skirmishing  practice,  tolerated  in  Judge 
Fuller's  court,  was  allowed  no  quarter  in  his  successor's,  tlie 
effect  of  which  was,  during  his  term,  to  make  a  number  of  repii- 
table  lawyers  in  this  circuit.  Judge  Weatherby  was  an  able 
lawyer  and  fortunately  possessed  an  admirable  judicial  tempera- 

In  186-4  the  eleventh  circuit  was  formed,  which  detached  from 


the  eighth  the  counties  of  Ashland,  Burnet,  Dallas,  Polk  and  La 
Pointe.  In  1865  Dallas  county,  name  since  changed  to  Barron, 
was  attached  to  the  eighth.  In  1876  Chippewa  county  and 
Barron  county  were  detached  from  it  and  attached  to  the  elev- 
enth. H.  L.  Humphrey,  of  Hudson,  was  the  immediate  successor 
of  Judge  Weatherby,  and  proved  a  very  successful  and  popular 
judge,  till  his  political  friends  demanded  his  retirement  to  be- 
come a  member  of  Congress.  He  was  succeeded  in  1878  by 
E.  B.  Bundy,  of  Menomonie,  who  was  successfully  re-elected  until 
1896,  wlien  he  was  defeated  by  Eugene  Helms.  However,  at  this 
date  the  county  of  Eau  Claire  had  been  detached  from  the  eighth 
circuit,  but  his  long  term  of  service  attests  his  fitness  and  integ- 
rity as  a  .iudge. 

In  1876  the  thirteenth  circuit  was  formed  from  the  counties 
of  Buffalo  and  Trempealeau  from  the  sixth  and  Eau  Claire  county 
from  the  eighth. 

A.  W.  Newman,  of  Trempealeau,  became  its  judge  in  1877, 
but  in  1878  the  counties  of  Buffalo  and  Eau  Claire  were  de- 
tached from  the  thirteenth  circuit  and  attached  to  the  eighth, 
and  Judge  Newman  was  left  judge  of  the  thirteenth  with  the 
counties  of  CJark,  Monroe,  Jackson,  LaCrosse  and  Vernon  added 
thereto  by  the  act  of  1878.  He  remained  judge  of  the  thir- 
teenth till,  through  his  famous  decision  in  the  state  interest 
cases  and  the  popularity  which  he  achieved  thereby,  he  was 
elevated  to  the  bench  of  the  Suprem.e  Court  in  1894. 

The  restiveness  of  the  Eau  Claire  bar  under  the  fact  that  it 
had  not  a  resident  judge,  and  some  dissatisfaction  among  a  part 
of  its  leading  members,  led  to  the  formation  of  the  seventeenth 
circuit  in  1891,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Eau  Claire,  Jackson 
and  Clark. 

Although  the  circuit  was  strongly  Republican,  local  intiuences 
were  so  favorable  to  Judge  Bailey  that  he  defeated  James  O  'Neill, 
of  Clark  county,  and  came  to  the  bench  in  1892.  During  his 
incumbency  he  brought  much  judicial  learning  to  the  discharge 
of  his  official  duties,  but  enjoyed  the  writing  of  law  works,  to 
which  he  has  since  given  much  time. 

Judge  Bailey  was  succeeded  by  James  O'Neill,  who  was 
elected,  and  assumed  the  duties  of  office  in  January,  1898.  The 
present  incumbent.  Judge  James  Wickham,  was  elected  in  1909, 
when  the  district  was  changed  from  the  seventeenth  to  the  nine- 
teenth circuit,  which  is  now  composed  of  the  counties  of  Eau 
Claire,  Chippewa,  Rusk  and  Sawyer. 

The  first  trial  upon  an  indictment  for  a  capital  offense  which 


had  ever  occurred  in  Eau  Claire  eoimty,  was  that  of  Charles 
Naither  for  the  murder  of  Andrew  Seitz  on  the  evening  of  April 
30,  1858.  The  two  men,  Germans,  lived  together,  and  Seitz  up- 
braided Naither  for  neglecting  to  wash  the  dishes  after  eating 
supper.  An  altercation  ensued  and  he  was  thrown  downstairs. 
He  went  and  purchased  a  knife  and  returned  to  the  rooms  Seitz 
and  he  occupied  over  the  office  of  the  receiver  of  public  money, 
on  Eau  Claire  street.  After  a  war  of  words  had  ensued,  and 
Naither  was  again  ejected  from  the  room,  the  parties  clinched 
over  the  threshold  of  the  door  and  in  an  instant  Naither  plunged 
his  knife  into  the  abdomen  of  Seitz.  He  died  from  the  wound 
on  May  11  following.  The  trial  took  place  at  the  June  term  of 
the  circuit  coiirt.  The  accused  was  unable  to  employ  counsel, 
and  Mr.  Alexander  Meggett  was  assigned  to  that  duty.  Judge 
S.  S.  N.  Fuller  presided.  District  Attorney  Bartlett  and  Mr. 
George  Mulks  conducted  the  prosecution.  The  jury  were  un- 
able to  agree  upon  a  verdict  and  were  discharged.  On  a  second 
trial  the  prisoner  was  found  guilty  of  manslaughter  in  the  third 
degree  and  sentenced  to  four  years  and  twenty  days'  imprison- 
ment in  the  penitentiary  with  hard  labor.  Two  years  afterM'ard 
Gov.  Alex  W.  Randall  pardoned  him  out. 

The  second  murder  occurred  in  September,  1864.  A  man 
by  the  name  of  Sloan,  a  resident  of  the  town  of  Seynour,  in  Eau 
Claire  county,  got  into  an  altercation  with  John  Stoepler.  In 
a  fit  of  passion,  he  picked  up  a  maple  stick  and  struck  Sloan 
over  the  head  with  it,  fracturing  his  ski;ll.  The  result  was 
death.  Stoepler  was  immediately  arrested  and  indicted.  He 
was  held  for  trial  on  April  6,  1865.  The  district  attorney,  W.  P. 
Bartlett,  conducted  the  prosecution,  assisted  by  Alexander  Meg- 
gett. The  accused  was  ably  defended  by  Horace  "W.  Barnes 
and  N.  B.  Boyden,  but  the  evidence  against  him  was  conclusive, 
and  he  was  found  guilty  of  murder  in  the  third  degree  and 
sentenced  to  three  years  and  a  half  and  one  day's  solitary  con- 
finement in  the  state  prison,  but  he  was  recommended  by  many 
influential  citizens  to  executive  clemency,  and  two  years  of  his 
term  were  remitted. 

S.  S.  N.  Fuller  was  born  at  Montrose,  Susquehanna  county, 
Pennsylvania.  He  came  to  Wisconsin  and  resided  for  a  time 
at  Fond  du  Lac,  where  his  name  is  enrolled  as  an  attorney  under 
date  of  February  3,  1851.  His  stay  there  was  brief.  After  his 
removal  to  Hudson,  St.  Croix  county,  he  was  elected  county 
judge  and  later  circuit  judge.     His  service  did  not  cover  the 


full  term  for  which  he  had  been  elected.  Soon  after  resigning 
he  removed  to  Kansas  and  died  there  in  about  1876. 

Lucien  P.  Wetherby,  one  of  the  early  judges,  was  born  at 
Eagle,  Ouondago  county.  New  York,  October  12,  1822.  He  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools  and  at  an  advanced  academy  at 
Baldensville ;  he  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Angel  &  Grover  in 
Allegany  county,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1840.  Was 
district  attorney  and  surrogate  of  that  county,  in  which  he  began 
practice  of  the  law  at  Angelica.  He  came  to  Wisconsin  in  1856, 
and  located  at  Hudson,  where  he  resided  all  his  subsequent  life. 
In  1860  he  was  elected  judge  of  the  Eighth  circuit  and  sei-ved 
the  full  term.     He  died  December  11,  1889. 

Judge  Wetherby  was  a  lawyer  both  by  instinct  and  educa- 
tion. He  was  a  conspicuous  figure  at  the  bar  and  on  the  bench. 
He  was  thoroughly  informed  in  the  fundamental  principles  of 
law,  and  well  versed  in  the  statutes.  His  comprehension  of  legal 
propositions,  the  accuracy  of  his  discrimination  and  his  ability 
to  apply  principles  to  stated  cases  were  remarkable.  He  gave 
dignity  to  his  profession  by  his  ability,  knowledge  and  fairness. 
He  despised  the  tricks  of  the  pettifogger  and  pleaded  for  law 
and  justice. 

Henry  Danforth  Barron  was  a  native  of  New  York,  was  born 
at  Wilton,  Saratoga  county,  April  10,  1833.  After  obtaining  a 
common  school  education,  he  entered  the  law  school  at  Ballston 
Spa.  New  York,  and  graduated  therefrom.  In  1851  he  became 
a  resident  of  Waukesha,  Wis.,  and  conducted  a  newspaper  there 
for  some  time ;  the  newspaper  being  known  as  the  Waukesha 
Democrat  until  its  name  was  changed  to  the  "Chronotype."  In 
1853  Mr.  Barron  was  postmaster  at  Waukesha.  In  1857  he  re- 
moved to  Pepin,  Pepin  county,  and  practiced  law  there  until 
1860,  when  he  became  by  appointment  of  Governor  Randall, 
judge  of  the  eighth  circuit.  His  service  in  that  capacity  was 
brief,  lasting  only  until  the  vacancy  he  was  appointed  to  fill 
could  be  filled  by  an  election.  In  a  short  time  he  removed  to 
St.  Croix  Falls,  Polk  county.  In  1862  he  was  unanimously 
elected  a  member  of  the  assembly  from  the  district  comprising 
the  counties  of  Ashland,  Bayfield,  Burnett,  Douglas,  Barron  and 
Polk.  He  served  as  a  member  of  the  assembly  in  1864,  1866, 
1867,  1868,  1872  and  1873.  In  1868  and  1872  he  was  chosen  one 
of  the  presidential  electors  on  the  republican  ticket ;  from  1863 
till  1876  he  was  a  regent  of  the  State  University.  In  March, 
1869,  President  Grant  nominated  Judge  Barron  for  chief  justice 
of  the  territory  of  Dakota,  which  office  he  declined.     In  1869, 


the  President  appointed  him  fifth  auditor  of  the  treasury,  and 
he  discharged  the  duties  of  that  office  till  January  1,  1872,  when 
he  resigned  to  take  a  seat  in  the  assembly.  In  May,  1871,  he 
was  appointed  by  Governor  Fairchild  Wisconsin's  trustee  of 
the  Antietam  Cemetery  Association.  In  1874-5-6  Mr.  Barron 
was  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  and  president  pro  tem  of  that 
body  in  1876.  In  the  spring  of  that  year  he  was  elected  judge 
of  the  eleventh  circuit.  His  death  occurred  before  the  expira- 
tion of  his  term  at  St.  Croix  Falls,  January  23,  1882. 

Herman  L.  Humphrey  was  born  at  Candor,  Tioga  county, 
NeM'  York,  Mai'ch  14,  1880.  His  education,  except  one  year 
spent  in  the  Cortland  academy,  was  limited  to  the  public  schools. 
At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  engaged  as  clei'k  in  a  store  at  Ithaca, 
New  York,  and  so  continued  for  several  years;  later  he  read 
law  in  that  city  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  July,  1854.  In 
January,  1855,  he  located  at  Hudson,  Wis.,  and  began  the  prac- 
tice of  la^v.  Soon  after  he  Avas  appointed  district  attorney  to 
fill  a  vacancy;  in  1860  he  became  judge  of  the  county  by  ap- 
pointment, and  in  1861  was  elected  to  that  office  for  a  full  term. 
He  resigned  in  February,  1862,  having  been  elected  State  Senator. 
In  1865  he  was  mayor  of  Hudson  and  in  April,  1866,  was  elected 
judge  of  the  eighth  circuit,  and  re-elected  in  1872.  That  office 
was  resigned  in  March,  1877,  when  Judge  Humphrey's  term  as 
a  member  of  Congress  began,  he  having  been  elected  as  the  Re- 
publican candidate  in  November,  1876 ;  he  was  twice  re-elected, 
having  served  from  1877  to  1883.  On  completing  his  congres- 
sional service.  Judge  Ilumplirey  resumed  the  practice  of  law  at 

Egbert  B.  Bundy  was  born  at  Windsor,  N.  Y.,  February  8, 
1833.  He  received  his  general  education  there  at  the  academy, 
and  his  legal  education  in  law  offices  at  Windsor  and  Depoint, 
in  his  native  state.  He  became  a  member  of  the  bar  at  Cortland, 
N.  Y.,  in  January,  1856.  On  coming  to  Wisconsin  he  began  his 
law  practice  at  Dunnville,  the  then  county  seat  of  Dunn  county, 
thereafter  removing  to  Menomonie.  He  served  as  county  judge, 
and  April,  1877,  was  appointed  judge  of  the  eighth  circuit,  then 
composed  of  the  counties  of  Bau  Claire,  Dunn,  Pepin,  Pierce 
and  St.  Croix,  to  fill  out  the  unexpired  term  of  Judge  Humphrey. 
In  April,  1878,  he  Avas  re-elected  and  at  the  expiration  of  tlie 
term  was  again  re-elected. 

As  a  lawyer,  Judge  Bundy  Avas  highly  valued.  Making  no 
claims  to  oratorical  gifts,  he  was  nevertheless  forcible,  impres- 
sive and  strong  as  an  advocate.     Never  "ingenious"  in  discuss- 


iiig  legal  propositions  to  the  court,  he  went  strauglit  to  the  core 
of  the  questions,  and  never  burdened  or  blurred  a  brief  with 
cases  not  in  point.  In  the  counsel  room  he  was  eminently  frank, 
practical,  able,  safe.  It  was,  however,  on  the  bench  that  Judge 
Bundy  did  the  major  part  of  his  life  work. 

Alfred  William  Newman,  an  associate  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Wisconsin,  departed  this  life  at  the  city  of  Madison, 
January  12,  1898,  his  death  resulting  from  accidental  injury 
received  the  day  before.  Justice  Newman  was  born  April  5, 
1834,  at  Durham,  Greene  county.  New  York.  He  was  of  English 
descent,  his  ancestors  being  found  among  the  early  Puritan  set- 
tlers of  New  England.  He  was  born  upon  a  farm  and  grew  up 
as  a  farmer's  boy,  receiving  such  education  as  the  neighborhood 
schools  afforded,  and  subjected  at  home  and  at  school  to  the 
strict  discipline  and  religious  instruction  and  observances  re- 
ciuired  by  the  Presbyterian  church,  of  which  both  his  parents 
were  devout  members. 

When  thirteen  years  of  age  he  accompanied  his  father  to 
Albany  and  was  present  in  court  when  his  father  M^as  exam- 
ined as  a  witness,  and  it  is  said  that  he  then  and  there  deter- 
mined to  become  a  lawyer,  and  that  thereafter  all  his  efforts  to 
obtain  an  education  had  that  in  view.  When  about  eighteen 
years  of  age  he  entered  an  academy  at  Ithaca  and  after  two 
terms  there  he  entered  the  Delaware  Literary  Institute  at  Frank- 
lin, N.  Y.,  where  he  also  remained  two  terms.  He  then  entered 
Hamilton  College,  at  Clinton,  N.  Y.,  joining  the  class  of  1857, 
with  which  he  was  graduated,  receiving  the  degree  of  A.  B. 
While  at  college  he  diligently  pursued  extra  law  studies  under 
Professor  Theodore  W.  Dwight,  and  after  graduation  he  con- 
tinued the  study  of  law^  in  the  office  of  John  Olney,  Esq..  at 
Windham  Center,  in  Greene  county,  until  admitted  to  the  bar 
at  the  general  te)'m  of  the  Supreme  Court  at  Albany,  Decembei' 
8,  1857. 

In  January,  1858,  he  started  for  the  west.  Stopping  tirst  at 
Alnapee,  in  Kewaunee  county,  he  removed  in  March,  1858,  to 
Trempealeau  county,  which  ever  after  remained  his  home  until 
his  removal  to  Madison  in  1894. 

He  held  the  office  of  county  judge  of  Trempealeau  county 
from  April,  1860,  until  January,  1867,  when  he  assumed  the 
office  of  district  attorney,  to  which  he  had  been  elected  in  the 
fall  of  1866.  He  was  re-elected  district  attorney  in  1868,  1872 
and  1874,  thus  holding  that  position  for  eight  years. 

He  was  twice  elected  to  the  State  Legislature,  serving  as  a 


member  of  the  assembly  iu  1863  and  senator  from  the  thirty- 
second  district  in  1868  and  1869. 

While  he  was  holding  the  office  of  district  attorney  the  leg- 
islature, in  1876,  formed  a  new  judicial  circuit — the  thirteenth 
—  consisting  of  the  counties  of  Eau  Claire,  Buffalo  and  Trem- 
pealeau. In  April  of  that  year  Mr.  Newman  was  elected  judge 
of  this  new  circuit,  and  discharged  the  duties  of  that  position 
until  1878.  As  a  result  of  legislative  action,  he  was  transferred 
to  and  became  judge  of  the  sixth  circuit.  He  was  re-elected, 
without  opposition,  in  1882,  1888.  The  third  term  for  which  he 
was  elected  expired  January  1,  1895. 

In  the  spring  of  1893,  Hon.  William  Penn  Lyon,  chief  justice 
of  the  Supreme  Court,  having  expressed  his  intention  not  to  be 
a  candidate  for  re-election,  Judge  Newman  was  called  out  as 
a  nonpartisan  candidate  and  was  elected  to  the  position  of 
associate  justice.  His  services  began  at  the  opening  of  the 
January  term,  1894.  He  had  completed  four  years  of  his  term 
and  about  beginning  the  fifth  year  with  the  opening  of  the  Janu- 
ary term,  1898,  on  the  day — January  11 — when  he  met  with  an 
accident  which  terminated  his  life. 

William  F.  Bailey  served  for  six  years  as  judge  of  the  seven- 
teenth circuit.  He  enlisted  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  in  the 
Thirty-eighth  New  York  Infantry,  but  in  the  early  spring  of 
1862  became  captain  of  Company  K,  Ninety-fifth  New  York  Vol- 
unteers, serving  with  McDowell  until  after  the  battle  of  An- 
tietam.  Some  time  after  the  close  of  the  war — that  is,  in  1867 — 
he  came  to  Eau  Claire,  where  he  has  served  in  a  number  of 
important  positions. 

During  his  term  of  service  in  the  seventeenth.  Judge  Bailey 
sat  in  several  important  trials,  most  notable  among  which  was 
that  of  the  State  vs.  Elizabeth  Russell.  In  this  ease  the  jury 
rendered  a  verdict  of  guilty,  but  judgment  was  arrested  by 
direction  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

The  foregoing  was  not  written  by  Mr.  Bailey. 

As  the  Russell  trial  is  mentioned,  he  desires  to  correct  a  false 
impression  pervading  a  considerable  portion  of  the  public,  with 
respect  to  the  outcome  of  that  trial.  At  the  suggestion  of  Mr. 
Frawley  and  the  request  of  the  county  board,  he  appointed 
William  Irwin,  a  celebrated  criminal  lawyer  of  St.  Paul,  to 
assist  the  district  attorney  in  the  prosecution  of  Mrs.  Russell.  A 
statute  of  Wisconsin  provided  and  still  provides  that  in  crim- 
inal cases  the  trial  court  may  obtain  the  opinion  of  the  Supreme 
Court  as  to  its  duty  in  cases  of  doubt  as  to  the  law.     It  requires 


that  the  trial  court  submit  questions  to  be  answered  by  the  Su- 
preme Court  certifying  the  evidence  relating  thereto.  During 
the  trial  it  appeared  from  the  testimony  of  the  district  attorney, 
that  he  had  sought  to  entrap  Mrs.  Russell,  then  confined  in  the 
county  jail,  and  to  this  end  he  sent  Russ  Whipple  to  the  jail  to 
represent  to  her  that  he  was  sent  by  Mr.  James,  her  counsel,  to 
obtain  the  facts  within  her  knowledge;  that  Mr.  James  could 
not  come  in  person;  that  he  was  going  to  Chicago  on  a  late 
train  that  evening,  and  in  order  to  assure  her  that  he  was  sent 
by  Mr.  James,  he  was  to  tell  her,  and  did  tell  her,  to  call  up  Mr. 
James  by  telephone.  She  called  up  Mr.  James,  but  instead  of 
Mr.  James  answering,  Mr.  Frawley  was  at  the  other  end  and 
answered,  not  disclosing  he  was  not  Mr.  James,  and  advised  her 
to  tell  everything  to  Mr.  Whipple.  The  judge  was  in  doubt  as 
to  the  legal  effect  of  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Irwin,  he  being  a 
non-resident  of  the  state  and  not  a  member  of  the  Wisconsin 
bar,  .and  also  as  to  the  conduct  of  the  district  attorney,  and 
hence,  in  order  to  save  further  delay  and  the  expense  of  a  writ 
of  error  to  the  Supreme  Court,  he  certified  the  following  ques- 
tions in  substance: 

First  With  reference  to  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Irwin  to 
assist  the  prosecution :  Shall  the  court  proceed  to  judgment  and 
sentence  upon  the  verdict  ?  To  which  question  the  Supreme  Court 
answered  "No." 

Second.  The  testimony  of  Mr.  Frawley  being  certified,  shall 
tlie  court  proceed  to  judgment  and  sentence  upon  the  verdict  in 
view  of  such  conduct?  To  which  question  the  Supreme  Court 
answered  "No."  That  court  delivered  an  opinion  severely  cen- 
suring the  district  attorney  for  his  conduct.  Thus  the  trial  court 
was  instructed  not  to  proceed  to  judgment  and  sentence.  The 
Supreme  Court  arrested  the  judgment  and  not  Judge  Bailey. 
Persons  who  want  otherwise  than  here  to  satisfy  themselves  of 
the  facts  as  here  given,  are  referred  to  the  published  opinion  of 
the  Supreme  Court  found  in  the  Wisconsin  reports. 

In  spite  of  the  exceedingly  arduous  duties  pertaining  to  his 
office,  the  judge  found  time  to  make  some  valuable  contributions 
to  professional  literature  in  his  works  entitled  "Masters'  Lia- 
bilities for  Injuries  to  Servants,"  and  Bailey's  "Personal  In- 
juries," both  of  which  have  met  with  general  approval  and  large 

The  judge  was  born  in  Carmel,  Putnam  county,  New  York, 
June  20,  1842,  the  son  of  Benjamin  Bailey,  a  lawyer  who  at- 
tained nuich  prominence   during  a  quarter  century   of  practice 


at  the  New  York  bar.  Judge  Bailey  received  his  early  educa- 
tion at  Clavereck  Academy  in  Columbia  county,  New  York,  and 
his  legal  education  was  obtained  in  New  York.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  at  Brooklyn  in  1863.  His  service  to  the  public  in- 
cluded three  terms  as  mayor  of  Eau  Claire,  one  terra  as  district 
attorney  of  Eau  Claire  county,  and  as  judge  of  the  seventeenth 
circuit,  the  latter  covering  the  years  of  1892-97. 

James  O'Neill  was  born  in  Lisbon,  St.  Lawrence  county.  New 
York,  September  3,  1847.  His  parents  were  Andrew  and  Mary 
(HoUiston)  O'Neill,  his  father  being  a  farmer  by  occupation. 
Tracing  his  ancestors  to  an  early  date,  it  is  found  that  his  pater- 
nal grandfather,  Andrew  O'Neill,  was  born  in  Shanes  Castle, 
Ireland,  September  23,  1766.  Emigrating  to  America  about 
1790,  he  settled  at  Edwardsburg,  Canada,  where  on  February 
18,  1798,  he  married  Jane  Armstrong.  During  October  of  the 
next  year  they  located  at  Lisbon,  New  York,  Mr.  O'Neill  being 
the  first  settler  of  that  town.  Here  as  a  farmer  he  lived  and 

The  maternal  ancestry  was  Scotch,  Andrew  Holliston  and 
Mary  Lees,  the  grandparents,  coming  from  the  banks  of  the 
Leader,  a  branch  of  the  historic  Tweed  in  Berwickshire,  Scot- 
land. In  the  early  forties  they  left  their  native  land,  locating 
in  Oswegatchie,  St.  Lawrence  county,  New  York. 

In  the  district  schools  of  his  native  state  James  O'Neill  pre- 
pared for  the  higher  branches  of  learning,  entering  St.  Lawrence 
University  in  the  fall  of  1863.  Here  he  spent  three  years,  then 
entered  Cornell  University  where,  after  spending  three  years, 
he  was  graduated  in  1871  with  the  degree  of  A.  B.  He  obtained 
his  legal  education  in  the  office  of  John  McNaughton,  of  Ogdeus- 
burg,  and  at  the  Albany  Law  School,  graduating  from  the  latter 
institution  in  1873. 

After  his  admission  to  the  bar  at  Albany,  Mr.  O'Neill  came 
to  Neillsville  on  a  visit  to  his  uncle  James.  This  was  in  1873. 
So  favorably  impressed  was  he  that  he  decided  to  locate  there 
for  the  practice  of  his  profession.  Opening  an  office,  he  continued 
alone  for  four  years,  after  which,  in  August,  1877,  he  formed  a 
partnership  with  H.  W.  Sheldon,  which  was  terminated  with 
the  death  of  Mr.  Sheldon  in  February,  1879.  For  one  year  he 
was  associated  with  Mr.  Joseph  Morley,  and  in  1890  formed  a 
partnership  with  Spencer  M.  Marsh,  which  continued  until  Mr. 
O'Neill  left  the  profession  for  the  bench,  in  January,  1898. 

James  Wickham,  judge  of  the  circuit  court  for  the  nine- 
teenth district,  is  a  native  son  of  Wisconsin,  having  been  born 


in  Richland  county,  this  state,  January  31,  1862,  the  sou  of  Pat- 
rick and  Catherine  (Quigley)  Wickham,  natives  of  Ireland.  The 
parents  of  Judge  Wickham  emigrated  to  the  United  States  in 
early  life,  and  first  located  in  New  York.  They  removed  to  Cleve- 
land, Ohio,  where  they  remained  four  years,  then  came  west  to 
Wisconsin,  stopping  first  at  Whitewater,  thence  to  Richland 
county,  where  they  arrived  in  1859  and  engaged  in  agricultural 
pursuits.  Both  parents  died  in  1894.  They  were  progressive 
citizens  and  held  a  place  of  prominence  in  the  community,  and 
many  times  Mr.  Wickham  was  called  upon  to  fill  offices  of  trust. 

Judge  Wickham  received  his  preliminary  education  in  the 
l)ublic  schools  of  Richland  county  and  the  Richland  Center  high 
school,  which  was  supplemented  by  a  thorough  course  in  the  law 
department  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  from  which  he  was 
graduated  with  the  class  of  1886  and  began  practice  in  August  of 
that  year  at  Eau  Claire.  Prior  to  his  graduating  from  the  law 
department  he  was  engaged  for  a  time  in  school  teaching.  After 
his  arrival  in  Eau  Claire  he  was  appointed  citj'  attorney  in  1897 
and  from  1899  to  1906.  From  1889  to  1910  he  was  engaged  in 
the  practice  of  law  with  Frank  R.  Farr,  under  the  firm  name  of 
Wickham  &  F'arr.  He  was  elected  judge  of  the  circuit  court  in 
1909,  assuming  the  duties  of  that  office  January  1,  1910. 

In  1891  he  was  married  to  Miss  Ida  Haskin,  daughter  of 
Wright  Haskin,  of  Eau  Claire.  She  passed  away  in  1904.  In  1908 
the  .iudge  married  for  his  second  wife  Helen  Koppelberger, 
(lauuliter  of  H.  B.  Koppelberger.  His  children  are  James  Arthur, 
William  E.,  Catherine  Ida  and  Walter  Leo. 


Everything  in  municipal  affairs  has  its  beginning  and  the 
establishment  of  the  county  government  by  law  brought  with 
it  the  inauguration  of  the  county  or  probate  court ;  naturally,  the 
duties  of  the  judge  were  very  light  for  a  number  of  years,  and 
the  pay  small,  but  with  the  lapse  of  years  the  work  has  grown  to 
such  an  extent  as  to  occupy  nearly  the  whole  time  of  the  judge. 
During  the  last  fifty-six  years  the  court  has  had  nine  judges,  as 
follows :  Starting  with  William  Pitt  Bartlett,  who  occupied  the 
office  from  1858  to  1861,  his  successors  have  been  Ira  Mead,  1862 ; 
John  W.  Stillman,  1863-65;  H.  W.  Barnes,  1866-68;  George  C. 
Teall,  1869-73 ;  Arthus  C.  EUis,  1874-80 ;  George  C.  Teall,  1881-86 ; 
A.  C.  Larson  assumed  the  duties  of  the  office  in  1887  and  was 
succeeded  by  ilartin  B.  Hubbard,  who  took  charge  in  1897.    He 


remained  one  term  of  four  years  and  was  succeeded  by  the  pres- 
ent encumbent,  George  L.  Blum,  who  was  first  elected  in  1901. 

William  Pitt  Bartlett,  nestor  of  the  bar  of  Eau  Claire  county, 
was  born  at  Minot,  Maine,  September  13,  1829.  His  early  educa- 
tional opportunities  were  meager,  but  he  obtained  a  teacher's 
certificate  at  the  age  of  fifteen  years.  He  paid  his  way  through 
the  academies  at  Farmington  and  Bloomfield  and  at  the  age  of 
twenty  years  entered  Waterville  College  and  was  graduated  in 
1853.  He  was  elected  principal  of  the  Hallowell  (Maine)  Acad- 
emy and  served  in  that  capacity  until  he  resigned  in  1855,  hav- 
ing in  the  meantime  begun  to  study  law.  Being  of  weak  physique, 
it  was  deemed  advisable  to  seek  more  favorable  climatic  influ- 
ences, and  he  located  at  Watertown,  Wis.,  where  he  taught  school 
for  six  months  and  continued  the  study  of  law.  He  was  admitted 
to  practice  in  the  spring  of  1856,  and  the  following  year  moved 
to  Eau  Claire,  Wis.,  where  he  has  since  resided.  He  was  the  first 
lawyer  to  locate  in  Eau  Claire  county.  He  is  the  nestor  of  the 
school  board  of  Eau  Claire;  has  always  taken  great  interest  in 
educational  matters,  and  for  many  years  was  a  member  of  and 
president  of  the  board  of  regents  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin. 
He  was  elected  district  attorney  in  1859,  and  during  his  term  of 
office  became  a  member  of  the  legislature.  In  the  spring  of  1860 
he  was  appointed  judge  of  Eau  Claire  county  by  Governor  Ran- 
dall, and  in  1861  and  1863  was  again  elected  district  attorney.  In 
1872  he  was  again  elected  a  member  of  the  legislature,  in  1874 
appointed  register  of  the  United  States  land  office  by  President 
Grant,  and  re-appointed  in  1878  by  President  Hayes.  From  1857 
to  1872  Mr.  Bartlett  practiced  by  himself,  but  in  the  latter  year 
he  formed  a  partnership  with  H.  H.  Ilayden,  which,  under  the 
firm  name  of  Bartlett  &  Hayden,  became  one  of  the  strongest 
law  firms  in  Wisconsin.  In  1884  this  partnership  was  dissolved 
and  since  then  Mr.  Bartlett  has  practiced  by  himself. 

Col.  Edward  M.  Bartlett  came  to  Dead  Lake  Prairie,  in  Dunn 
county,  later  town  of  Frankfort,  Pepin  county,  in  1855,  and  lived 
there  two  winters  and  in  the  southern  part  of  the  state  one  win- 
ter. In  1858  he  settled  in  Dunn  county,  residing  in  Dunnville 
and  Menomonie  until  October,  1862.  He  was  commissioned  lieu- 
tenant-colonel of  the  Thirtieth  Wisconsin  Infantry  in  1864,  serving 
until  the  close  of  the  war.  He  was  born  in  the  town  of  Victor, 
Cayiiga  county.  New  York,  August  3,  1839,  came  to  Wisconsin 
when  sixteen  years  old,  and  while  at  East  Troy  studied  law  in 
the  office  of  Henry  Cousins,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1856, 
and  settled  at  Eau  Claire  in  1866,  practicing  his  profession  for 


many  years.  He  was  for  five  years  register  of  the  United  States 
land  office,  and  at  one  time  city  attorney  of  Eau  Claire.  For 
several  years  he  was  municipal  judge  of  the  city  of  Eau  Claire. 

Milton  D.  Bartlett  was  born  in  the  town  of  Victory,  Cayuga 
county,  New  York,  November  3,  1833,  and  lived  in  Auburn, 
N.  Y.,  after  he  was  twelve  years  old  until  the  spring  of  1852, 
when  he  came  to  Wisconsin,  locating  in  East  Troy,  "Walworth 
county.  In  October,  1852,  he  returned  east,  and  in  the  spring  of 
1854  came  to  Delavan,  remaining  there  one  year.  Was  then  for 
one  year  at  East  Troy,  and  in  the  spring  of  1856  moved  to 
Dunn  county,  where  he  lived  until  the  spring  of  1860,  when  he 
went  to  Durand,  remaining  there  until  the  winter  of  1865-66. 
He  then  went  to  Minneapolis,  and  in  1870  came  to  Eau  Claire. 
He  studied  law  in  Auburn  and  Syracuse,  New  York,  and  prac- 
ticed at  Delavan,  discontinuing  it  for  a  short  time  while  he  was 
engaged  in  fanning.  He  resumed  the  practice  in  1859,  and  at  one 
time  was  county  judge  for  Pepin  county,  resigning  the  position 
to  go  to  the  legislature,  having  been  elected  to  the  state  senate 
in  1861. 

J.  F.  Ellis  was  born  in  Jerusalem,  Yates  county.  New  York, 
June  5,  1843.  He  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1866  and  studied  law. 
He  began  his  practice  in  1870.  Was  county  superintendent  of 
schools  for  two  years,  and  for  six  years  a  member  of  the  school 

Arthur  C.  Ellis  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1861,  and  in  May  of 
that  year  enlisted  in  the  Sixth  Wisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry, 
serving  until  1867,  when  he  was  mustered  out.  He  was  wounded 
at  the  battle  of  South  Mountain  in  1863  and  transferred  to  the 
reserve  corps.  He  was  lieutenant  of  Company  B,  and  was  with 
Sheridan  in  Louisiana  after  tlie  war.  In  the  fall  of  1867  he 
returned  to  Eau  Claire  and  practiced  law  from  1870  to  1880. 
Was  county  judge  for  seven  years  prior  to  his  resignation  in  the 
fall  of  1880,  when  he  became  connected  with  the  Northwestern 
Lumber  Company.  He  was  born  in  Licking,  near  Granville, 
Ohio,  September  17,  1843,  and  moved  to  Aurora,  111.,  in  1856., 
remaining  there  until  he  came  to  Eau  Claire. 

Michael  Griffin  was  born  in  county  Claire,  Ireland,  September 
9,  1842.  In  1847  his  parents  emigrated  to  America,  and  after 
a  short  time  spent  in  Canada  in  1851,  they  moved  to  Hudson, 
Summit  county,  Ohio,  where  the  boy  attended  the  common 
schools.  In  1856  the  family  moved  to  Wisconsin,  locating  in 
Newport.  Sauk  county,  where  he  continued  his  studies  in  the 
district  school.    He  enlisted  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  September  11, 


1861,  in  what  became  Company  E  of  the  Twelfth  Wisconsin  Vol- 
unteer Infantry.  He  was  with  the  rest  of  the  company  mustered 
into  the  United  States  service  November  5,  1861,  and  was  ap- 
pointed sergeant  the  same  day.  January  11,  1862,  the  regiment 
left  Wisconsin,  being  ordered  to  Fort  Leavenworth.  The  regi- 
ment finally  joined  Grant  in  the  south  and  participated  in  many 
engagements.  At  the  battle  of  Bald  Hill,  Atlanta,  Ga.,  July  21, 
1864,  Mr.  Griffin  was  wounded  in  a  charge  on  the  enemy.  He 
was  ordered  to  the  hospital,  and  though  suffering  severe  pain, 
assisted  the  surgeons  in  tending  to  the  more  seriously  wounded. 
He  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  February  11,  1865,  and 
mustered  as  such  on  March  30  following.  He  was  commissioned 
first  lieutenant  July  5,  1865.  He  was  mustered  out  of  the  service 
July  16,  1865,  on  account  of  the  close  of  the  war.  He  then 
returned  to  Newport,  and  during  the  following  fall  began  read- 
ing law  in  the  office  of  Jonathan  Bowman,  at  Kilbourn  City,  Wis. 
He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the  circuit  court  at  Portage 
City,  May  19,  1868,  and  entered  on  the  practice  of  his  profession 
at  Kilbourn  City,  where  he  resided  until  1876.  In  addition  to  his 
professional  duties,  from  1871  to  1876  he  acted  as  cashier  of  the 
bank  of  Kilbourn.  In  1875  he  was  elected  to  the  assembly  from 
the  first  district  of  Columbia  county.  At  the  close  of  the  session 
of  1876  he  moved  to  Eau  Claire,  where  he  became  actively  en- 
gaged in  the  practice  of  law.  He  was  appointed  city  attorney  in 
1878,  and  reappointed  in  1879  and  in  1880.  In  1879  he  was  elected 
state  senator  from  the  thirteenth  senatorial  district,  comprising 
the  counties  of  Dunn,  Eau  Claire  and  Pierce. 

In  1889  he  was  appointed  by  Governor  W.  D.  Hoard  quarter- 
master general  of  the  state.  During  the  two  years  he  occupied 
that  position  the  Wisconsin  rifle  range  for  the  militia  was  estab- 
lished at  Camp  Douglas,  and  out  of  the  first  appropriation  made 
by  the  state  he  purchased  the  land  and  directed  the  construction 
of  suitable  buildings  for  that  purpose. 

General  Griffin  was  an  active  member  of  the  Grand  Army 
of  the  Republic  and  occupied  many  positions  of  trust  in  that 
body.  He  served  several  times  as  post  commander,  and  two  years 
served  as  judge  advocate  of  the  department  of  Wisconsin.  In 
February,  1887,  he  was  elected  department  commander,  and 
served  one  year.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Wisconsin  Command- 
ery,  Milwaukee  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion,  also  of  the  com- 
mandery,  chapter  and  blue  lodge  of  the  Masonic  fraternity. 
Knights  of  Pythias  and  Royal  Arcanum. 

In  the  early  fall  of  1894  the  death  of  George  B.  Shaw  left 


his  congressional  district  without  a  representative.  General  Grif- 
fin yielded  to  the  request  of  his  friends  and  agreed  to  accept 
the  nomination.  His  name  was  brovight  before  the  convention 
held  at  Eau  Claire  on  October  3,  1894,  and  on  the  first  baUot  he 
was  chosen  to  lead  the  party  to  victory ;  was  re-nominated  in 
1896  and  served  on  committee  on  military  affairs  in  54th  and 
55th  congresses.  As  a  man  of  business  Mr.  GrifSn  displayed  the 
same  ability  as  he  did  in  his  profession,  and  was  successful. 
He  was  interested  in  the  Lea  Ingram  Lumber  Company,  of  Iron 
River;  the  Eau  Claire  Grocery  Company,  and  the  Eau  Claire 
National  Bank. 

Henry  H.  Hayden.  Among  the  successful  and  prominent 
lawyers  of  Wisconsin  for  many  years  was  H.  II.  Hayden.  He 
was  born  in  Seheuectady,  N.  Y.,  May  3,  1841.  His  father,  Edwin 
S.  Hayden,  a  Connecticut  Yankee,  was  a  mechanic  and  farmer; 
his  mother,  Matilda  Hayden,  nee  Joyce,  was  of  Dutch  ancestry 
and  a  daughter  of  a  survivor  of  the  Mohawk  massacre.  Raised 
on  a  farm,  his  boyhood  was  uneventful.  After  obtaining  a  good 
common  school  education  at  Crystal  Lake,  111.,  he  became  a  stu- 
dent in  the  law  office  of  M.  L.  Joslyn,  at  Woodstock,  111.  His 
legal  studies  were  continued  in  Oshkosh,  Wis.,  in  the  office  of 
Jackson  &  Halsey  and  of  Felker  &  Weisbrod.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  September,  1871,  and  on  January  1,  1872,  located 
in  Eau  Claire,  where  he  became  associated  with  William  Pitt 
Bartlett  under  the  firm  name  of  Bartlett  &  Hayden.  Mr.  Hay- 
den soon  demonstrated  his  ability  in  liis  profession,  and  in  a  short 
time,  through  close  application  and  indefatigable  energy,  he 
became  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  bar  m  the  state.  After  the 
partnership  of  Bartlett  &  Hayden  had  continued  for  fourteen 
years  it  was  dissolved,  and  Mr.  Hayden  shortly  thereafter  formed 
an  association  with  T.  F.  Frawley,  which  continued  for  three 
years.  He  next  admitted  R.  H.  Start  into  his  business,  form- 
ing the  firm  of  Hayden  &  Stai't.  This  partnership  continued 
two  years,  and  from  that  time  Mr.  Hayden  practiced  alone.  He 
was  engaged  in  many  cases  of  more  than  local  importance,  and 
probably  argued  as  many  cases  before  the  higher  courts  as  any 
member  of  the  bar  in  the  state,  outside  of  a  few  members  of 
the  Milwaukee  bar.  His  knowledge  of  the  law,  his  energy  and 
industry,  his  tact  and  force  before  judge  and  jury,  earned  him 
a  position  in  the  front  rank  of  a  small  body  of  men  who,  collec- 
tively, were  the  ablest  lawyers  in  the  state.  His  success  was 
largely  attributed  to  the  care  with  which  he  prepared  his  cases 
before  trial  and  to  the  conscientious  manner  in  wliich  he  treated 


his  clients,  always  endeavoring  to  avoid  litigation  wlieu  just 
settlement  eould  be  obtained  out  of  court. 

Although  his  time  was  almost  entirely  absorbed  by  his  pro- 
fession, Mr.  Hayden  became  largely  interested  in  manufacturing 
enterprises  and  financial  institutions,  and  was  the  vice  president 
of  the  bank  of  Eau  Claire.  He  served  in  the  war  of  the  rebellion 
as  sergeant  in  Company  II,  Thirty-Sixth  Illinois  Volunteer 

Mr.  Hayden  was  twice  married.  His  first  wife  was  Florence 
Slocum,  by  whom  he  had  two  daughters,  Avis  and  Georgie.  On 
March  18,  1885,  he  was  again  married  to  Alice  W.  Ellis.  In  the 
death  of  Mr.  Hayden,  which  occurred  January  4, 1903,  the  bar  lost 
one  of  its  brightest  legal  minds,  and  the  city,  one  of  its  most 
influential  and  highly  respected  citizens. 

Lewis  R.  Larson  was  born  near  Bergen,  Norway,  September 
1,  1849,  and  came  with  his  parents  to  Columbus  in  the  spring 
of  1850.  He  was  educated  in  the  public  schools  of  Columbus 
and  at  the  Wisconsin  University  at  Madison,  graduating  from 
the  latter  institution  in  the  class  of  1872.  He  read  law  in  the 
office  of  A.  G.  Cook,  of  Columbus,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
May  20,  1874,  at  Portage,  and  May  28,  1880,  to  practice  in  the 
supreme  court.  He  remained  in  the  office  of  A.  G.  Cook  until 
June  14,  1875,  when  he  came  to  Eau  Claire  and  began  practice 
alone.  He  was  city  attorney  from  April,  1877,  to  April,  1878, 
when  he  was  elected  municipal  judge  for  a  term  of  four  years. 
He  subsequently  moved  to  Minneapolis,  practicing  his  profession 
there.     He  died  there  in  August,  1914. 

Levi  E.  Latimer  was  born  in  the  town  of  Bloomfield,  near 
Hartford,  Conn.,  April  12,  1838,  and  lived  there  until  1858,  when 
he  went  to  La  Porte,  Ind.,  and  studied  law.  He  came  to  Eau 
Claire  June,  1860,  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  until  1872, 
when  he  became  municipal  judge,  which  office  he  held  for  six 
years.  He  also  held  various  town  offices,  and  in  1878  engaged 
in  the  real  estate  business.  He  subseciuently  moved  to  Chicago, 
where  he  died  in  1909  or  1910. 

Samuel  W.  McCaslin  was  born  at  Neillsburg,  Pa.,  November 
3,  1844,  and  lived  there  until  1865,  when  he  went  to  Painesville, 
Ohio.  He  read  law,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  began  prac- 
ticing in  September,  1866.  In  1868  he  removed  to  St.  Charles, 
Winona  county,  ]\Iinnesota,  where  he  remained  until  he  came  to 
Eau  Claire  in  1872. 

Alexander  Meggett  was  born  in  Glasgow,  Scotland,  March 
26,  1824,  and  came  to  America  with  his  parents  when  a  little  over 


three  years  old.  They  settled  at  Uxbridge,  Mass.,  living  there 
until  181^6  or  1837,  when  they  removed  to  Chicopee  Falls,  town  of 
Springfield,  Mass.,  where  they  resided  until  1841,  in  which  year 
they  located  at  Slaterville,  R.  I.  Mr.  Meggett  worked  in  cotton 
manufactories  until  he  was  nineteen,  when  he  commenced  to  edu- 
cate himself.  At  Wilbraham  Academy,  Wilbraham,  Mass.,  and  at 
Washington,  Conn.,  he  prepared  himself  for  the  Middleton  Uni- 
versity. He  spent  three  years  in  that  institution  in  the  sciences, 
two  years  in  belle  letters  and  one  year  in  mathematics.  In  the 
winter  of  1847-48  he  removed  to  Pawtucket,  Mass.,  and  taught  in 
the  public  schools  for  five  years.  He  studied  law  in  1851-52  while 
engaged  in  teaching  with  Hon.  C.  B.  Farnesworth,  of  Pawtucket, 
and  completed  his  legal  studies  the  year  following  with  Hon. 
Thomas  A.  Jenckes,  of  the  city  of  Providence,  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  March,  1853,  and  commenced  practice  at  Pawtucket, 
R.  I.,  and  practiced  at  Providence  one  year  prior  to  coming  west 
in  May,  1857.  In  June,  1857,  he  visited  Eau  Claire  and  perma- 
nently located  here  in  July  following,  when  he  commenced  the 
practice  of  his  profession.  During  the  winter  of  1857-58  he  was 
editor  of  the  Eau  Claire  Times.  He  was  the  second  lawyer  to 
settle  in  Eau  Claire  county.  He  held  the  offices  of  town  super- 
intendent of  schools  and  city  attorney,  and  was  also  at  one  time 
candidate  for  judge  of  the  district. 

Mr.  Meggett  was  doubtless  engaged  in  more  important  crimi- 
nal cases  than  any  other  lawyer  in  this  section  of  the  state,  having 
been  either  sole  or  leading  counsel  in  the  following  cases :  State 
vs.  Nethers,  Fritz,  Noble,  Murray,  Moseby,  Mrs.  Wheeler  and 
Carter,  Davy,  Jump  and  Muzzy,  besides  many  cases  of  homicide 
in  various  degrees  and  other  important  cases,  both  criminal  and 
civil.  His  untiring  zeal  for  his  client's  cause,  his  professional 
learning  and  ability,  and  his  peculiar  forcibleness  and  success 
in  jury  trials,  both  criminal  and  civil,  justly  merited  him  that 
prominence  which  was  so  generously  accorded  him  by  members 
of  his  own  profession  as  well  as  by  others. 

Levi  M.  Vilas,  formerly  of  the  Eau  Claire  bar,  and  at  the 
time  of  his  death  judge  of  the  district  court  of  Ramsey  county, 
Minnesota,  was  born  February  17,  1844,  at  Chelsea,  Orange 
county,  Vermont.  He  completed  his  general  education  in  the 
University  of  Wisconsin,  from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1863. 
His  graduation  from  the  Albany  law  school  occurred  in  1864, 
in  which  year  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  New  York.  Return- 
ing to  Madison,  he  engaged  with  his  brother,  William  P.,  in  the 
practice  of  the  law  for  about  one  year,  after  which  he  went  into 


the  quartermaster's  department  of  the  army  as  c-hief  clerk, 
remaining  in  that  position  two  years.  In  1868  he  removed  to  Eau 
Claire,  Wis.,  where  he  built  up  and  maintained  a  large  practice. 
He  was  elected  to  the  office  of  city  attorney  in  1872,  and  mayor 
in  1876 ;  district  attorney  in  1877  and  1879.  Mr.  Vilas  removed 
from  Eau  Claire  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  in  June,  1887.  In  less  than 
two  years  after  becoming  a  resident  of  St.  Paul  he  was  selected 
by  the  governor  for  judge  of  the  district  court  of  Ramsey  county, 
which  appointment  was  accepted  and  the  duties  of  the  oifice  en- 
tered upon.  But  the  worthy  recipient  of  that  honor  was  not 
long  permitted  to  hold  the  scales  of  justice ;  disease  even  at  the 
time  he  left  Wisconsin  had  laid  hold  of  him,  and  on  August  25, 
1889,  he  passed  away  at  the  family  home  at  Madison. 

Levi  M.  Vilas  was  aii  excellent  lawyer.  His  standing  in  the 
profession  was  such  as  any  member  of  the  bar  might  envy ;  such 
as  cannot  be  reached  otherwise  than  by  diligent  application  of 
a  trained  and  strong  mind.  His  manner  of  expression  was 
marked ;  his  style  was  his  own — clear,  terse  and  strong.  His 
voice  was  strong,  but  musical.  His  appearance  was  prepossess- 
ing and  indicated  great  strength. 

James  F.  Salisbury  came  to  Wisconsin,  locating  at  Hudson 
in  1876,  remaining  there  one  year.  He  came  to  Eau  Claire  and 
was  associated  with  Joseph  F.  Ellis  in  the  practice  of  law.  He 
was  born  in  Brockport,  Monroe  county,  New  York,  November  7, 
1849.  J.  F.  Salisbury  was  educated  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and  at 
the  Michigan  State  University,  graduating  from  the  latter  insti- 
tution in  1871.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1871  and  com- 
menced practice  at  St.  Paul. 

Ira  B.  Bradford,  a  member  of  the  Eau  Claire  county  bar,  lias 
practiced  law  at  Augusta  since  1873.  He  was  born  in  the  town 
of  Fulton,  Rock  county,  Wisconsin,  June  24,  1851.  He  was  edu- 
cated in  the  academies  and  seminaries  of  New  Hampshire,  and 
in  the  fall  of  1869  went  to  Edinboro,  Pa.,  and  entered  upon  the 
study  of  law.  In  the  fall  of  1871  he  returned  to  New  Hampshire 
and  continued  his  studies  at  Newport  until  the  summer  of  1872, 
when  he  went  again  to  Edinboro.  In  February,  1873,  he  reached 
Janesville,  Wis.,  and  entered  the  law  office  of  Cassoday  &  Car- 
penter as  a  student.  In  March,  1873,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  at  Monroe  and  immediately  went  to  Augusta. 

Mr.  Bradford  was  the  first  mayor  of  Augusta.  In  1879  and 
1881  he  was  a  member  of  the  assembly,  and  served  as  speaker 
during  the  latter  year. 


Eosiel  D.  Campbell  was  born  in  LaFayette,  Onondago  county, 
New  York,  Feliruary  15,  1810.  Came  to  Beloit,  Wis.,  in  1838, 
resided  there  for  some  years,  then  went  to  Lee  county,  Illinois, 
where  he  resided  for  a  time,  then  went  to  Boone  county,  Illinois, 
for  two  years,  and  in  October,  1861  enlisted  in  Company  I,  Forty- 
sixth  Regiment,  Illinois  Volunteer  Infantry.  After  the  battle  of 
Ft.  Donelson  he  was  promoted  to  captain,  receiving  his  commis- 
sion just  before  the  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing.  In  the  fall  of 
1862  he  resigned  and  came  to  "Waterloo,  Wis.,  where  he  resided 
until  1867,  when  he  located  in  the  town  of  Ludington,  Eau  Claire 
county,  and  in  1869  moved  into  Augusta.  He  served  as  president 
of  the  village  and  also  held  the  office  of  court  commissioner, 
and  for  several  years  was  justice  of  the  peace.  Mr.  Campbell  was 
admitted  to  practice  in  the  territory  of  Wisconsin  in  1842,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  Illinois  bar  in  1843. 

Judson  C.  Crawford  was  born  in  Ulysses,  Tompkins  county. 
New  York,  April  26,  1823 ;  lived  there  until  he  came  to  Wiscon- 
sin in  the  fall  of  1847.  He  taught  school  at  Sheboygan  and  two 
years  at  Waupun,  and  one  year  at  Ceresco.  Afterward  for  many 
years  he  was  engaged  in  the  general  missionary  work,  being  a 
regularly  ordained  minister  of  the  LTniversalist  Church.  In 
March,  1875,  he  settled  in  Augusta  and  engaged  in  the  practice 
of  law. 

Thomas  F.  Frawley  was  born  near  Troy,  N.  Y.,  March  6,  1851. 
His  parents,  Thomas  and  Honora  (Hogan)  Frawley,  were  natives 
of  Ireland,  and  possessed  such  attainments  of  mind  and  heart  as 
especially  fitted  them  to  mould  the  character  of  their  children. 
The  father  was  studious,  thoughtful,  industrious,  independent  and 
energetic,  and  the  mother  of  kindly,  cheerful  and  benevolent 
disposition,  being  a  woman  of  deep  religious  convictions.  The 
family  consisted  of  seven  sons  and  two  daughters,  all  of  whom 
were  thoroughly  educated.  It  is  quite  a  remarkable  fact  that 
six  of  the  sons  graduated  from  the  University  of  Wisconsin  and 
that  from  1870  to  1896  some  member  of  the  family  was  a  student 
at  that  institution. 

A  short  time  after  the  birth  of  Thomas  F.  Frawley,  the  family 
moved  to  Wisconsin  and  settled  upon  a  farm  in  the  tovra  of  Ver- 
mont, Kane  county,  and  there  he  resided  until  1875.  Until  he 
was  seventeen  years  of  age  the  boy  assisted  in  the  cultivation  of 
the  farm,  attending  district  school  during  the  winter  months. 
For  two  terms  he  was  a  student  at  the  Albion  Academy  in  Dane 
county,  and  in  the  spring  of  1872  entered  the  University  of  Wis- 


t'onsin.  Prom  October,  1873,  until  June,  1874,  he  taught  school 
at  Highland  and  Dodgeville,  but  during  that  period  he  continued 
his  studies  in  the  university  and  was  graduated  therefrom  in 
1875,  having  largely  paid  the  expenses  of  his  collegiate  education 
with  the  money  he  earned  as  a  teacher.  As  a  university  student 
lie  was  an  acknowledged  leader  in  debate,  being  a  participant 
in  the  joint  oratorical  contest  of  1874. 

For  five  years  after  his  graduation  Mr.  Frawley  served  as 
principal  of  the  high  school  in  Eau  Claire.  During  this  period 
he  commenced  the  study  of  his  profession  and  formed  the  nucleus 
of  his  law  library,  which  was  considered  one  of  the  most  complete 
private  collections  in  the  state.  Upon  his  admission  to  the  bar 
in  1880  he  abandoned  the  educational  field  and  earnestly  assumed 
the  duties  of  his  new  profession.  During  the  first  few  years  of 
his  career  he  conducted  the  defence  of  many  important  criminal 
cases.  Among  those  being  best  known  may  be  mentioned  that 
growing  out  of  the  lynching  of  Olson  in  Trempealeau  county  in 
1889.  In  later  years  he  gave  most  of  his  attention  to  civil  cases, 
especially  those  involving  important  question  of  corporation  law. 

Mr.  Frawley  was  a  democrat  of  high  standing.  In  1888  he 
served  as  a  delegate  to  the  National  Democratic  Convention  held 
in  St.  Louis.  In  1892,  upon  the  delivery  of  his  telling  speech 
before  the  state  convention,  the  old  ticket  was  nominated  for  re- 
election. For  many  years  prior  to  1896  Mr.  Frawley  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Democratic  State  Central  Committee.  In  June  of  that 
year  he  was  chosen  both  temporary  and  permanent  chairman  of 
the  state  convention,  which  convened  in  Milwaukee  for  the  pur- 
pose of  selecting  delegates  to  the  national  convention  called  to 
meet  in  Chicago.  Mr.  Frawley  was  for  ten  years  a  member  and 
for  several  terms  president  of  the  Common  Council  of  Eau  Claire. 
Interested  in  educational  matters,  he  was  for  many  years  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Education,  and  in  that  capacity  did 
much  to  improve  the  school  system  of  the  city.  He  was  financially 
and  professionally  interested  in  several  corporations,  being  a 
stockholder  and  director  of  the  Chippewa  Valley  Bank,  and  stock- 
holder and  attorney  for  the  Eau  Claire  Light  &  Power  Company, 
in  addition  to  holding  similar  relations  to  other  corporations. 

On  the  sixth  day  of  August,  1877,  Mr.  Frawley  was  married 
to  Lydia  A.,  daughter  of  Joseph  Lawler,  one  of  the  early  settlers 
of  Eau  Claire,  and  one  of  its  most  highly  respected  citizens.  They 
had  one  son,  Thomas  F.  Frawley,  Jr.,  who  is  now  a  practicing 
attorney  in  Eau  Claire.  During  the  many  years  that  Mr.  Fraw- 
ley was  a  member  of  the  legal  profession  he  formed  several  eon- 


neetions.  From  1881  to  1884  he  was  of  the  firm  of  Frawley,  Hen- 
tirix  &  Brool-.s;  from  1884  to  1888  he  practiced  alone;  the  follow- 
ing year  his  brother,  W.  H.  Frawley,  was  his  partner,  and  from 
August,  1889,  to  August,  1890,  he  was  associated  with  H.  H. 
Hayden  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Hayden  &  Frawley.  From 
August,  1890,  until  September,  1897,  Mr.  Frawley  had  no  part- 
ner, but  at  the  latter  date  the  firm  of  Frawley,  Bundy  &  Wilcox 
was  formed.     The  death  of  Mr.  Frawley  occurred  in  1902. 

George  Clinton  Teall  was  born  in  Seneca  county.  New  York, 
May  20,  1840,  and  at  the  age  of  twelve  removed  with  his  parents 
to  Geneva,  N.  Y.,  where  he  was  principally  educated.  At  the  age 
of  eighteen  he  entered  Hobart  College,  in  which  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  class  of  1862.  His  father,  G.  C.  P.  Teall,  was  a  son  of 
Nathan  Teall,  whose  father  was  one  of  three  political  fugitives 
from  the  oppression  of  Switzerland,  who  settled  in  Connecticut 
about  1730.  His  grandfather,  Nathan  Teall,  was  a  soldier  in  the 
Revolutionary  War  under  General  Knox.  In  1792  this  grand- 
father settled  in  Newtown,  N.  Y.,  which  was  afterward  named 
Elmira.  On  the  side  of  his  father's  mother  the  ancestors  were 
among  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  who  landed  from  the  "Mayflower" 
at  Plymouth  in  1620,  and  her  father  was  a  colonel  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  Mr.  Teall  studied  law  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in 
1862-3-4  in  the  office  of  Hon.  Theron  R.  Strong  and  Hon.  Alfred 
G.  Mudge,  and  also  attended  a  course  of  lectures  in  the  winter 
of  1863-4  at  Rochester.  In  February,  1866,  he  came  to  Eau  Claire 
with  his  family,  and  in  April,  1867,  was  elected  justice  of  the 
peace,  and  in  January,  1868,  was  appointed  county  judge  by 
Governor  Fairchild.  In  the  spring  of  1869  he  was  elected  his 
own  successor  and  administered  that  office  until  January,  1874. 
He  was  from  1866  for  several  years  interested  in  the  mercantile 
firm  of  George  C.  Teall  &  Co.,  and  from  1868  to  1873  Was  one  of 
the  firm  of  William  A.  Teall  &  Co.,  general  insurance  agents.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  Wisconsin  at  Milwaukee  in  January, 
1872,  and  soon  afterward  to  the  supreme  court  and  the  United 
States  courts  at  Madison.  In  1873  he  formed  a  partnership  with 
Alexander  Meggett  and  was  a  member  of  that  law  firm  until  the 
spring  of  1881,  when  the  firm  was  dissolved.  In  December,  1880, 
he  was  again  appointed  count}'  judge  by  Governor  Smith,  and  in 
1881  was  re-elected  without  opposition  for  the  term  ending 
January,  1886. 

Hon.  Henry  Cousins  (deceased).  Among  the  names  of  the 
strong  men  who  helped  to  make  the  Eau  Claire  bar  famous  stands 
that  of  Hon.  Henry  Cousins.     From  early  boyhood  to  the  day  of 


his  death  his  character  was  never  tarnished  by  a  blot.  Although 
quiet  and  unassuming,  he  became  widely  known  in  legal,  political 
and  social  circles  as  a  man  to  be  trusted  in  all  relations  of  life. 
His  demise  called  forth  the  most  glowing  tributes  and  eulogies 
that  were  ever  bestowed  on  a  deceased  member  of  the  Eau  Claire 
bar  by  members  of  that  association.  He  was  born  in  Mayville, 
Chautauqua  county,  New  York,  on  February  7,  1826,  and  with 
his  parents,  John  and  Mary  Cousins,  removed  to  Dover,  Cuyahoga 
county,  Ohio,  in  the  spring  of  1837,  where,  until  the  age  of  fif- 
teen years,  he  had  the  advantage  of  such  schools  as  the  newly 
settled  district  afforded.  For  two  years  he  was  employed  as  a 
clerk  in  a  dry  goods  store,  but  the  confinement  being  somewhat 
irksome  he  sought  a  wider  field  of  labor,  and,  as  expressed  in 
his  own  peculiar  diction,  he  "went  to  work  on  his  father's  farm, 
where  he  had  the  reputation  of  taking  more  time  to  do  less  work 
than  any  other  boy  in  the  neighborhood."  At  this  time  a  taste 
for  study  and  general  reading  was  developed  wdiich  was  stimu- 
lated and  directed  by  a  Baptist  clergyman  of  Dover,  who  kindly 
placed  his  library  and  advice  at  his  command.  Thereafter  he 
commenced  the  study  of  law  at  Elyria,  Ohio,  in  the  office  of  J.  D. 
Benedict,  and  in  1848,  when  twenty-two  years  old,  was  admitted 
to  practice  by  the  supreme  court  of  the  state.  In  1848  he  became 
interested  in  the  anti-slavery  discussion  which  convulsed  the 
country,  espoused  the  advance  opinions  on  that  subject,  having 
the  confidence  of  such  men  as  Giddings  and  the  Wades  of  that 
state,  and  was  known  as  an  abolitionist  of  the  voting  school, 
when  the  term  implied  more  of  approbrium  than  honor. 

A  letter  from  the  Hon.  Joshua  R.  Giddings,  then  in  Congress, 
relative  to  his  candidacy  for  re-election  was  a  greatly  cherished 
memento  of  this  beginning  of  Mr.  Cousins'  political  activities. 

In  1850  he  came  to  Wisconsin  and  entered  on  the  practice  of 
his  profession  at  East  Troy,  Walworth  county;  was  elected  clerk 
of  the  court  in  1854  and  held  office  for  six  consective  years. 
While  in  East  Troy  a  warm  and  confidential  friendship  sprang 
up  between  the  young  attorney  and  Judge  John  F.  Potter — - 
Bowie  Knife  Potter — and  he  attended  to  many  legal  matters  for 
the  judge  during  the  period  he  was  in  Washington.  When  Judge 
Prior,  of  Virginia,  challenged  Judge  Potter  to  a  duel,  the  latter, 
before  public  announcement  of  the  matter  was  made,  returned 
to  East  Troy  for  the  purpose  of  putting  his  affairs  in  order.  To 
Mr.  Cousins  he  made  known  his  ideas  as  to  how  pending  litiga- 
tion was  to  be  handled.  Many  matters  of  a  confidential  nature 
were  entrusted  to  the  younger  man,  and  in  explanation  shortly 




before  the  judge 's  return  to  Washington,  while  the  two  men  were 
occupying  the  same  room  as  a  sleeping  apartment,  the  judge  an- 
nounced he  had  received  a  challenge  just  before  his  departure 
from  Washington  and  that  his  trip  was  to  prepare  for  what  might 
happen.  Mr.  Cousins  tried  to  dissuade  him  from  accepting  the 
challenge,  but  was  met  with  the  statement,  "No,  by  God,  I  have 
accepted,  and  if  I  ever  get  Judge  Prior  on  the  field  I  will  kill 
him  if  I  can."  But  the  outcome  of  this  challenge  is  a  matter 
of  historj'. 

On  the  outbreak  of  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  he  received  a 
provisional  commission  authorizing  him  to  recruit  a  company, 
which,  on  its  acceptance  by  the  United  States,  would  entitle  him 
to  a  captain's  commission.  The  company  was  recruited,  offered 
to  the  government,  and  every  man  on  the  rolls,  with  the  exception 
of  Captain  Cousins,  passed  a  physical  examination.  After  his 
rejection  by  the  army  surgeons  he  devoted  his  labors,  until  the 
close  of  hostilities,  to  assisting  and  aiding  others  in  recruiting 
and  in  fostering  loyal  sentiment  among  the  people. 

His  father,  John  Cousins,  as  a  boy  of  14,  served  with  Mae- 
donough  at  Lake  Champlain,  and  the  grandfather,  a  sea  captain 
previous  to  the  Revolutionary  War,  was  issued  letters  of  marque 
by  Congress  and  assisted  in  naval  operations. 

In  1866  he  located  in  Eau  Claire.  In  1867  was  elected  district 
attorney  and  re-elected  in  1869 ;  was  elected  to  the  assembly  in 
1871  without  opposition,  and  bore  an  honorable  part  in  the  Dells 
improvement  struggle,  and  was  thereafter  alderman  for  the  Third 
Ward  in  this  city  for  two  years.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the 
county  board  of  supervisors. 

In  consequence  of  failing  health  in  1881  he  accepted  the  posi- 
tion of  register  of  the  United  States  land  office  in  Arizona,  but 
in  1883  returned  to  Eau  Claire,  having  voluntarily  resigned  the 
office.  In  1885  he  was  again  elected  district  attorney  for  Eau 
Claire  county,  and  in  1887  declined  nomination,  thus  closing  his 
official  career.  After  several  weeks  of  sickness  he  departed  this 
life  late  in  the  afternoon  of  Thursday,  October  25,  1888,  at  the 
age  of  sixty-five  years,  eight  months  and  eighteen  days.  While 
taking  no  place  in  religious  controversy,  nor  holding  dogmatic 
theology  in  high  esteem,  he  held  as  supremest  truth  the  fact  of 
a  Creator,  Ruler  and  Father  of  all  mankind,  and  that  at  some 
period,  somewhere  in  the  time  to  come,  would  be  accomplished 
the  final  exaltation  of  the  race. 

As  a  politician,  while  deeming  principle  above  party,  and  while 
indulging  in  free  criticism  of  its  policies,  he  held  to  the  last  pro- 


found  regard  for  the  party  he  believed  had  wrought  well  for  the 
people,  and  revered  with  all  the  force  of  his  nature  the  stead- 
fastness of  those  men  Avho  strove  for  the  extinction  of  chattel 
slavery  and  the  equality  of  all  men  before  the  law.  As  a  lawyer 
he  came  to  the  profession  believing  the  machinery  of  the  law 
should  be  so  used  as  to  ameliorate  conditions,  protect  society  and 
uphold  the  right. 

At  the  exercises  of  the  Eau  Claire  Bar  Association  held  in 
Circuit  Court  January  15,  1889,  many  tributes  of  respect  were 
paid  to  his  memory.  The  resolutions  of  the  committee  made 
special  mention  of  the  high  esteem  of  his  colleagues  for  "his  ripe 
attainments  through  mastery  of  details,  conscientious  practice 
and  large  experience  in  his  profession ;  for  his  uniform  recogni- 
tion of  courtesies  due  to  the  bench  and  the  bar,  and  for  his  great 
veneration  for  the  law  as  an  ample  shield  of  protection  for  the 
citizens  against  encroachments  of  wrong."  A  special  mention 
was  made  to  the  helping  hand  he  was  always  ready  to  extend  to 
the  young  practitioner. 

Mr.  Cousins  had  a  keen  appreciation  of  wit  and  a  never  fail- 
ing stock  of  stories  which  illustrated  his  points,  either  in  arguing 
before  a  jury  or  in  making  a  political  address.  In  the  use  of 
sarcasm  he  was  an  adept,  but,  as  one  fellow  practitioner  stated, 
"Henry's  shafts,  though  telling  and  eifective,  are  so  tempered 
as  not  to  sting  and  hurt."  To  this  day  some  of  his  former  asso- 
ciates repeat  his  stories. 

Mr.  Cousins  was  one  of  those  who  remain  cool  and  collected 
when  most  people  are  in  a  state  of  great  excitement.  One  gen- 
tleman described  his  entrance  into  Mr.  Cousins'  office,  then  in  the 
old  Music  Hall  Building,  which  was  on  fire.  Mr.  Cousins  sat  at 
his  desk  writing.  The  excited  friend  dashed  in,  crying  out, 
"The  building  is  on  fire.  What  shall  I  do  first?"  Mr.  Cousins 
continued  his  writing  without  looking  up  until  the  paragraph  was 
finished,  then  calmly  blotting  it,  he  glanced  up  and  replied, 
"Well,  under  the  circumstances  I  would  suggest  you  better  get  a 
pail  of  water."  When  provocation  appeared  to  demand  the  use 
of  emphatic  language,  Mr.  Cousins  was  not  found  wanting,  but 
as  a  friend  says,  "However  emphatic  his  expressions  are,  they 
are  nevertheless  picturesque  and  artistic." 

January  21,  1861,  he  married  Louise,  daughter  of  Otis  and 
Julia  (Corbin)  Preston,  the  former  a  native  of  Massachusetts 
and  the  latter  of  Ohio,  but  of  French  descent.  Mrs.  Cousins  was 
born  October  26,  1840,  in  White  Pigeon,  Mich.     She  is  a  culti- 


vated,  broadiuiiided  woman,  and  interested  in  social  and  educa- 
tional progress.     She  has  two  children. 

John  E.  Stillman  settled  in  Eau  Claire  in  its  earliest  days.  He 
was  the  first  teacher  in  the  first  public  school.  The  building 
was  erected  in  the  village  of  Eau  Claire  in  the  winter  of  1856-57. 
It  was  of  green,  rough  boards,  located  on  what  is  now  Barstow 
street,  near  Grand  avenue.  East,  and  in  dimension  was  16  by  24 
feet.  As  schoolmaster  Mr.  Stillman  was  succeeded  the  following 
summer  by  Miss  Mary  Arnold.  At  that  time  there  were  fifteen 
pupils.  Later  Mr.  Stillman  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law. 
Served  as  county  judge  from  1863  to  1865. 

In  1860  he  married  Miss  Mary  Lashier,  of  Fall  River,  Wis.,  to 
whom  there  were  born  three  sons  and  two  daughters.  In  1872 
he  was  practicing  law  under  the  firm  name  of  Stillman  &  Ed- 
wards. In  1873,  on  account  of  ill  health,  he  removed  to  Florida, 
where,  with  other  Eau  Claire  men,  he  helped  establish  the  town 
of  Orange  City.  In  1882  Mr.  Stillman  moved  to  Washington, 
D.  C,  where  he  resided  for  one  year,  then  returning  to  Orange 
City.     He  died  in  1883. 

Horace  W.  Barnes  was  born  in  the  town  of  Colesville,  Broome 
county.  New  York,  in  1818.  His  boyhood  was  spent  in  the  family 
of  an  uncle  who  settled  in  a  dense  beech  and  maple  forest  in 
Medina  county,  Ohio,  where  he  lived  a  life  of  constant  toil,  with- 
out one  day's  schooling  until  his  majority,  and  Shakespeare's 
line  would  then  forcibly  apply  to  the  youthful  Buckeye : 

"This  boy  is  forest-born,  and  hath  been  tutored  in  the  rudi- 
ments of  many  desperate  studies." 

How  many  men  famous  in  American  history  have  laid  the 
superstructure  of  their  education  and  built  up  an  honorable 
name  from  such  rough  materials  as  poverty  and  the  adverse  cir- 
cumstances that  pioneer  life  always  impose  !  There  seems  to  have 
been  something  inspiring  in  the  grand  old  woods  where  the 
early  days  of  many  of  our  most  distinguished  men  first  saw  the 
light;  and  in  overcoming  the  many  natural  obstacles  always 
encountered  in  new  districts,  high  aspirations  and  a  determina- 
tion to  achieve  grander  results  take  possession  of  the  hardy 
backwoodsman  and  frequently  leads  to  victory,  honor  and 

These  feelings  inspired  Mr.  Barnes,  and  with  indomitable 
energy  he  set  himself  to  earn  the  means  to  educate  himself.  By 
the  most  rigid  economy  and  assiduous  attention  to  his  studies, 
he  acquired  a  good  English  and  mathematical  education  and  con- 


siderable  proficiency  in  the  classics  at  Oberlin  Institute,  Ohio, 
acquisitions  that  he  utilized  in  teaching  and  surveying  until 
1852,  when  he  commenced  the  study  and  practice  of  law  in  which 
he  soon  won  distinction  as  a  sound  legal  adviser  and  laborious 
faithful  advocate. 

As  a  pleader,  Mr.  Barnes  displayed  qualities  which,  if  not 
always  insuring  his  own  success,  were  well  calculated  to  quench 
the  ardor  and  paralyze  the  force  of  his  adversary. 

Carefully  noting,  as  the  cause  proceeded,  the  points  which 
his  antagonist  intended  to  make,  he  would  anticipate  him  and 
tell  the  court  and  jury  precisely  what  his  opponent  would  say, 
frequently  using  the  exact  language  in  which  it  would  be  clothed, 
and  emasculating  the  argument  of  all  points  of  power  before  it 
was  uttered.  He  felt  defeat  intensely  and  seemed  to  suffer  even 
more  than  his  client  the  loss  incurred  by  any  want  of  skill  or 
foresight  in  managing  a  suit,  and  hence  in  all  civil  suits  was 
wary  and  cautious,  always  exacting  a  full,  impartial  statement 
of  the  case  from  his  client  before  taking  it,  and  not  then  unless 
the  evidence,  justice  and  a  reasonable  prospect  of  success  jus- 
tified it. 

In  serving  the  public,  no  matter  in  what  capacity,  his  industry 
and  perseverance  Avere  untiring,  and  he  shares  with  Mr.  Thorp 
the  honor  of  exposing  frauds  in  the  accounts  of  the  Eau  Claire 
county  treasurer  and  of  restoring  the  credit  of  the  county. 

Mr.  Barnes  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1858  and  was  elected  district 
attorney  the  next  year,  1859,  and  county  judge  in  1865;  was  a 
member  of  the  legislature  in  1861  and  1867.  In  politics,  was  a 
steadfast  republican,  and  during  the  war  zealous  and  active  in 
carrying  forward  any  and  every  measure  for  its  prosecution. 

In  his  friendship  he  utterly  ignored  position  or  caste,  and 
wherever  he  found  what  he  considered  a  true  man,  he  was  his 
friend,  but  scorned  obsequious  or  patronizing  airs,  and  was  some- 
times so  impolitic  as  to  prefer  blunt  honesty  to  assumed  gentility. 
In  1872  he  removed  to  Oswego,  Kans.,  with  his  family,  where  he 
now  resides  in  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

Abel  Davis,  who  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Eau  Claire, 
was  born  January  16,  1842,  in  the  town  of  New  Portland,  Maine. 
He  spent  his  early  life  on  a  farm,  receiving  a  common  school 
education,  and  in  January,  1862,  enlisted  in  the  Fourth  Maine 
Battery,  serving  until  August  9,  1862,  when  he  was  wounded  at 
the  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  for  which  he  received  his  honorable 
discharge.  Returning  home  he  resumed  his  former  occupation, 
at  which  he  worked  until  the  spring  of  1868,  when  he  came  to 


Eau  Claire,  Wis.,  and  from  tliat  time  until  1872  labored  in  the 
saw  mills  and  woods.  In  the  last  named  year  he  commenced  the 
study  of  law  in  the  office  of  J.  F.  Ellis  and  later  entered  the  law 
department  of  the  Wisconsin  State  University,  from  M'hieh  he 
graduated  in  1874.  Returning  to  Eau  Claire  he  engaged  in  prac- 
tice with  J.  F.  Ellis,  remaining  in  that  firm  for  five  years,  when, 
on  account  of  ill  health,  he  retired  from  active  practice  and  re- 
turned to  Maine  in  1888.  He  resumed  the  practice  of  law  in 
Pittstield,  JMaine,  where  lie  died  on  October  12,  1905. 

Loren  Edwards,  formerly  a  prominent  attorney  of  Eau  Claire 
and  now  a  resident  of  Oconomowoe,  this  state,  was  born  in  Erie 
county,  Pennsylvania,  on  September  7,  1843,  the  son  of  David 
and  Margaret  Edwards.  His  father  was  born  in  New  Haven, 
Conn.,  and  of  the  same  family  ancestors  as  Jonathan  Edwards. 

Loren  Edwards  received  his  early  education  in  Erie  countj', 
Pennsylvania,  where  he  resided  until  1865.  He  attended  the 
Waterford  Academy  there,  supplementing  that  with  a  course  in 
the  Lawrence  University,  Wisconsin,  and  was  graduated  with  the 
first  class  in  the  Law  Department  of  tlie  State  L'niversity  at 
Madison,  after  which  he  studied  law  for  a  time  in  the  office  of 
Gregory  &  Pinney  in  Madison.  In  1871  he  removed  to  Sacra- 
mento, Cal.,  and  practiced  law  there  for  two  years,  then  came  to 
Eau  Claire  and  practiced  until  1878,  thence  to  Milwaukee,  where 
he  continued  until  1881,  and  from  that  date  until  1886  he  prac- 
ticed in  Allegany  county.  New  York.  He  went  from  there  to 
Kansas,  where  he  practiced  for  ten  years  and  in  the  meantime 
served  as  County  Judge  of  Barber  county.  In  1896  he  moved  to 
Oconomowoe  where  he  has  since  resided,  and  enjoys  a  lucrative 
business.  He  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  Supreme  courts  of 
Wisconsin,  California,  New  York  and  Kansas,  and  to  the  United 
States  Circuit  courts  in  Wisconsin.  With  the  exception  of  his 
partnership  relations  with  Mr.  Stillman,  of  Eau  Claire,  and  with 
Mr.  Westover,  in  Oconomowoe,  he  has  practiced  alone,  and  while 
in  Eau  Claire  he  held  the  office  of  District  Attorney,  and  for  some 
time  was  Municipal  Judge  of  the  Western  District  of  Waukesha 
county,  this  state.  He  served  in  the  United  States  Navy  during 
the  civil  war,  and  is  a  bachelor,  a  Mason  and  a  republican. 

Andrew  Judson  Sutherland,  one  of  the  well  known  lawyers 
of  Eau  Claire,  is  a  native  son  of  Wisconsin,  having  been  born 
in  London,  Dane  county,  this  state,  April  28,  1856.  His  parents, 
Andrew  and  Catherine  (Mc Vicar)  Sutherland,  who  were  natives 
of  New  Brunswick,  Canada,  settled  in  Eau  Claire  county  in  1856, 
the  same  year  our  sub.ject  was  born,  and  located  in  the  town  of 


Union,  where  the  father  purchased  240  acres  of  wild  land,  which 
he  cleared  and  improved,  making  one  of  the  banner  farms  of  the 
township.  He  lived  to  the  ripe  age  of  87  years,  and  died  in  1909. 
His  widow,  mother  of  our  subject,  is  now  (1914)  still  living  at 
the  age  of  90  years.  They  reared  a  family  of  nine  children  as 
follows:  Christinia,  married  Angus  McVicar;  Peter,  George, 
Charles,  John,  Andrew  J.,  Flora  M.  (became  the  wife  of  Austin 
H.  Langdell),  Margaret  and  Neal  Sutherland. 

Mr.  Sutherland  was  reared  on  the  homestead  farm,  spending 
his  boyhood  days  in  much  the  same  way  as  do  most  farmer  boys, 
attending  the  district  school  and  assisting  in  the  farm  work. 
Deciding  to  enter  upon  the  career  of  a  lawyer,  he  entered  the 
law  department  of  the  State  University,  at  Madison,  and  was 
graduated  with  the  class  of  1884.  Soon  after  his  graduation  he 
opened  an  office  in  Eau  Claire  for  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
in  which  he  has  since  successfully  continued. 

On  November  30,  1884,  Mr.  Sutherland  married  Mary  Brown, 

daughter  of  Henry  and (Baker)  Brown,  of  Cambia  county, 

Pennsylvania,  and  has  four  children,  Mary  Elsie,  wife  of  Rollen 
Alcott ;  Laura  Edith,  Bessie  Irene  and  Judson  Clair.  Mr.  Suther- 
land is  a  member  of  the  First  Baptist  Church,  of  which  his  mother 
is  the  only  survivor  of  the  original  members.  Politically  Mr. 
Sutherland  is  a  democrat.  He  was  a  candidate  for  Congress  on 
the  democi'atic  tii'ket  in  1914  for  the  tenth  district. 

LaFayette  M.  Sturdevant,  attorney-at-law,  Eau  Claire,  Wis., 
was  born  in  Warren  county,  Pennsylvania,  September  17,  1856. 
His  parents,  Hiram  N.  and  Sarah  A.  (Reed)  Sturdevant,  were 
both  natives  of  the  Keystone  state  and  of  Holland  Dutch  descent. 
In  1865  they  came  to  Wisconsin  and  settled  in  Clark  county, 
where  the  father  purchased  a  120-acre  tract  of  land,  to  which  he 
subsequently  added  80  more  acres,  all  of  which  he  cleared  and 
improved  with  substantial  buildings  and  the  land  brought  to  a 
good  state  of  cultivation.  Here  he  made  his  home  until  his  death 
in  1888  at  the  age  of  sixty-seven  years.  He  reared  a  family  of 
six  children  as  follows:  LaFayette  M.,  Mary,  wife  of  Amenzo 
Verbeck;  James  E.,  Arthur  H.,  Fred  F.,  and  Almeda. 

LaFayette  M.  was  reared  on  the  farm  from  the  age  of  nine 
years,  and  grew  to  manhood  in  Clark  county,  receiving  his  educa- 
tion in  the  public  schools,  and  taught  school  five  terms  in  that 
county.  At  the  age  of  20,  in  1876,  he  began  the  study  of  law  in 
the  office  of  his  cousin,  J.  R.  Sturdevant,  at  Neillsville,  Wis.,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1878,  when  he  at  once  began  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  with  L.  A.  Doolittle  under  the  firm  name  of 


Doolittle  &  Sturdevant.  At  the  end  of  two  years,  in  1880,  he 
severed  his  connection  with  Mr.  Doolittle  and  entered  into  part- 
nership M'ith  J.  R.  Sturdevant,  forming  the  well-known  firm  of 
Sturdevant  &  Sturdevant,  which  arrangement  continvied  for  eight 
years,  when  the  partnership  was  dissolved,  and  from  1888  to 
1903  Mr.  Sturdevant  practiced  alone  at  Neillsville.  In  the  latter 
year  he  was  elected  attorney  general  of  the  state,  and  re-elected 
in  1905.  Finishing  his  second  term  in  1908,  he  became  attorney 
for  Governor  Davidson,  at  Madison,  holding  that  position  until 
August,  1910,  when  he  located  at  Eau  Claire,  where  he  has  since 
been  in  active  and  successful  practice  of  his  profession  as  a 
member  of  the  firm  of  Sturdevant  &  Farr. 

Mr.  Sturdevant  has  been  twice  married ;  his  first  wife  was 
Minetta,  daughter  of  Orson  and  Euretta  (Hastings)  Bacon,  of 
Neillsville,  Wis.,  by  whom  he  had  three  children,  viz.:  Clarence 
L.,  Hugh.  II.,  and  Viola  E.  The  present  Mrs.  Sturdevant  was 
Mary  E.  "Williams,  daughter  of  Peter  "Williams,  of  Camp  Point,  111. 

In  politics  Mr.  Sturdevant  is  a  republican,  and  as  such  repre- 
sented Clark  county  in  the  legislature  for  two  terms  and  served 
the  same  county  two  terms  as  district  attorney.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Unitarian  Church,  Modern  "Woodmen  of  America  and 
the  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks. 

John  C.  Gores.  Born  March  26,  1857,  at  Oshkosh,  "Wis.  "When 
thirteen  years  old  left  school  to  earn  his  living.  Admitted  to  the 
bar  in  his  native  city  June  26,  1881,  and  thereupon  removed  to 
Eau  Claire,  where  he  has  resided  ever  since.  For  several  years 
a  member  of  the  legal  firm  of  Gores  &  Miner,  afterwards  Gores, 
Frawley  &  Miner.  In  1889  chosen  by  the  Common  Council  alder- 
man of  the  Eighth  "Ward  to  fill  a  vacancy,  which  choice  was 
unanimously  ratified  by  the  people  at  the  following  election. 
Twice  thereafter  elected  alderman,  the  last  time  without  opposi- 
tion.   Served  on  the  School  Board  and  County  Board. 

Since  1890  practiced  law  alone,  specializing  in  office  work 
In  1897  acted  as  referee  to  try  the  case  of  Laycock  vs.  Parker, 
which,  up  to  that  time,  was  the  most  lengthy  ease  tried  in  Eau 
Claire  county.  On  appeal  to  the  supreme  court,  the  case  was 
afiSrmed  and  the  court  in  the  opinion  expressed  its  special  appro- 
bation of  the  manner  in  which  the  trial  was  conducted  by  the 
referee.  In  1897  appointed  as  city  attorney,  to  which  office  there- 
after two  different  proffered  appointments  were  declined. 

In  civic  affairs  and  in  politics  has  always  taken  a  proper 
degree  of  interest.  At  all  times  a  thorough-going,  independent 
and   progressive,   though   not   an   extremist.     Believes   that   the 


spoils  system  tends  to  draw  the  worst  instead  of  the  better  men 
into  politics.  During  the  time  of  the  greenback  and  free  silver 
agitation  in  1877  and  1878,  contributed  newspaper  articles  in 
favor  of  the  resumption  of  specie  pajrment  and  against  free  sil- 
ver. In  the  last  battle  for  silver  in  1896  wrote  a  pamphlet 
entitled  "Honest  Money — An  Essential  in  the  Prosperity  of  the 
Republic."  "Was  the  first  in  the  city  to  advocate  publicly  the 
adoption  of  the  commission  form  of  government  for  cities.  There- 
after visited  Galveston,  Tex.,  where  the  plan  was  first  tried,  to 
observe  its  practical  workings.  In  1905,  when  it  was  proposed 
by  the  governor  in  his  message  to  Wisconsin  legislature  to 
re-establish  the  former  metliod  of  taxing  mortgages,  Mr.  Gores 
opposed  the  proposition  in  an  exhaustive  printed  argument  en- 
titled "The  Taxation  of  Mortgages  with  Reference  to  Northern 
Wisconsin,"  which  was  submitted  to  the  legislature.  The  law 
was  left  unchanged  notwithstanding  the  governor's  attitude. 

Throughout  life  has  been  a  strong  book  lover,  and  acquired 
a  reading  knowledge  of  several  foreign  languages.  June  18,  1890, 
was  married  to  Kate  Schultze,  Avho  has  resided  in  the  city  since 
her  birth. 

Julius  C.  Gilbertson,  a  well-known  lawyer  of  Eau  Claire  and 
member  of  the  legal  firm  of  Larson  &  Gilbertson,  was  born  in  the 
city  of  Eau  Claire,  June  28,  1875,  and  is  a  son  of  Tolof  and  Susan 
(Lamb)  Gilbertson,  both  natives  of  Norway.  The  paternal  grand- 
father of  Julius  C. — Gilbert  Peterson — came  to  the  United  States 
in  1867  and  settled  in  the  state  of  Iowa,  where  lie  resided  until 
his  death.  John  Lamb,  maternal  grandfather  of  Mr.  Gilbertson, 
emigrated  to  the  United  States  and  was  among  the  pioneer  farm- 
ers of  Dunn  county,  Wisconsin,  having  located  there  in  1866, 
where  he  lived  and  died.  Tolof  Gilbertson,  the  father,  who  was 
a  machinist  by  trade,  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1867.  He  was  an 
industrious  and  hard  working  man  and  worked  at  his  trade  at 
the  time  of  his  death  in  1911  at  the  age  of  sixty-three  years.  He 
was  the  father  of  ten  children,  eight  of  whom  are  now  (1914) 
living,  as  follows:  Mary  is  the  wife  of  Charles  Sullivan;  Julius 
C,  Tilla,  now  Mrs.  Vigo  Neilson;  Adolph,  Cora,  Victor,  Robert, 
and  Clarence. 

Julius  C,  whose  whole  life  has  been  spent  in  Eau  Claire, 
acquired  his  elementary  education  in  the  public  schools.  In  1893 
he  matriculated  with  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  at  Madison, 
where  he  spent  four  years,  graduating  from  the  College  of  Letters 
in  the  class  of  1897.     He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Wisconsin. 


In  1898  he  was  elected  judge  of  the  munifipal  court  for  a  term 
of  four  years,  and  in  1902  was  re-elected. 

Judge  Gilbertson  is  a  man  of  ripe  scholarship,  well  grounded 
in  the  fundamental  principles  of  the  law,  with  ability  to  apply 
them  in  practice,  and  both  as  an  office  counsellor  and  a  practi- 
tioner in  court  has  won  most  gratifying  success.  He  is  a  repub- 
lican in  politics.  He  was  a  member  of  the  state  legislature  in 
1911.  He  is  highly  esteemed  for  his  manly  qualities,  and  by  none 
more  than  those  intimately  associated  with  him  who  know  him 
best.  He  is  a  member  of  Eau  Claire  Lodge,  No.  242,  A.  F.  and 
A.  M.,  the  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks,  Modern 
"Woodmen  of  America,  Knights  of  Pythias,  I.  S.  W.  A.,  and  the 
Sons  of  Norway. 

Judge  Gilbertson  married  in  1903  Miss  Jessie  McGrath,  daugh- 
ter of  John  F.  and  Mary  (Burns)  McGrath,  one  of  the  old  and 
highly  respected  families  of  Eau  Claire.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gil- 
bertson have  been  born  two  children — Jocylyn  M.  and  Julius  C- 
Gilbertson,  Jr. 

Joseph  W.  Singleton,  a  proiniiu'ut  incinbt-r  of  the  Eau  Claire 
county  bar,  was  born  in  Louisville,  St.  Lawi'enee  county,  New 
York,  September  8,  1861,  son  of  Peter  and  Ellen  (McCarthy)  Sin- 
gleton, both  natives  of  St.  Lawrence  county.  Thomas  Singleton, 
paternal  grandfather  of  Joseph  W.,  was  a  native  of  England  and 
followed  the  trade  of  ship  carpenter  prior  to  coming  to  the 
LTnited  States,  and  was  a  soldier  in  the  Napoleonic  War.  Emi- 
grating to  America,  he  became  one  of  the  pioneers  of  St.  Lawrence 
county,  New  York,  where  he  engaged  in  farming  and  lived  there 
until  his  death. 

The  maternal  grandfather,  Dennis  McCarthy,  was  a  native  of 
County  Mayo,  Ireland,  and  was  also  a  pioneer  of  St.  Lawrence 
county,  settling  on  Long  Sault  Island,  where  he  resided  until  his 
death  by  drowning  in  Sault  rapids.  Peter  Singleton,  father  of 
Joseph,  was  a  farmer  by  occupation,  and  spent  his  whole  life 
in  the  county  where  he  was  born,  and  died  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
two  years. 

Joseph  W.  was  educated  in  the  common  schools  of  St.  Law- 
rence county,  the  Jesuit  College,  the  Georgetown  University  of 
Washington,  where  he  was  graduated  with  the  degrees  of  bache- 
lor of  philosophy  and  bachelor  of  laws  in  1888.  He  also  after- 
ward taught  school  for  one  year  in  the  St.  Joseph  College,  at 
Burlington,  Vt.,  and  in  October,  1889,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of 
that  state  and  practiced  his  profession  in  Burlington  three  years. 


He  came  west,  and  on  January  4,  1892,  located  in  Eau  Claire, 
where  he  has  since  carried  on  a  successful  practice  of  law.  The 
first  two  years  after  coming  to  Eau  Claire  he  was  connected  with 
the  office  of  the  late  Thomas  F.  Frawley,  and  on  February  1, 
1894,  became  the  first  tenant  in  the  Ingram  Block  where  he  has 
since  had  his  office. 

Mr.  Singleton  was  married  to  Miss  Ellen  Francis,  daughter  of 
Patrick  and  Bridget  (O'Brien)  Gleason,  of  Cylon,  St.  Croix 
county,  Wisconsin,  and  four  children  have  been  born  to  them, 
viz. :  Joseph  W.,  Jr.,  and  Ellen  Geraldine,  twins ;  Lydia  F.  and 
Paul  G.  Mr.  Singleton  is  a  prominent  member  of  St.  Patrick's 
Church,  the  Catholic  Knights  of  Columbus.  He  served  as  city 
attorney  of  Eau  Claire  from  1895  to  1897  and  represented  the 
Sixth  Ward  as  alderman  in  the  Common  Council  for  six  years, 
and  was  municipal  .judge  for  four  years,  and  in  politics  is  a 

Lelon  Ansil  Doolittle,  a  prominent  attorney  of  Eau  Claire,  was 
born  in  Russell,  St.  Lawrence  county,  New  York,  July  22,  1853, 
a  son  of  Ansil,  Jr.,  and  Jane  Ann  (Smith)  Doolittle.  His  great 
grandfather,  Abraham  Doolittle,  was  one  of  five  brothers  who 
were  representative  farmers,  merchants  and  mechanics  of  their 
day  in  the  town  of  Cheshire,  New  Haven  county,  Connecticut. 
The  grandfather,  Ansil  Doolittle,  married  Maria  King,  and  they 
were  the  parents  of  three  sons  and  three  daughters.  The  eldest 
son,  Ansil,  Jr.,  father  of  Lelon  Ansil,  married  Jane  Ann  Smith, 
and  they  were  the  parents  of  three  sons  and  one  daughter;  the 
latter  married  Edgar  E.  Davis.  The  eldest  son,  Marshall  Erwin,  is 
a  practicing  physician.  The  youngest  son,  RoUin  Edson,  is  a 
lawyer,  as  is  also  our  subject. 

Lelon  Ansil  was  reared  on  the  farm,  attended  the  district 
school,  and  at  the  age  of  seventeen  secured  a  second  grade  teach- 
er's certificate  and  made  a  success  as  a  school  teacher.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-two  years  he  had  completed  a  regular  college 
course  and  was  graduated  from  the  St.  Lawrence  University 
with  the  class  of  1875,  paying  his  tuition  by  teaching  as  principal 
of  graded  schools,  selling  subscription  books,  and  farm  laborer. 
The  practice  of  awarding  honors  at  graduation  had  not  then 
been  adopted  in  this  institution,  but  his  good  work  and  conduct 
were  recognized  by  electing  him  to  membership  in  Phi  Beta 
Kappa.  Through  the  influence  of  friends  he  came  to  Wisconsin 
in  1877  and  settled  at  Neillsville,  where,  during  the  summer  of 
that  year,  he  accepted  the  position  as  principal  of  the  high  school 
of  that  city.     After  serving  one  year,  he  resigned  and  entered 


the  law  department  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  finishing  the 
two-year  course  in  one  year.  After  graduating  with  the  class 
of  1879,  he  returned  to  Neillsville  and  was  soon  thereafter  ap- 
pointed county  judge  of  Clark  county.  Up  to  that  time  no 
indexes  had  been  made  of  the  probate  records ;  there  was  no  court 
calendar,  minute  book  nor  court  record  in  the  office ;  all  the  papers 
except  such  as  had  been  lost  or  destroyed  were  in  a  heterogeneous 
mass,  but  within  six  months  every  paper  entitled  to  record  was 
recorded,  and  all  the  records  of  the  office  were  as  complete  and 
as  perfect  as  it  was  possible  to  make  them.  Before  his  term  of 
oifiee  as  judge  had  expired  he  was  elected  county  superintendent 
of  schools,  a  position  he  filled  with  honor  to  himself  and  to  the 
satisfaction  of  his  constituents  until  he  moved  to  Eau  Claire  in 
January,  1885.  While  much  of  his  time  at  Neillsville  was  taken 
up  with  his  official  duties,  he  built  up  and  conducted  a  success- 
ful law  business,  and  in  1879,  in  company  with  Hon.  James 
O'Neill,  founded  the  Neillsville  Times,  which  they  edited  jointly 
until  Judge  Doolittle  moved  to  Eau  Claire,  and  which,  under 
their  management,  became  the  leading  weekly  paper  of  the 

Judge  Doolittle  came  to  Eau  Claire  to  avoid  newspaper  work 
and  politics,  and  after  his  arrival  gave  his  sole  attention  to  the 
practice  of  law,  and  has  since  been  engaged  in  the  general  prac- 
tice of  his  profession.  He  served  as  city  attorney  for  three  years, 
and  for  several  terms  as  president  of  the  Associated  Charities. 
He  has  been  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Eau  Claire  Public  Library 
for  many  years,  and  for  several  terms  has  been  president  of  the 
board.  Since  1903  he  has  been  largely  interested  iu  real  estate 
in  northern  Wisconsin,  being  president  of  the  Traders'  Land  Com- 
pany, which  is  capitalized  at  ."filOjOOO.OO,  and  also  of  the  Guaran- 
teed Investment  Company,  with  a  capital  of  !^76,000.00,  both  of 
which  were  incorporated  in  1904. 

Judge  Doolittle  was  married  May  i,  1880,  to  Bessie  Adams 
Weeks,  daughter  of  Friend  and  Betsey  Maria  (French)  Weeks, 
of  Rutland,  Vt.,  and  they  have  one  adopted  son,  Maxson  Rusk 
Doolittle.  The  judge  is  a  member  of  the  First  Congregational 
Church  of  Eau  Claire. 

Roy  P.  Wilcox  has  made  an  indelible  impression  on  the  public 
life  of  Eau  Claire,  and,  as  a  lawyer,  stands  preeminently  high. 
Tlirough  his  seventeen  years  as  an  active  attorney  he  has  come 
to  be  recognized  as  one  of  the  able  practitioners  of  the  bar  of 

Rov  P.  Wilcox  was  born  in  the  city  of  Eau  Claire,  June  30, 


1873,  and  is  the  son  of  Nelson  C.  and  Angeline  (Tewkesbury) 
Wilcox.  He  is  of  English  and  Irish  lineage  and  comes  of  one  of 
the  oldest  families  in  America,  the  Wilcox  ancestry  dating  back 
to  early  colonial  days.  He  received  his  eai-ly  education  in  the 
public  schools  of  Eau  Claire  and  then  took  a  course  in  the  law 
department  of  Cornell  University,  at  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  graduating  in 
the  class  of  1897.  One  year  previous  to  his  graduation  he  had 
been  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Wisconsin,  and  immediately  after 
leaving  Cornell  he  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  his 
native  city.  On  September  1,  1897,  he  became  a  member  of  the 
law  firm  of  Prawley,  Bundy  &  Wilcox;  since  the  death  of  the 
senior  partner,  July  1,  1902,  the  firm  has  been  Bundy  &  Wilcox. 

Mr.  Wilcox  has  achieved  success  at  a  time  in  life  when  most 
men  are  fortunate  if  they  have  laid  the  foundation  for  success ; 
and  this  has  been  accomplished  by  his  own  ability  and  energy, 
for  he  left  college  not  only  with  exhausted  resources,  but  with 
debts  to  pay.  While  his  success  has  been  due  mainly  to  his  legal 
abilities,  he  has  shown  a  capacity  for  business  that,  of  itself, 
would  have  made  him  a  success  in  commercial  afi'airs,  and  has 
been  connected  with  some  large  projects  that  have  been  man- 
aged most  admirably,  notably  the  water  power  and  utility  prop- 
ei"ties  formerly  owned  by  the  Chippewa  Valley  Railway,  Light 
and  Power  Company,  the  values  of  which  were  greatly  enhanced 
under  the  management  of  this  company,  of  which  he  was  one  of 
the  organizers. 

On  occasions  Mr.  Wilcox  has  been  active  in  public  affairs,  but 
never  as  an  official,  nor  obtrusively.  For  instance,  Eau  Claire 
was  the  first  city  in  Wisconsin  to  adopt  the  commission  form  of 
government,  and  Mr.  Wilcox  was  very  distinctly  connected  with 
the  movement  that  culminated  in  that  result.  He  assisted  in 
drafting  the  bill  providing  for  government  by  commission  in  the 
cities  of  Wisconsin,  and  when  the  bill  was  introduced  in  the 
legislature  he  went  to  Madison  and  worked  for  its  passage. 
Then,  when  the  bill  became  law,  he  took  the  platform  in  Eau 
Claire  to  advocate  the  adoption  of  this  form  of  government  in 
his  home  city,  and  to  his  efforts  is  due,  in  no  small  degree,  the 
fact  that  Eau  Claire  has  its  present  satisfactory  form  of  city 

After  this  he  was  invited  to  other  places  to  address  the  citi- 
zens on  the  new  plan  of  managing  civic  affairs,  with  the  result 
that  the  commission  form  of  government  was  adopted  in  every 
city  he  visited,  with  two  exceptions. 

As  a  lawyer,  Mr.  Wilcox  is  both   a   wise  counsellor  and  an 



exceedingly  able  advocate,  and  his  record  as  a  trial  lawyer  has 
seldom  been  equalled.  He  has  acted  as  attorney  for  railroads 
and  other  corporations  for  years,  defending  them  against  damage 
claims  for  injuries,  losses,  etc.,  and  his  success  has  been  startling, 
considering  that  he  has  had  to  appear  before  juries  on  the  unpopu- 
lar side  of  every  such  case.  He  is  a  forcible,  logical,  impressive 
speaker,  possessing  forensic  qualities  of  a  high  order,  and  a 
manifest  honesty  of  purpose  glowing  in  all  his  efforts  makes  him 
formidable  as  a  pleader  in  any  cause.  During  the  last  fifteen 
years  his  firm  has  appeared  on  one  side  or  the  other  of  most  of 
the  big  legal  cases  in  and  around  Eau  Claire. 

On  June  17,  1903,  Mr.  Wilcox  married  Maria  Louisa,  daughter 
of  Manuel  and  Clementina  (Santander)  de  Freyre,  of  Lima,  Peru, 
South  America.  They  have  two  children,  Louisa  M.  and 
Francis  J. 

Mr.  Wilcox  is  prominently  connected  with  St.  Patrick's  Catho- 
lic Church,  of  Eau  Claire,  the  Knights  of  Columbus,  the  Sons  of 
the  American  Revolution,  the  Benevolent  and  Protective  Order 
of  Elks,  the  American  Bar  Association  and  the  Wisconsin  Bar 
Association,  of  which  he  is  a  member  of  the  committee  on  legal 

Martin  B.  Hubbard,  ex-judge  of  the  county  court,  was  born 
near  London,  Ontario,  Canada,  August  11,  1849.  His  parents, 
Alfred  and  Mary  A.  (Dightou)  Hubbard,  who  were  natives  of 
Jefferson  county,  New  York,  emigrated  to  Eau  Claire  county, 
Wisconsin,  in  1865,  settling  on  a  farm  in  Bridge  Creek  township, 
and  were  among  the  early  pioneers  and  most  progressive  and 
influential  citizens  of  that  town.  The  father  retired  from  active 
farm  duties  at  the  age  of  sixty-five  years  and  moved  to  the  city 
of  Eau  Claire,  where  he  died  on  May  6,  1908,  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
two  years.  His  wife,  mother  of  our  subject,  passed  away  March 
31,  1910,  aged  eighty-four  years.  They  were  both  devoted  mem- 
bers of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  and  were  held  in  the 
highest  esteem  by  all  who  knew  them. 

.  The  original  Hubbard  family  emigrated  from  England  to 
America  and  were  among  the  early  settlers  in  Connecticut.  Mar- 
tin Hubbard,  grandfather  of  Judge  Hubbard,  who  was  a  success- 
ful lumberman  and  manufacturer  in  Canada  during  the  early 
forties,  died  in  1855  at  the  age  of  fifty-five  years.  His  wife, 
Maria  Putnam,  died  in  1866.  Benjamin  Dighton,  maternal  grand- 
father of  our  subject,  also  a  native  of  Jefferson  county.  New  York, 
whose  wife  was  Amanda  Cole,  was  a  prominent  Methodist  clergy- 
man in  Canada. 


Martin  Hubbard  is  the  eldest  of  a  family  of  four  children, 
the  others  being  Amanda,  wife  of  N.  E.  Pride,  of  Otter  Creek 
township,  Eldred,  also  of  Otter  Creek,  and  Elva,  wife  of  J.  H. 
Tifft,  of  Eau  Claire.  Judge  Hubbard  received  his  education  in  the 
public  schools  of  Canada  and  Augusta,  Wis.  He  early  served  as 
town  clerk  of  Bridge  Creek  township,  resigning  that  office  in  1876 
to  enter  the  office  of  the  clerk  of  court,  and  while  thus  engaged 
commenced  the  study  of  law.  In  1883  he  entered  the  office  of 
L.  R.  Larson,  as  clerk,  and  while  in  that  position  performed  the 
duties  of  municipal  judge  under  Larson.  He  was  admitted  to  tlie 
bar  of  Eau  Claire  county  in  1883,  continuing  in  Mr.  Larson's 
office  until  1885,  when  he  entered  upon  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession, in  which  he  has  since  continued.  lie  was  elected  judge 
of  the  county  court  in  1896  and  served  one  term  of  four  years. 
A  republican  in  politics,  he  has  been  a  member  of  the  republican 
central  committee  for  ten  years,  and  for  eight  years  served  as  its 
chairman.  He  has  been  a  member  of  the  board  of  education  eight 
years,  and  president  of  the  same  for  two  years.  Judge  Hubbard 
is  prominently  identified  with  the  commercial  and  financial  inter- 
ests of  Eau  Claire,  being  secretary  of  the  II.  T.  Lange  Company, 
secretary  of  the  Dells  Lumber  Company,  secretary  of  the  Reeds- 
burg  Canning  Company  and  a  member  of  the  board  of  directors 
of  the  Eau  Claire  National  Bank  and  of  the  Eau  Claire  Savings 
Bank.  He  stands  high  in  Masonic  circles,  is  a  member  of  the  Blue 
Lodge,  chapter  and  commandery. 

In  1889  Judge  Hubbard  was  married  at  Augusta,  Wis.,  to 
Miss  Elizabeth  Reed,  daughter  of  William  and  Elizabeth 

William  W.  Downs,  who  ranks  among  the  influential,  success- 
ful progressive  members  of  the  bar  of  Eau  Claire  county,  Wis- 
consin, was  born  in  Menomonie,  Dunn  county.  Wis.,  November  7, 
1851.  His  parents,  Burhee  and  Laura  J.  (Dunn)  Downs,  were 
natives  of  eastern  Maine,  and  pioneers  of  Dunn  county,  having 
sctth'd  at  Menomonie  in  1849,  where  the  father  engaged  in  the 
hnuber  business  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Knapp,  Stout  &  Com- 
pany. He  later  was  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Carson,  Rend  & 
Company,  and  then  for  a  number  of  years  was  engaged  in  busi- 
ness alone.  After  a  residence  in  Eau  Claire  of  a  decade  or  more, 
he  died  in  about  the  year  1888  at  the  age  of  seventy-four. 

William  W.  Downs  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1868,  receiving  his 
primary  education  in  the  public  schools  of  the  city.  He  after- 
wards entered  the  University  of  Wisconsin  and  was  graduated 
from  tlie  law  department  in  1874.    He  commenced  the  practice  of 


law  the  same  year  at  Eau  Claire,  where  he  successfully  continued 
until  1886,  when  he  removed  to  Bayfield  county,  "Wisconsin,  and 
was  there  actively  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession  until 
1913,  then  returned  to  Eau  Claire  and  resumed  his  practice  there. 
Mr.  Downs  is  a  careful  and  conscientious  student  of  the  law,  and 
in  his  practice  employs  the  force  of  a  clear,  logical  and  judicial 
mind,  thoroughly  disciplined  and  trained  by  varied  experiences 
of  his  forty  years  of  study  and  practice. 

In  June,  1874,  he  was  wedded  to  Alice  Daniels,  a  native  of 
Ohio.  Mr.  Downs  is  an  attendant  and  supporter  of  the  Lake 
Street  Methodist  church,  is  a  member  of  the  Bayfield  Lodge  Free 
and  Accepted  Masons,  and  a  member  of  the  Royal  Arch  Masons 
of  Eau  Claire.  While  a  resident  of  Bayfield,  he  served  one  term 
as  district  attitrney  for  Bayfield  county. 

George  J.  Losby,  who  is  one  of  the  promising  young  lawyers 
of  Eau  Claire,  was  born  in  that  city  June  30,  1873.  His  parents, 
John  and  Christian  Losby,  were  born  in  Norway  and  emigrated 
to  the  United  States  in  the  late  sixties.  They  settled  in  Eau 
Claire,  where  the  father  was  variously  employed  by  different  lum- 
ber companies  up  to  the  time  of  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1901. 
George  J.,  the  only  son  in  tlic  family,  grew  to  manhood  in  this 
city,  obtaining  his  education  in  the  public  schools  and  in  the  Eau 
Claire  Business  College,  and  for  six  years  held  a  position  as  law 
stenographer.  He  began  the  study  of  law  in  1894  in  the  offices 
of  Judge  William  F.  Bailey  and  L.  A.  Doolittle.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1897  and  in  1901  was  elected  clerk  of  the  court,  serv- 
ing in  that  capacity  five  consecutive  terms  or  a  period  of  ten 
years,  and  since  1910  has  been  in  the  active  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession. He  married  in  1901  Miss  Josephine  Hansen,  of  Eau 
Claire,  and  two  children  have  been  born :    Alden  and  Idele  Losby. 

Mr.  Losby  is  a  member  of  the  Norwegian  Lutheran  church 
and  the  I.  S.  W.  A.  Before  the  Eau  Claire  city  government  went 
on  the  commission  form  basis  he  represented  tlic  Eighth  ward  in 
the  city  council  four  years. 

Chajles  T.  Bundy,  member  of  the  well  known  law  firm  of 
Bundy  &  Wilcox,  was  born  in  Menomonie,  Wis.,  March  2,  1862, 
son  of  the  late  Judge  Egbert  B.  and  Reubena  (Macauley)  Bundy. 
The  father  was  born  at  Windsor,  N.  Y.,  the  son  of  Dr.  0.  T. 
Bundy,  of  Deposit,  that  state.  The  mother  was  born  in  Glasgow, 
Scotland,  a  daughter  of  William  and  Margaret  Macauley. 

Charles  T.  grew  to  manhood  in  Menomonie  and  there  resided 
until  he  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1894.  He  was  educated  in  the 
public  schools  of  his  home  rity  and  IMadison.  graduating  from  the 


law  department  of  the  State  university  and  was  admitted  to  prac- 
tice in  all  the  courts  of  the  state,  both  state  and  federal,  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  courts  of  appeals  in  Chicago, 
St.  Louis  and  San  Francisco.  He  commenced  his  practice  at  West 
Superior  in  partnership  with  C.  R.  Fridley  until  he  formed  a 
partnership  with  T.  F.  Frawley  and  Roy  P.  Wilcox  in  1897,  under 
the  name  of  Frawley,  Bundy  &  Wilcox,  which  business  arrange- 
ment continued  until  the  death  of  Mr.  Frawley  in  1902.  Since 
that  time  he  has  been  associated  with  Mr.  Wilcox  under  the  firm 
name  of  Bundy  &  Wilcox.  Mr.  Bundy  has  been  connected  with 
much  important  litigation,  among  wliich  may  be  mentioned  the 
following  cases :  Harrigan  vs.  Gilchrist,  United  States  vs.  Barber 
Lumber  Company  et  al.,  the  Eau  Claire  National  Bank  vs.  Jack- 
man  in  the  United  States  Supreme  Coiu-t,  and  water  power  cases 
in  Wisconsin,  including  the  famous  Dells  case. 

On  October  22,  1890,  Mr.  Bundy  married  Miss  May  Kelley, 
daughter  of  John,  Jr.,  and  Cornelia  (Drawley)  Kelley,  of  Menom- 
onie.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bundy  have  been  born  four  children,  viz. : 
Nell  R.,  Katherine  M.,  Egbert  B.  and  Lillian,  the  youngest  of 
which  died  in  1910.  Religiously  Mr.  Bundy  affiliates  with  the 
Episcopal  church,  while  fraternally  and  socially  he  is  a  member 
of  the  Knights  of  Pythias  and  the  Benevolent  and  Protective 
Order  of  Elks. 

Robert  D.  Whitford,  attorney-at-law,  was  born  in  Jefferson 
county.  New  York,  July  2,  1851,  son  of  Edward  W.  and  Clarinda 
(Odell)  Whitford.  Edward  Whitford,  paternal  grandfather  of 
Robert  D.,  was  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Rensselaer  county, 
New  York,  and  one  of  the  pioneer  farmers  of  Jefferson  county, 
that  state,  where  he  settled  in  1833  and  died  in  1862,  aged  84 
years.  Robert  S.  Odell,  the  maternal  grandfather,  was  a  farmer 
of  Rensselaer  county.  New  York,  where  he  died.  The  father  of 
Mr.  Whitford  farmed  for  several  years  in  Jefferson  county,  and 
later  in  Fayette  county,  Illinois,  where  he  died  in  1892. 

Jlr.  Whitford  was  reared  in  his  native  county,  coming  to 
Wisconsin  in  1869.  He  located  at  Milton.  He  took  a  classical 
course  in  Milton  college,  read  law  in  the  office  of  Bennett  &  Sale, 
at  Janesville,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  November,  1878, 
after  which  he  located  at  Menomonie  January  1,  1880.  He  prac- 
ticed there  until  1893,  M^ien  he  went  to  Superior,  and  on  Septem- 
ber 1,  1899,  located  at  Eau  Claire.  He  married  September  4,  1882, 
Miss  Anna  Shaw  West,  a  niece  of  the  late  Daniel  Shaw,  and  they 
have  two  children. 


George  L.  Blum,  Judge  of  the  County  Court  of  Eau  Claire 
county,  was  born  October  6,  1869,  at  Eau  Claire,  "Wisconsin.  He 
received  his  education  in  the  public  schools  of  Eau  Claire  and  at 
the  University  of  Wisconsin,  gradviating  from  the  law  depart- 
ment in  1893,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  the  same  year.  In 
February,  1895,  he  formed  a  partnership  in  Eau  Claire  with  John 
B.  Fleming  under  the  firm  name  of  Fleming  &  Blum,  which 
arrangement  continued  until  January  1,  1908,  since  which  time 
he  has  practiced  alone.  He  was  elected  Judge  of  the  County  Court 
in  April,  1901,  and  is  now — 1914 — serving  his  fourth  term  of  six 

Judge  Blum  married  Margaret  D.  McGillis,  of  Eau  Claire,  and 
they  are  the  parents  of  three  children :  Genevieve  F.,  Margaret 
G.  and  George  L.,  Jr. 

John  Bernard  Fleming,  mayor  of  Eau  Claire,  was  born  in  the 
village  of  this  name,  June  27,  1866,  to  Michael  and  Catherine 
Fleming,  and  is  of  Irish  descent.  His  father  was  born  in  Buffalo, 
New  York,  and  his  mother  in  Washington  county,  AVisconsin. 
They  settled  in  Eau  Claire  in  1865. 

Mayor  Fleming  was  educated  in  the  parochial  and  public 
schools,  entered  the  law  office  of  Levi  M.  Vilas  in  1884,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  law  department  of  the  Minnesota  State  Uni- 
versity, and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  state  and  federal 
courts  of  Minnesota  in  1889,  and  to  the  state  and  federal  courts 
of  Wisconsin  in  1891.  He  became  cashier  of  the  Union  Savings 
bank  of  Eau  Claire,  and  secretary  of  the  Union  Mortgag-e  &  Loan 
Company  in  1907,  resigning  when  elected  mayor  in  1910  for  a 
term  of  six  years,  and  is  the  first  mayor  of  Eau  Claire  and  Wis- 
consin to  serve  under  the  new  commission  form  of  government. 
He  was  associated  in  practice  with  George  L.  Blum  for  ten  years, 
M-as  private  secretary  for  Hon.  William  F.  Vilas  1891  and  1892 ; 
register  of  the  United  States  land  office  in  Eau  Claire  1895-1900. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Elks,  the  Knights  of  Columbus  and  St. 
Patrick's  church.  He  married  Edith  S.  Robinson  at  Milwaukee, 
December  12,  1894,  and  has  one  daughter — Edith  Marion. 

Joseph  C.  Culver  was  born  in  Eau  Claire,  July  26,  1880,  the 
son  of  Joseph  C.  and  Emma  (Kern)  Culver.  He  was  educated  in 
St.  Jolin"s  Military  Academy,  Delafield,  Wisconsin,  and  at  the 
Cornell  University  at  Ithaca,  New  York.  He  was  married  Novem- 
ber 8,  1905,  to  Miss  Mary  McDonough,  of  Eau  Claire. 

Henry  McBain,  attorney-at-law  and  judge  of  the  Municipal 
Court  of  Eau  Claire,  was  born  in  St.  Lawrence  county,  New  York, 
September  3,  1857,  the  son  of  John  and  Mary  (Fisher)  McBain, 


and  is  of  Scotch  descent.  He  acquired  an  academical  education 
at  Canton,  New  York,  and  came  to  Eau  Claire  county  in  1871, 
locating  at  Augusta,  where  for  several  years  he  was  clerk  in  the 
postoffice.  Associated  with  others  he  was  for  three  years  engaged 
in  merchandising  at  Augusta.  He  was  elected  clerk  of  the  Circuit 
Court  and  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1885.  For  sixteen  years  he 
served  as  clerk  of  the  court,  during  which  time  he  studied  law 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  September  3,  1898,  and  since  1910 
has  served  as  municipal  judge.  He  married  Emma  B.  Crawford, 
of  Augusta,  and  has  two  children — Gladys  and  Mabel.  Judge 
McBain  is  a  member  of  the  A.  F.  and  A.  M.,  the  R.  A.  M.  and 
Knights  Templar. 

Burt  E.  Deyo  was  born  in  Peru,  Huron  county,  Ohio,  son  of 
Erastus  and  Salome  (Mauley)  Deyo.  The  father  was  born  in 
New  York  state  and  descended  from  the  Huguenots,  while  the 
mother  was  born  in  Ohio  of  English  ancestry. 

Burt  E.  was  educated  at  Oberlin  College  and  the  law  depart- 
ment of  Harvard  University ;  read  law  in  the  oiRee  of  Bartlett  & 
Hayden,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1882,  and  to  practice  in  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  state  in  ]  900. 

The  foregoing  list  is  not  complete.  We  have  endeavored  to 
make  it  complete,  but  many  who  are  now  living  at  Eau  Claire 
have  neglected  to  furnish  the  proper  data  from  which  personal 
mention  could  be  made,  while  some  others  have  died,  and  still 
many  others  have  moved  away,  and  we  have  not  been  able  with 
reasonable  eifort  to  reach  them. 

Among  those  omitted  may  be  mentioned  Texas  Angel,  Abel 
W.  H.  Frawley,  Frank  R.  Farr,  De  Alton  Thomas,  A.  C.  Larson, 
A.  H.  Shoemaker,  E.  M.  Bradford,  Heman  Day,  T.  F.  Frawley,  Jr., 
V.  W.  James. 

In  the  early  days  the  practice  of  law  was  not  very  remunera- 
tive, and  the  strict  method  of  procedure  and  decorum  was  not 
always  observed.  It  was  within  the  province  of  the  judge  to 
admit  applicants  to  membership  of  the  bar.  Judge  Fuller  was 
very  accommodating  in  performing  this  part  of  his  official  duty. 
It  was  not  by  him  deemed  essential  that  the  applicant  should 
have  even  read  or  looked  into  a  law  book.  All  that  he  required 
was  that  some  members  of  the  bar  move  the  admission  of  the 
applicant,  and  with  one  exception  the  motion  was  granted. 
Hence  we  had  a  number  of  members  of  the  bar  not  mentioned 
in  the  foregoing  statement  who  never  read  or  practiced  law, 
among  which  were  R.  F.  Wilson,  James  Gray,  Captain  Seeley  and 


some  others  whose  names  I  do  not  now  remember.  The  excep- 
tion was  Arthur  Delaney,  who  edited  a  paper  on  the  west  side. 
His  admission  was  moved  by  Alexander  Meggett.  Evidently  the 
judge  Avas  not  in  a  receptive  mood,  or  else  nourished  a  grievance 
against  Delaney.  The  judge  promptly  denied  the  application. 
When  asked  for  a  reason  he  replied  that  Delaney  was  drunk. 
The  young  Irishman's  ire  was  aroused;  he  felt  he  had  not  only 
been  abused  but  grossly  insulted.  Quick  as  a  flash  he  came  back 
with  the  retort:  "Judge  Fuller,  you  are  so  drunk  yourself  you 
cannot  get  off  the  chair."  The  judge  called  upon  the  sheriff  to 
put  him  out.  Delaney,  as  he  was  being  forced  through  the  door 
by  the  obedient  sheriff,  turned  and  addressing  the  indignant 
judge,  said:  "Judge  Fuller,  I  am  going  over  to  my  ofSce  and  I 
will  write  an  article  about  you  which  will  cut  a  wound  so  deep 
that  even  whiskey  won't  heal.'"  And  he  did.  It  is  not  improb- 
able that  the  judge  was  somewhat  under  the  influence  of  ardent 
spirits,  which,  if  reports  are  true,  lie  was  addicted  to  their  use 
in  no  slight  degree. 

Delaney  was  quite  a  character  in  some  respects.  He  was  able, 
even  brilliant,  and  possessed  a  genuine  Irish  wit  to  a  considerable 
degree.  He  was  an  ardent  democrat  and  so  was  Dr.  W.  T.  Gallo- 
way. Democrats  in  those  days  were  about  as  scarce  as  hens' 
teeth.  The  congressional  district  was  very  large,  with  scattered 
settlements  here  and  there,  and  in  the  northwestern  part  of  it 
Pepin  and  Prescott  on  the  Mississippi  river  were  the  most  promi- 
nent. Delaney  and  Galloway,  with  the  latter 's  team,  started  to 
attend  the  convention  at  Pepin,  some  sixty  miles  west.  They 
had  an  ample  supply  of  democratic  enthusiasm  with  them.  Every- 
thing went  along  well  until  they  reached  a  point  somewhere  near 
Fall  City,  when  a  dispute  arose,  and  the  doctor,  being  a  powerful 
man,  weighing  over  two  hundred  pounds,  and  Delaney  rather 
slight  in  build,  threw  Delaney  out  of  the  buggy  and  started  on 
without  him.  Delaney,  not  daunted  by  this  little  mishap,  trudged 
on  on  foot,  occasionally  catching  a  short  ride,  reached  the  con- 
vention just  as  it  was  about  to  adjourn.  He  was  granted  the 
privilege  of  addressing  that  body,  and  in  the  course  of  his  remarks 
explained  why  it  was  that  his  arrival  was  so  late.  In  eloquent 
words  he  stated  how  the  doctor  and  himself  had  started  out  from 
Eau  Claire  full  of  enthusiasm  and  of  mind  socially  and  politically ; 
how  a  disagreement  occurred  over  some  slight  matter,  how  the 
doctor  forcibly  ejected  him  from  the  buggy;  of  his  long  and 
weary  march  to  reach  the  convention,  and  added:  "Gentlemen 
of  the  convention,  that  was  a  contest.     It  was  a  contest  between 


stomach  and  brains,  and  stomach  was  ahead."  Ever  afterward, 
if  you  wanted  to  arouse  the  ire  of  the  genial  doctor,  all  that  was 
necessary  was  to  refer  to  the  closing  remarks  of  Delaney. 

A  special  term  for  the  whole  district  was  provided  by  law  to 
be  held  at  Prescott,  in  the  extreme  northwest  corner  of  the  state, 
in  the  month  of  July.  There  was  no  railway  then  from  Eau 
Claire,  and  the  Eau  Claire  lawyers  having  business  before  the 
court  were  obliged  to  journey  by  team,  usually  a  two  days'  drive. 
One  morning  Messrs.  Meggett,  Cousins,  H.  Clay  Williams  and 
the  Avriter  started  for  Prescott  to  attend  the  July  term.  We  got 
started  a  little  late  owing  to  the  fact  that  we  had  to  wait  a  long 
time  for  Mr.  Cousins.  His  tardiness,  however,  was  explained  by 
a  statement  of  the  fact  that  the  night  before  a  baby  boy  had  come 
to  gladden  his  household,  and  thus  Marshall,  his  first  born,  was 
ushered  into  the  world.  It  is  needless  to  state  that  his  tardiness 
was  excused.  The  first  night  we  stopped  at  Brookville,  near 
Hersey,  a  stage  station  on  the  road  from  Eau  Claire  to  Hudson, 
if  I  remember  right.  It  was  about  dusk,  as  we  drove  up;  the 
keeper  of  the  stable  came  out  with  a  lantern  and  was  engaged  in 
assisting  to  i;nliitch  the  team,  when  Meggett  asked  him  the  ques- 
tion: "Say,  how  many  votes  did  I  get  in  this  town  for  senator? 
My  name  is  Meggett."  The  stable  keeper,  thinking  for  a 
moment,  replied:  "I  guess  you  got  two."  Meggett  indignantly 
retorted:  "Well,  if  that  is  the  case,  we  will  drive  on  to  the  next 
station."  That  he  would  not  stay  over  night  in  a  town  where 
he  got  only  two  votes.  This  was  met  by  the  statement  from  the 
stable  keeper:  "If  I  was  in  your  place  I  wouldn't  mind.  You 
didn't  get  any  votes  in  that  town." 

It  was  Judge  Humphrey's  first  year  upon  the  bench.  We 
returned  by  the  way  of  Hudson  and  were  the  guests  that  evening 
of  the  judge  and  his  estimable  wife.  She  was  a  most  devout 
Christian  lady,  and  in  the  course  of  the  evening,  addressing  her- 
self to  Mr.  Williams,  inquired  if  he  was  a  member  of  the  church, 
and  he,  without  even  the  slightest  hesitation,  replied:  "Yes,  of 
the  Episcopal  church."  If  he  had  ever  been  inside  of  the  church 
no  one  ever  had  any  recollection  of  it.  She  further  inquired  if 
he  was  a  member  of  the  Bible  class,  to  which  he  replied  that  he 
was  its  leader.  She  was  much  interested  and  pursued  her 
inquiries  as  to  whether  many  of  the  prominent  residents  of  Eau 
Claire  belonged  to  the  class,  and,  without  even  a  smile,  he  replied, 
"Most  of  them,"  mentioning  Cal  Spafl'ord,  Jan  Gray,  Dick  Wil- 
cox and  several  others.  To  fully  appreciate  the  cheek  of  Williams 
under  the  circumstances  a  person  would  have  to  be  acquainted 


with  the  habits  of  himself  and  those  he  mentioned  as  members  of 
his  Bible  class.  The  judge  was  a  great  humorist  and  enjoyed  a 
practical  joke.  It  was  amusing  to  observe  his  efforts  to  keep  his 
face  straight  while  Williams  was  thus  responding  to  Mrs.  Hum- 
phrey's inquiries. 

Another  incident  then  I  have  done,  although  there  were  many 
of  a  somewhat  similar  character  that,  occurred  in  those  days 
wliich  would  today  shock  the  dignity  of  courts  if  indulged  in. 

At  Judge  Humphrey's  first  term  at  Chippewa  Falls,  Judge 
Wiltse,  a  long  time  justice  of  the  peace,  applied  for  admission 
to  the  bar.  The  judge  appointed  Mr.  Cousins,  Meggett  and  the 
writer  as  a  committee  to  examine  him  in  open  court  as  to  his 
((ualitii-atioiis.  The  court  was  held  in  Mitchell's  Hall,  if  I  recol- 
lect i(iric(tly ;  at  any  rate  it  was  in  a  hall  over  the  corner  drug 
store  formerly  kept  by  Harry  Goddard.  There  was  no  court 
house  then.  The  room  was  full  to  overflowing,  as  almost  the 
entire  population,  as  was  usual,  were  present.  Andrew  Gregg, 
Jr.,  was  district  attorney  and  the  only  resident  lawyer.  Some 
farmer  who  owned  a  pair  of  mules  had  hitched  them  immediately 
in  front  of  the  hall.  While  the  committee  in  the  presence  of  the 
court  was  proceeding  with  great  dignity  in  interrogating  Mr. 
Wiltse  one  of  the  mules  set  up  an  unearthly  bray.  Mr.  Gregg, 
wlio  was  in  the  back  end  of  the  hall,  immediately  addressed  the 
court :  ' '  Hold  on  !  Hold  on  !  There  is  another  jackass  that  wants 
to  be  admitted."'  It  seems  that  Mr.  Gregg  liad  no  liking  for 
Mr.  Wiltse. 


As  far  back  as  history  takes  us  we  fiud  that  as  soon  as  meu 
began  to  dAvell  together  in  the  primitive  tribe  there  was  one  of 
this  number  who  was  known  as  the  "Medicine  Man."  In  Biblical 
times  people  lived  to  be  much  older  than  now,  and  were  evidently 
not  as  much  subject  to  sickness  and  disease,  so  our  medicine  man 
could  serve  many,  but  sooner  or  later  sickness  has  overtaken  all 
and  then  they  seek  the  aid  of  one  who  knows  something  of  the 
healing  art.  In  those  primitive  times  the  healers  sought  to  cure 
people  by  charms  and  by  driving  away  the  evil  spirits  through 
noises,  and  thus  they  beat  on  drums  and  sang  songs.  This  primi- 
tive idea  has  not  altogether  disappeared  to  the  present  day,  as 
witnessed  by  Dowieism  and  other  cults,  who  maintain  that  disease 
is  the  work  of  the  devil,  who  must  first  be  driven  out  before  the 
person  can  get  well. 

Following  the  idea  of  charming  awa.y  disease  came  the  dia- 
tetic  idea,  in  which  health  was  to  be  maintained  only  through 
the  eating  of  certain  foods  and  avoiding  others.  This  was  exem- 
plified by  the  Jewish  race. 

Next  we  come  to  the  physiologic  period,  when  the  functions 
of  the  various  organs  were  paramount,  and  the  symptoms  they 
produced  were  the  sole  thing  to  be  regarded  in  treating  disease. 
To  a  certain  extent  this  is  used  to  the  present  day,  but  we  have 
added  to  it  the  etiologic  period  of  medicine,  in  which  we  endeavor 
to  discover  the  cause  of  the  disordered  function  of  any  organ. 
This  has  been  made  possible  only  through  the  vast  laboratory 
researches  that  have  been  carried  out  during  the  past  fifty  years, 
by  the  discovery  of  bacteria  and  by  animal  experiments  to  deter- 
mine the  part  the  bacteria  play  in  man's  anatomy.  Also  in  the 
discovery  of  the  cell  or  unit  of  which  our  body  is  composed  and 
observing  the  changes  that  occur  in  these  cells  as  the  result  of 
disease.  Thus  it  is  that  medicine  has  changed  from  an  act  to  a 
science.  It  has  not  reached  the  pinnacle  of  an  exact  science,  but 
it  is  approaching  that  goal.  When  we  consider  how  we  have  con- 
quered many  of  the  dread  diseases,  as  diphtheria,  typhoid  fever, 
malaria,  etc.,  and  robbed  them  of  their  terror  through  the  knowl- 
edge of  their  cause  and  the  application  of  the  one  and  the  only 


thing  that  will  destroy  that  particular  cause,  then  we  begin  to 
realize  what  is  being  accomplished  in  modern  medicine. 

The  Panama  canal  stands  not  only  as  a  monument  to  the  skill 
and  energy  of  American  engineers,  but  even  more  to  the  glory 
of  American  physicians.  DeLesseps'  failure  was  not  due  to  a 
lack  of  skill  or  courage  on  his  part,  but  to  yellow  fever  and 
malaria.  The  medical  profession  has  paved  the  way  for  this  great 
undertaking  by  discovering  and  proving  that  certain  mosquitos 
are  responsible  for  the  spread  of  both  these  dread  disease,  but 
not  until  two  loyal  and  unselfish  physicians,  Carroll  and  Lazear, 
had  given  their  lives  to  prove  this.  Today  we  know  that  if  we 
destroy  the  mosquito  we  can  stamp  out  yellow  fever  and  malaria. 
As  a  result  of  the  energies  of  the  American  physicians  the  Canal 
Zone,  with  its  heterogeneous  population,  has  been  made  more 
healthy  than  New  York  City. 

When  Eau  Claire  county  was  first  organized  and  began  to  be 
settled  the  etiologic  phase  of  medicine  was  unknown.  All  the 
diseases  we  now  know  were  known  then  and  were  perfectly 
described  except  for  their  cause,  and  armed  with  this  knowledge 
the  pioneer  doctors  came  into  this  wilderness  and  worked  hard 
and  faithfully  in  the  endeavor  to  relieve  the  suffering  of  their 
fellow  men.  There  being  but  few  doctors  in  this  section  the 
mother  of  the  family  applied  "home  remedies"  as  long  as  she 
could  before  sending  for  a  doctor,  who  often  came  too  late.  There 
was,  therefore,  great  rejoicing  when  the  first  doctor  came  into 
the  county  and  cast  his  lot  with  those  early  pioneers.  The  people 
were  scattered  and  drives  were  long  and  hard,  especially  in  the 
Manter.  In  those  days  there  were  not  the  fine  roads  we  have  now. 
but  one  had  to  pick  his  way  around  stumps,  over  logs  and  through 
creeks.  Many  times  the  doctor  had  to  go  afoot  or  on  horseback 
because  the  roads  would  not  permit  the  use  of  a  buggy.  Without 
the  telephone  a  man  had  to  drive  for  the  doctor,  and  if  he  lived 
twenty  or  thirty  miles  away  the  doctor  could  not  get  there  until 
the  next  day.  Many  trips  were  so  long  that  it  required  two  days 
to  make  the  trip  and  return.  The  people  were  very  poor  and 
were  unable  to  pay  more  than  a  very  meager  compensation  or 
nothing  at  all  for  the  services  rendered.  However,  those  early 
men  cared  not  for  that,  they  went  and  did  all  they  could  to  relieve 
the  suffering.  They  often  had  to  act  as  nurse  as  well  as  physician. 
They  sat  by  the  sick  bed  for  long  weary  hours  to  see  whether  the 
spark  of  life  was  going  to  be  snuffed  out  or  would  take  on  added 
vigor  and  begin  to  burn  anew.  They  were  the  recipients  of  family 
secrets  and  their  advice  was  sought  in  times  of  trouble.     They 


healed  and  soothed  the  troubled  mind,  soul  and  body  with  their 
cheerful  words,  kindly  advice,  or  some  simple  decoction.  Is  it 
any  wonder  that  they  gained  a  place  in  the  hearts  of  the  people 
that  could  not  be  supplanted,  and  as  long  as  they  were  able  to 
drag  one  foot  were  sought,  and  no  one  else  would  do  but  the 
old  family  doctor? 

As  preachers  and  lawyers  were  equally  scarce,  the  doctor  was 
called  upon  to  perform  the  services  of  both,  and  was  held  to  be 
thoroughly  competent.  In  those  days  there  were  no  specialists, 
so  the  family  doctor  administered  to  all  ailments.  Today  certain 
men  specialize  on  different  parts  of  the  body,  and  become  more 
expert  in  dealing  with  that  part.  They  are  thus  enabled  to  give 
the  people  better  service,  but  in  order  to  do  this  they  have  sacri- 
ficed much  in  the  love  and  esteem  in  which  they  were  held  in  the 
hearts  of  the  people.  Who  would  think  of  going  to  an  eye 
specialist  or  an  abdominal  surgeon  with  his  family  troubles  and 
expect  sympathy  and  advice?  The  days  of  the  old-time  family 
physician  are  past.  To  be  sure  we  still  have  the  general  prac- 
titioner who  looks  after  the  general  sickness  in  the  family,  and  is 
ready  to  call  the  aid  of  some  one  especially  skilled  when  needed. 
Indeed  this  must  be  so  when  we  considered  what  is  being  done 
all  around  us.  Some  wealthy  men,  as  John  D.  Rockefeller  and 
McCormick,  have  given  large  sums  of  money  to  establish  research 
laboratories,  to  equip  them,  and  to  pay  men  to  devote  their  whole 
lives  to  the  study  of  one  disease,  as  infantile  paralysis,  etc. 

Some  men  are  devoting  their  lives  and  energies  to  performing 
and  perfecting  surgical  operations,  so  that  today  there  is  not  a 
single  organ  of  the  body  that  is  not  the  subject  of  operation.  And 
then  there  is  the  pathologist  and  physiologist,  who  works  in  the 
laboratory  experimenting  with  animals  to  ascertain  the  cause  of 
disease  and  its  treatment  before  applying  the  same  to  man  (yet 
there  are  those  who  would  say  do  not  experiment  with  animals 
in  order  to  learn  how  to  save  a  human  life,  but  rather  let  men 
die).  When  we  consider  these  and  the  many  more  departments 
of  medicine,  with  all  the  accumulating  knowledge,  it  is  no  wonder 
that  one  poor  man  cannot  master  them  all. 

About  the  only  thing  that  keeps  alive  the  old  spark  of  grati- 
tude and  love  for  the  general  practitioner  is  his  obstetrics.  He 
who  stands  beside  a  woman  during  her  suffering  and  comforts 
her  and  encourages  her  in  her  great  and  holy,  yet  trying  mission, 
of  bringing  a  new  soul  into  the  world  endears  himself  to  her  in 
a  way  that  is  not  easily  forgotten  or  cast  aside.    What  a  pleasure 


it  is  and  what  gratitude  one  receives  only  he  who  has  had  the 
experience  knows. 

The  doctor's  life  must  be  an  unselfish  one,  for  how  often  is 
he  aroused  from  a  sound  sleep  or  disturbed  while  at  a  meeting,  a 
social  gathering,  to  go  and  relieve  the  suffering.  If  he  is  fortu- 
nate enough  to  make  a  discovery  or  invent  some  new  instrument 
he  does  not  hurry  to  the  patent  office  to  protect  himself  and 
enrich  his  purse,  but  gladly  gives  his  knowledge  to  his  brothers 
for  the  good  of  mankind.  This  has  been  handed  down  to  him 
from  the  days  of  Hippocrates  that  he  is  in  honor  bound  to  impart 
all  good  knowledge  to  his  worthy  brother  practitioners.  Neither 
does  he  go  to  the  newspaper  office  that  his  fame  may  be  heralded 
abroad,  but  rather  spreads  the  glad  tidings  only  among  those 
who  will  be  able  to  use  them.  And  many  is  the  doctor,  whose' 
epitaph  has  overtaken  him,  long  before  his  good  works  are  known. 
Grant,  Sherman  and  Napoleon  are  household  names,  because  they 
have  commanded  armies  and  lead  many  men  to  death,  while 
Pasteur,  Koch,  Virchon,  Seun,  Billings,  and  hosts  of  others  are 
hardly  known,  and  yet  for  every  life  the  generals  have  sacrificed 
these  men  have  saved  hundreds.  Few  people  know  what  a  debt 
they  owe  to  Lord  Lister,  when  he  discovered  that  by  the  use  of 
antiseptic,  surgical  operations  could  be  performed  without  being 
followed  by  the  dread  hospital  gangrene  or  suppuration.  This, 
together  wuth  the  i;se  of  anesthesia,  has  enabled  the  surgeon  to 
go  fearlessly  at  his  task,  and  thus  Darwin's  law  of  the  "survival 
of  the  fittest"  no  longer  applies. 

As  there  were  no  large  cities  in  this  county,  hospitals  were 
slow  to  make  their  appearance,  and  the  doctors  were  compelled 
to  perform  many  operations  in  private  houses,  which  they  did 
with  the  skill  and  success  of  their  more  fortunate  brethren  at 
the  hospital  in  the  cities. 

A  doctor  not  only  devotes  his  time  and  energies  to  the  study 
of  cause  and  treatment  of  disease,  but  places  before  himself  the 
higher  ideal  of  preventive  medicine.  Thus,  he  goes  about  telling 
Ijeople  how  to  live  to  avoid  sickness.  However,  they  are  very 
slow  to  change  their  habits  that  they  may  enjoy  better  health. 
If  you  tell  them  to  eat  plainer  food  and  masticate  it  more  thor- 
oughly, so  as  to  avoid  dyspepsia,  they  think  they  are  wasting  too 
much  time.  If  you  tell  him  to  live  in  the  sunshine  and  exercise 
more  they  are  afraid  they  will  neglect  their  business.  When  you 
tell  them  to  breathe  plenty  fresh  air  and  sleep  with  windows 
open  at  night,  they  are  greatly  alarmed  lest  some  dread  monster 


will  come  in  with  the  "night  air,"  little  thinking  that  after  sun- 
down all  air  is  ' '  night  air. ' '  People  are  no  more  ready  to  harken 
to  our  modern  physicians  than  they  were  to  the  great  physician 
when  lie  said,  "Oh,  Jerusalem,  Jerusalem,  how  oft  would  I  have 
gathered  you  under  my  wings  as  a  hen  gathers  her  chickens,  and 
ye  would  not." 

(The  above  excellent  article  is  liere  supplemented  with  a  short 
sketch  of  the  hospitals  and  the  lives  of  the  physicians  of  the 
county,  living  and  dead,  as  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  obtain 


The  Sacred  Heart  Hospital,  of  Eau  Claire,  was  first  started  in 
1889,  by  the  Sisters  of  Saint  Frances.  Tlie  first  building  con- 
tained seventeen  rooms  and  was  xmder  the  charge  of  three  sisters. 
Since  this  time  the  buildings  have  been  three  times  enlarged,  the 
last  building  being  erected  in  1912,  is  used  as  a  convent  for  the 
sisters,  while  the  entire  upper  floor  is  used  as  the  operating  room. 
The  Sacred  Heart  Hospital  is  the  oldest  in  the  city,  and  the  large 
three-story  brick  buildingb  are  located  on  a  large  plat  of  ground 
high  on  the  hill,  which  affords  an  abundance  of  fresh  air  for  its 
patients.  The  hospital  has  now  accommodation  for  one  hundred 
and  thirty  patients,  whose  wants  are  looked  after  by  thirty-four 
sisters.  This  institution  is  open  for  all  classes  regardless  of  their 
religious  belief,  and  all  doctors  of  good  repute  are  admitted  to 
practice.  Tlie  mother  hospital  is  located  at  the  city  of  Spring- 
field, 111. 


Efforts  to  establish  a  Protestant  hospital  in  Eau  Claire  were 
made  as  early  as  1895.  But  no  practical  results  from  this  or  sub- 
sequent attempts  were  obtained  until  1905,  when  it  was  decided 
by  some  ministers  attending  a  United  Church  convention  at 
Menomonie,  Wis.,  to  call  a  mass  meeting  to  consider  said  matter. 

At  this  mass  meeting,  which  was  held  at  Eau  Claire,  February 
9,  1905,  it  was  imanimously  resolved  to  establish  a  Protestant 
hospital  in  Eau  Claire  to  be  called  Luther  Hospital.  Thereupon 
two  committees  were  elected,  one  for  incorporation  and  one  for 
soliciting  funds. 

On  the  first  of  May,  1905,  the  hospital  association  was  incor- 
porated by  John  Gaustad,  M.  0.  Waldal,  Peder  Taugjerd,  Alfred 
Cypreansen  and  Peder  B.  Treltsad. 

The  Hoyme  property,  on  which  an  option  had  previously  been 


secured,  was  bought  July  31,  1905,  and  an  adjoining  property- 
secured  later  on.  During  the  fall  of  1906  the  basement  wall  of 
the  proposed  hospital  was  built  and  the  building  proper  erected 
during  the  summer  and  fall  of  1907.  On  account  of  unavoidable 
delay  cornerstone  laying  and  dedication  was  deferred  until  Sun- 
day, August,  30,  1908,  the  main  speeches  being  delivered  by  Con- 
gressman Lenroot  and  President  J.  N.  Kindahl,  of  St.  Olaf  Col- 
lege. But  five  months  earlier  on  March  30,  1908,  Luther  Hospital 
threw  open  its  doors  to  receive  the  unfortunate  sick  of  the  com- 
munity and  accomplish  the  glorious  work  for  which  it  was  estab- 

The  articles  of  incorjioratiou  and  by-laws  of  Luther  Hospital 
provide  for  an  association,  the  membership  of  which  is  open  to  all 
upon  the  payment  of  a  membership  fee  of  il^lO.OO  and  a  due  of 
$1.00  annually.  The  present  membership  is  over  100.  It  has  been 
as  high  as  272. 

The  general  management  of  the  hospital  is  vested  in  a  board  of 
directors  of  five  members  (origiualh^  nine),  of  which  a  majority 
must  belong  to  some  Lutheran  church.  This  board  may  appoint 
additional  officers,  make  by-laws,  rules  and  regulations  and  have 
general  control  and  supervision  of  the  affairs  of  the  corporation, 
subject  to  the  association. 

The  first  board  of  directors  were:  George  M.  Rand,  Syver 
Rekstad,  S.  0.  Mauseth,  P.  B.  Trelstad,  Peder  Tangjerd,  H.  C. 
Hanson,  M.  0.  Waldal,  L.  I.  Roe  and  T.  Slagsvol.  M.  0.  Waldal 
was  elected  president,  L.  I.  Roe  vice-president,  Peder  Tangjerd 
secretary  and  H.  C.  Hanson  treasurer.  Besides  these  the  follow- 
ing have  served  as  directors:  Carl  Luudquist,  M.  0.  Soley, 
A.  Anderson,  Alfred  Cypreansen,  H.  M.  Knudtson,  Guuder 
Thompson  and  Chr.  Midelfart. 

The  special  management  of  the  hospital  is  vested  in  a  "  direct- 
ing sister"  (deaconess),  who  shall  admit  and  receive  pay  from 
patients,  purchase  provisions,  direct  the  training  school,  secure 
the  necessary  help  and  have  general  supervision  of  patients,  sis- 
ters, nurses  and  other  workers  of  the  institution,  subject  to  the 
board  and  corporation.  As  it  proved  impossible  from  the  begin- 
ning to  secure  any  deaconess  the  board  was  fortunate  enough  to 
secure  the  services  of  an  exceedingly  able  graduate  nurse  from 
the  Augustana  Hospital,  Chicago,  111.,  Miss  Ida  C.  L.  Isaacson. 
As  superintendent  of  nurses  she  had  opened  two  hospitals  before, 
and  Luther  Hospital  had  the  benefit  of  her  experience,  as  she 
practically  directed  the  furnishing  of  the  hospital  (the  purchase 
of  operating  and  sterilizing  outfits,  furniture,  bedding,  medical 


and  surgical  supplies,  pi-ovisions,  etc.),  started  the  training  school 
and  worked  to  secure  such  patronage  from  the  doctors  and  gen- 
eral public  as  was  necessary  that  the  hospital  might  be  able  to 
perform  the  work  for  which  it  was  established. 

After  her  resignation  Miss  Margaret  Thomas,  of  this  city, 
served  as  superintendent  of  nurses  about  eight  months  until  at 
last  Luther  Hospital,  in  accordance  with  its  original  plan  of 
organization,  secured  the  services  of  a  deaconess  from  the  Nor- 
wegian Lutheran  Deaconess'  Home  and  Hospital,  Chicago,  our 
able  present  directing  sister,  Amalia  Olson,  under  whose  wise 
direction  Luther  Hospital  and  its  training  school  have  become 
such  a  marked  success.  On  July  17,  1912,  the  hospital  was  for- 
tunate enough  to  secure  the  services  of  an'other  deaconess  from 
the  Chicago  mother  house.  Sister  Agnes  Daae,  who  has  proved 
herself  a  very  efficient  and  valuable  assistant. 

After  thorough  investigation  the  beautiful  home  and  grounds 
of  the  late  Rev.  G.  Hoyme,  president  of  the  United  Norwegian 
Lutheran  Church  of  American,  was  unanimously  decided  upon  as 
hospital  site.  It  is  located  near  the  center  of  the  city  in  a  resi- 
dence section,  away  from  the  busy  business  streets  and  the  noise 
and  smoke  of  the  factories  and  railroads.  A  fine  view  may  be 
had  from  the  hospital  to  a  small  lake  two  blocks  away;  and  the 
street  cars  running  by  afford  easy  access  from  all  directions. 
Luther  Hospital,  when  completed  according  to  plans,  will  consist 
of  three  parallel  buildings,  planned  so  as  to  admit  air,  light  and 
sunshine  in  every  sick  room  and  connected  with  a  corridor,  reach- 
ing from  street  to  street,  crossing  all  the  three  buildings,  a  dis- 
tance of  about  200  feet.  The  central  building  (the  one  now  in 
use)  is  81x43  feet,  and  the  two  wing  buildings  will  be  about 
115x45  feet  each,  all  of  them  three  stories  beside  basement  and 
attic.  The  west  wing  to  be  built  as  soon  as  possible  will  be  called 
Sigvald  Qvale  Memorial.  At  the  present  time  the  hospital  con- 
sists of  three  buildings:  the  above  mentioned  main  or  central 
building,  the  laundry  and  the  nurses'  home,  the  late  Rev.  Hoyme 's 
residence.  This  is  a  large  commodious  wooden  building  with 
ample  accommodations  for  the  nurses. 

The  building  is  fireproof,  only  floors,  doors,  casings  and  win- 
dow frames  being  of  Avood.  Elevator  and  stair  opening  are 
inclosed  to  prevent  draft,  and  the  roof  is  covered  with  slate,  so 
the  building  practically  cannot  burn,  an  extremely  important 
thing  in  a  hospital. 

The  building  is  equipped  with  Paul  vacuum  system  for  even 
distribution  of  heat  and  the  direct-indirect  ventilation  to  secure 


pure  fresh  air  in  rooms  and  corridors.  The  laundry  was  per- 
manently located  in  a  separate  concrete  building  (24x36)  in  the 
rear.  It  is  fitted  up  with  steam,  hot  and  cold  water  and  electric 
current,  ready  for  the  machinery.  "With  the  exception  of  the  dry 
house  none  of  the  permanent  machinery  has  yet  been  installed, 
however.  The  home  is  fitted  up  for  the  nurses,  the  whole  second 
floor  being  used  for  dormitory.  The  first  floor  contains  a  large 
commodious  nurses'  parlor,  three  smaller  sleeping  rooms  and  a 
patients'  ward  of  seven  beds.  As  the  present  hospital  building 
will  form  the  main  or  central  part  of  the  completed  building  it 
had  to  be  arranged  so  that  all  the  important  special  hospital 
accessories  were  placed  there.  The  office,  waiting  room,  elevator 
as  well  as  the  operating,  culinary  and  heating  departments  must 
therefore  necessarily  be  located  in  said  building  in  order  to  con- 
veniently serve  the  two  wings  or  buildings  to  be  erected  on  both 
sides  later  on.  When  all  buildings  are  completed  this  central 
part  will  most  likely  be  used  exclusively  for  administration  and 
nurses'  home.  The  basement  contains  the  X-ray  department, 
kitchen,  storage  and  pantry  rooms,  service  kitchen,  dining  room, 
beside  a  couple  of  rooms  now  used  by  the  help.  Ambulance 
entrance  to  elevator  is  also  to  be  found  here.  First  floor  has 
office,  waiting  room,  service  kitchen,  toilet  rooms,  dressing  room, 
men's  ward,  drug  room  and  five  private  rooms.  Second  floor  is 
arranged  like  the  first,  only  instead  of  office  and  waiting  rooms 
there  are  two  more  private  rooms.  Third  floor  has  the  same 
amount  and  arrangement  of  private  rooms  as  the  second.  But 
here  we  find  the  all  important  operating  department,  which  is 
entirely  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  floor.  First  an  ante-room 
with  lockers.  To  the  left  instrument  room.  Straight  ahead  the 
sterilizing  room  with  the  two  operating  rooms,  one  on  each  side. 
The  equipment  is  first  class.  Sterilizing  outfit,  operating  tables, 
instruments,  etc.,  are  of  the  most  up  to  date.  Furniture,  bedding, 
etc.,  are  of  a  better  quality  than  found  in  most  hospitals.  The 
best  is  none  too  good  for  the  unfortunate  sick  and  sufl'ering. 

Ever  since  Luther  Hospital  opened  its  doors  its  aim  has  been 
to  be  strictly  modern  in  every  way.  We  are  very  glad  to 
announce  that  since  our  last  report  was  issued  we  have  been  able 
to  make  another  much  needed  improvement  by  the  establishment 
of  an  X-ray  department  and  that  we  are  now  in  position  to  meet 
the  great  demands  for  X-ray  work.  The  apparatus  used  is  of 
the  very  latest  modern  type  and  the  equipment  is  complete  in 
every  detail.  No  expense  has  been  spared  to  bring  everything 
as  near  perfection  as  possible  and  our  department  represents  the 


last  word  in  X-ray  work.  It  is  possible  with  this  apparatus  to 
make  a  picture  of  any  part  of  the  body  in  a  few  seconds,  elimi- 
nating the  danger  at  one  time  present  when  it  was  necessary  to 
make  an  exposure  of  several  minutes  or  hours.  The  best  of 
machinery  and  instruments,  however,  are  of  little  or  no  value 
without  a  competent  person  in  charge.  We  consider  ourselves 
very  fortunate  in  having  secured  so  able  and  experienced  a  man 
for  this  department  as  Dr.  Baird.  Both  the  institution  and  the 
city  of  Eau  Claire  are  to  be  congratulated  that  our  X-ray  depart- 
ment is  in  charge  of  a  man  of  such  experieuce  and  ability.  The 
high  grade  of  work  done  is  attested  by  the  constantly  increasing 
patronage  of  the  department. 

Since  March  23,  1908,  when  three  pupils  were  admitted  to  the 
Luther  Hospital  Training  School  for  Nurses,  there  has  been  made 
a  rapid  progress.  "We  have  been  fortunate  to  secure  enough 
applicants  and  every  year  brings  us  more  than  we  can  take  care 
of.  From  March,  1908,  to  January,  1909,  Miss  Isaacson  had 
charge  of  the  training  school  and  Miss  Margaret  Thomas  from 
February,  1909,  till  October,  1909.  Since  November,  1909,  the 
training  school  has  been  in  charge  of  Sister  Amalia,  who  for 
almost  three  years  had  the  able  assistance  of  Miss  Howlaud,  who 
on  account  of  ill  health  was  forced  to  resign  from  her  duties.  For- 
tunately Sister  Agnes  arrived  in  time  to  begin  with  the  fall  work 
of  1912. 


The  old  hospital  or  sanatorium  was  founded  in  1898.  Then 
the  Inebriate  law,  which  compelled  the  taking  into  the  institution 
all  inebriates  and  persons  afflicted  Avith  the  drug  habit,  was  in 
force.  They  treated  nearly  four  thousand  of  such  cases.  But 
owing  to  some  doubt  which  sprang  up  among  some  of  the  attor- 
neys of  the  state  the  law  was  brought  to  a  test  and  declared 
unconstitutional.  In  1908  Dr.  Montgomery  constructed  the  new 
hospital,  which  is  situated  on  the  site  of  the  old  sanatorium,  at 
the  corner  of  Oxford  avenue  and  Central  street,  one  block  north 
from  the  court  house.  This  hospital  is  divided  into  wards :  mater- 
nity, special  and  general,  with  a  contagious  ward  entirely  cut 
off  from  the  other  apartments.  The  present  inventory  of  the 
institution  is  fifty-four  thousand  dollars  ($54,000),  and  during 
the  past  year  the  Drs.  Montgomery  have  installed  a  new  and 
powerful  apparatus  with  accessories  for  every  kind  of  thermo 
therapy.  The  Montgomery  Hospital  presents  no  distinction  as 
to  race,  difference  of  religious  beliefs  or  circumstances  in  life.    It 


is  under  the  direct  control  of  the  Drs.  Montgomery,  but  its  facil- 
ities are  at  the  command  of  any  reputable  physician  or  surgeon, 
to  whom  are  given  assurance  of  faithful  and  efficient  service. 

They  offer  better  inducement  in  the  hospital  ticket  line  than 
any  other  hospital  in  existence.  They  have  three  classes  of  tickets 
in  the  field.  The  leader  is  a  ten  dollar  ticket,  which  insures  the 
holder  against  all  sickness  or  accidental  injury  regardless  of 
what  the  cause  may  be.  The  $7.50  ticket  has  not  the  same  excep- 
tions that  other  hospitals  have,  and  is  much  more  liberal  than  the 
so-called  accident  and  benefit  policies.  The  family  ticket  is  the 
largest  opportunity  in  the  field.  Just  think  of  insuring  the  health 
of  any  member  of  your  family  for  one  year  for  fifteen  or  twenty- 
five  dollars !  The  tickets  cover  all  expenses  in  case  of  operations 
of  any  kind.  There  is  no  age  limit.  All  that  is  required  is  that 
the  purchaser  be  in  good  physical  and  mental  condition  when  he 
buys  the  ticket.  The  training  school  presents  a  three  years'  course 
of  practical  and  theoretical  training  in  modern  medical  and  sur- 
gical science.  The  nurses  entering  the  institution  to  prepare  for 
their  life's  work  get  a  practical  knowledge  of  cases  of  all  kinds. 
They  get  also  the  benefit  of  the  lectures  given  by  outside  physi- 
cians and  citizens,  and  the  efficiency  of  the  work  of  the  graduates 
is  proven  by  the  fact  that  they  are  continually  in  demand. 


The  Eau  Claire  County  Tuberculosis  Sanatorium  was  officially 
opened  on  Monday,  December  15,  1913,  when  the  twenty  patients 
who  had  made  application  were  admitted  for  treatment. 

"When  approaching  the  new  institution  one  is  struck  by  the 
beauty  of  the  site.  It  is  situated  ou  the  south  slope  of  Mt.  Wash- 
ington, protected  from  north  and  westerly  winds  by  the  bluff. 
The  front  windows  overlook  the  Chippewa  Valley.  The  site  con- 
sists of  nine  acres  of  well  drained  land,  where  the  patients  may 
pitch  their  tents  or  build  their  shacks,  or  work  in  the  garden,  that 
will  be  kept  in  connection,  if  they  are  able.  The  view  from  every 
window  is  grand.  A  long  search  for  a  better  site  than  the  present 
would  probably  be  in  vain.  The  building  is  cement  plaster  and 
sloat  finished,  contracted  for  by  the  E.  M.  Fish  Company  for 
$16,000,  exclusive  of  equipment.  The  site  was  purchased  by  the 
Eau  Claire  Anti-Tuberculosis  Society,  which  also  guaranteed 
equipment.  This  was  raised  by  popular  subscription.  It  is  due 
to  the  efforts  of  the  committee  that  the  society  has  been  so  suc- 
cessful in  raising  enough  money  for  equipping  the  institution. 


Following  is  what  the  county  has  done  for  the  tuberculosis  sana- 
torium: April,  1912,  $4,000  appropriated;  November,  1912, 
$12,000  tax  levy  made ;  April,  1913,  $500  appropriated ;  November, 
1913,  $8,266.35  appropriated  and  $12,000  tax  levy  made ;  $20,000 
of  this  remains. 

The  two  wings  of  the  building  are  occupied  by  twenty-four 
patients'  single  rooms  and  four  large  porches  at  the  ends  of  the 
wings.  These  porches  are  open  and  have  only  heavy  canvas  cur- 
tains, which  were  put  iu  place  by  William  Schroeder. 

The  four  patients'  single  rooms  were  furnished  at  an  esti- 
mated cost  of  $33  each,  but  in  reality  cost  a  little  more.  They 
have  their  windows  in  the  front  of  the  building  with  the  hall  in 
the  rear.  The  large  part  to  the  rear  is  occupied  by  the  kitchen, 
serving  rooms,  office  and  cook's  and  maid's  apartments.  It  may 
be  interesting  to  know  that  the  large  living  room  and  dining- 
room  was  furnished  by  a  donation  from  the  Elks  and  Knights  of 
Columbus,  and  that  much  of  the  mission  furniture  was  manufac- 
tured at  our  own  Phoenix  Furniture  Company.  The  lodges  fur- 
nished the  electric  fixtures  also.  These  were  furnished  by  the 
county  in  the  other  rooms. 

The  floors  throughout  the  building  are  of  hardwood  and  all 
the  walls  are  of  the  same  spotless  white.  There  are  magazines 
and  books  on  the  rack  beside  the  large  cheerful  fireplace.  The 
woodwork  is  selected  Georgia  pine  with  two  panel  doors.  The 
mantelpiece  is  a  solid  three-inch  piece  of  the  same  wood.  The 
next  place  to  be  inspected  was  the  kitchen,  where  Mrs.  Julia  A. 
Brown  holds  full  sway.  It  is  here  that  all  the  food  will  be  cooked. 
The  cupboard  is  used  for  the  dishes  of  the  nurses  and  the  help 
and  such  supplies  as  are  needed  for  the  day.  A  splendid  Majestic 
range  is  to  be  seen  here,  which  was  purchased  from  the  Foss- Arm- 
strong Company.  The  Norden  Lodge  donated  the  money  for  this 
and  also  for  the  fine  kitchen  utensils,  which  were  purchased  from 
Schlieve  Bros.  The  fine  cooling  room  was  built  by  the  "Wisconsin 
Refrigerator  Company,  and  paid  for  by  a  donation  from  the 
Masonic  Lodge.  The  dishes  used  in  the  institution  are  the 
unbreakable  rolled  edge  Syracuse  china  purchased  through  Mr. 
Richard  Kaiser,  the  money  being  given  by  the  Norwegian 
Lutheran  church  and  a  $50  check  from  an  "Unknown  Friend." 

Nothing  that  leaves  the  kitchen  going  to  the  patients  will 
return.  The  food  is  taken  to  the  serving  room,  where  it  is  dished 
up  by  the  maid.  When  the  dishes  are  returned  they  are  washed 
and  sterilized.  The  same  care  that  is  used  here  is  in  force  all  over 
the  building,  so  there  is  no  danger  of  infection.     A  dumb  waiter 


is  used  for  sending  the  food  to  patients  on  the  upper  floor  and 
bringing  supplies  up  from  the  basement.  The  office  of  the  super- 
intendent, ]\Iiss  Ramstead,  is  simply  furnished,  as  she  will  spend 
much  of  her  time  looking  after  the  patients.  There  will  be  two 
other  day  nurses  and  one  night  nurse  on  the  staff.  Dr.  R.  E. 
Mitchell  will  serve  in  the  capacity  of  visiting  physician.  Miss 
Ramstead 's  parents  live  in  this  city,  but  she  has  for  several  years 
been  connected  with  the  city  hospital  at  Minneapolis. 

The  entrance  will  be  in  the  angle  of  the  building  on  the  east 
side.  This  opens  into  the  reception  room,  adjoining  the  superin- 
tendent's office.    The  drive  leads  around  the  building. 

The  single  rooms  on  the  first  floor  are  very  cheerfully  fur- 
nished, with  the  regulation  hospital  beds  and  a  solid  maple  chair. 
A  flue  for  ventilation  opens  into  each  room.  It  was  planned  to 
have  a  locker  for  the  patients'  clothes  under  these  flues,  but  it 
was  found  to  be  too  great  an  expense,  so  closets  have  been  pro- 
vided. There  are  drinking  fountains  in  the  halls  and  bath  rooms 
within  easy  reach. 

The  halls  open  onto  the  porches  at  either  end  and  the  beds  will 
pass  through  the  doors  easilj%  so  when  the  patients  cannot  be 
moved  their  beds  can  be  rolled  out.  There  are  two  windows  in 
each  room,  so  there  will  not  be  a  lack  of  light.  There  are  two 
wheel  chairs  for  those  who  are  able  to  sit  up,  and  more  will  be 
provided  later  if  it  is  seen  that  they  are  necessary. 

Two  double  nurses'  rooms  occupy  the  front  of  the  second  floor. 
They  are  furnished  with  a  fumed  oak  dresser  and  chairs.  Across 
the  hall  is  the  room  that  will  be  occupied  by  the  night  nurse.  The 
patients'  rooms  are  the  same  as  those  on  the  flrst  floor  and  there 
is  a  ward  containing  four  beds.  The  sanitary  rugs  which  were 
given  by  the  Woman's  Club  deserve  particular  mention,  as  they 
were  seen  in  every  patient's  room  and  in  the  living  room.  The 
women  of  the  club  sewed  the  rags  for  them  during  the  last  sum- 
mer and  had  them  woven  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Koshoshck, 
McDonough  street.  C.  H.  Metcalf  will  have  charge  of  the  base- 
ment. There  is  a  grocery  room,  a  vegetable  room,  the  janitor's 
room,  rooms  for  coal  and  wood,  a  laundry  and  a  trunk  room. 

The  object  of  the  sanatorium  is  to  provide  treatment  for  the 
more  advanced  cases  of  pulmonary  tuberculosis  from  Eau  Claire 
county.  Should  there  at  any  time  be  vacancies,  suitable  patients 
from  other  counties  may  be  admitted.  In  every  instance  the 
patient  must  make  an  application  for  admittance,  and  no  one  will 
be  received  without  having  received  a  previous  notice  from  the 
superintendent.    So  far  as  is  practical,  the  treatment  will  consist 


essentially  of  out  of  door  living,  an  abundance  of  wholesome, 
nutritious  food  together  with  supervision  of  exercise  and  rest. 
Such  medical  treatment  as  seems  best  indicated  will  be  prescribed 
for  the  individual  case.  As  a  part  of  their  prescribed  exercise 
l^atients  may  be  required,  as  their  condition  permits,  to  do  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  useful  labor.  This  applies  equally  to  those  paying 
for  their  maintenance,  as  well  as  to  those  who  do  not  pay. 

Application  for  admission  to  the  sanatorium  must  be  made  in 
writing  upon  blanks  provided  for  that  purpose,  which  will  be  fui-- 
nished  by  the  superintendent  upon  request.  As  soon  as  this  formal 
routine  is  completed  in  a  satisfactory  way  the  applicant  may  be 

It  is  expected  that  every  patient  will  pay  the  cost  of  his  or  her 
maintenance,  if  able  to  do  so.  This  amount,  at  present,  is  $10.00 
per  week  but  may  be  raised  or  lowered  at  any  time  if  found 
necessary  or  advisable. 

For  those  unable  to  pay  any  part  of  their  maintenance,  pro- 
vision is  made  whereby  they  may  be  admitted  at  the  expense  of 
the  county  in  which  they  reside  upon  recommendation  of  the 
judge  of  the  probate  court.  For  those  desiring  to  take  advantage 
of  this  provision  of  the  law,  necessary  blanks  will  be  furnished 
upon  request.  To  meet  the  requirements  of  those  who  are  unable 
to  pay  the  full  cost  of  their  maintenance,  but  who  are  able  or 
desirous  of  paying  a  portion  of  the  amount,  provision  is  made 
for  a  rate  of  $5.00  per  week,  if  the  probate  judge,  after  investiga- 
tion, shall  have  found  that  tlie  patient  is  really  unable  to  pay 
more  than  that  amount. 

Clarence  Sprague,  Charles  A.  Cox  and  W.  K.  Coffin  are  the 
trustees  of  the  institution. 

The  following  is  the  list  of  those  who  furnished  the  rooms — 
and  they  are  given  in  the  order  in  which  they  were  received. 
Later  the  rooms  will  be  numbered  to  correspond  with  this  list. 

1.  The  Rev.  A.  B.  C.  Dunne.  2.  Tom  Fleming.  3.  Mrs.  Kate 
Porter.  4.  Alex  Dean.  5.  0.  H.  Ingram.  6.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George 
Lufkin.  7.  German  Reading  Club.  8.  Chippewa  Valley  Ladies' 
Aid  (Jewish).  9.  Louis  Levy.  10.  Labor  Organizations  (A.  T. 
Le  Due).  11.  The  Kepler  Co.  12.  Ninth  Ward  Social  Center. 
13.  Knights  of  Maccabees.  14.  Mrs.  C.  H.  Ingram.  15.  Tenth 
Ward  Civic  Center  League.  16.  ShawtoM^n  Ladies.  17.  St. 
John's  German  Lutheran  Church  (Rev.  A.  F.  Augustine).  18. 
Our  Saviour's  Norwegian  Lutheran  Church.  19.  E.  B.  Ingram. 
20.  Mt.  Hope  Church  (Town  of  Brunswick).    21.  Christ  Episco- 


pal  Church.     22.  Helping  Hand  Society  (Town  of  Washington). 
23.  U.  C.  T.    24.  King's  Daughters  of  Shawtown. 

In  closing,  special  mention  may  be  made  of  the  fine  appear- 
ance of  the  building  when  it  was  lighted  up.  It  was  remarked  by 
several  as  they  approached  it  in  the  evening,  "that  it  had  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  fine  summer  hotel  in  the  mountains." 


The  organization  of  the  American  Medical  Association  in 
1846-47,  as  a  national  representative  body  composed  of  dele- 
gates from  the  several  states,  gave  a  fresh  and  strong  impetus 
to  the  woi-k  of  uniting  the  members  of  the  profession  in  social 
organizations  for  mutual  improvement  and  scientific  advance- 
ment, in  every  part  of  the  country.  Wisconsin  as  well  as  nearly 
every  state  in  the  Union  has  her  medical  society,  and  a  few  years 
ago  the  medical  society  of  the  Chippewa  Valley  was  organized, 
to  which  a  good  many  doctors  from  Eau  Claire  county  held  mem- 
bership, and  in  1902,  the  Eau  Claire  County  Medical  Society  was 
formed  with  the  greater  part  of  the  practicing  physicians  as  mem- 
bers. The  first  president  of  the  society  was  Dr.  J.  V.  R.  Lyman, 
who  in  turn  has  been  succeeded  by  doctors  J.  F.  Farr,  Chr  Midel- 
fart,  D.  W.  Ashum,  A.  L.  Payne  and  F.  S.  Cook.  The  purpose  of 
the  organization  is  to  bring  the  doctors  closer  together,  and  create 
a  good  fellowship  feeling  atoong  them,  and  for  the  discussion  of 
important  medical  subjects.  Special  papers  are  discoursed  at 
the  meetings  by  members  of  the  society  on  the  important  issues 
of  the  day,  calculated  to  impart  to  the  members  the  latest  dis- 
coveries in  medical  science  for  the  up-to-date  treatment  of  dis- 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  members  of  the  society : 
Dr.  D.  W.  Ashum,  P.  B.  Amundson,  J.  0.  Arnson,  J.  C.  Baird, 
R.  R.  Chase,  W.  J.  Clancy,  F.  S.  Cook,  M.  C.  Crane,  H.  F.  Derge, 
J.  F.  Farr,  L.  H.  Flynn,  H.  A.  Fulton,  J.  B.  Goddard,  Dr.  E.  P. 
Hayes,  E.  S.  Hayes,  A.  P.  Hahn,  Sue  Ilebard,  Dr.  Fred  Johnson, 
F.  A.  La  Breck,  J.  V.  R.  Lyman,  E.  L.  Mason,  J.  Mathiesen,  C. 
Midelfart,  R.  E.  Mitchell,  Alex.  Montgomery,  John  L.  Montgom- 
ery, Wm.  Montgomery,  A.  L.  Payne,  H.  P.  Prill,  P.  E.  Riley,  W. 
0.  Seemann,  E.  M.  A.  Sizer,  G.  M.  Smith,  A.  D.  H.  Thrane,  E.  E. 
Tupper,  R.  F.  Werner,  E.  H.  Winter,  S.  Williams,  C.  W.  Wil- 
kowske,  A.  E.  Olson,  Oscar  Knutson,  H.  C.  Ericksen. 


Edwin  J.  Farr,  M.  D.,  came  to  Kenosha  in  1855,  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  removed  to  Prairie  du  Sac,  Sauk  county,  and  in  1857 
to  Mauston,  Juneau  county,  and  in  1869  to  Eau  Claire.  He  was 
born  at  Corinth,  Orange  county,  Vermont,  August  24,  1832.  He 
was  educated  at  Castleton  Medical  College  and  graduated  in 
1851,  and  practiced  at  White  River  Junction,  Vermont,  until  he 
came  to  Wisconsin.  He  was  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Second  Wis- 
consin Volunteer  Infantry  for  five  months,  and  with  Thirtieth 
Wisconsin  Regiment  for  nearly  three  years.  He  was  post  surgeon 
at  Ft.  Sully  from  July,  1863,  to  October,  1864,  and  had  charge  of 
the  prison  hospital  at  Louisville  from  January  to  August,  1865. 

Dr.  Farr  was  mayor  of  the  city  of  Eau  Claire  and  railroad 
surgeon  for  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  and  the 
Wisconsin  &  Minnesota  Railway  Companies.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  A.  F.  &  A.  M.  (Grand  High  Priest  and  Grand  Master), 
I.  0.  0.  F.  and  A.  0.  U.  W.  He  was  married  at  White  River  Junc- 
tion in  January,  1855,  to  Emily  L.  Sawyer.  They  had  two  chil- 
dren, tAvins:  Ewin  B.  and  Emily  B.,  born  August  14,  1867.  Dr. 
Farr  died  July  10,  1914. 

Dr.  W.  T.  Galloway  was  born  in  Ogdensburg,  St.  Lawrence 
county,  New  York,  April  15,  1822,  and  graduated  from  Castleton 
Medical  College  at  Castleton,  Vermont.  He  began  practice  in 
1850.  He  went  to  Fond  du  Lac  in  1851,  remaining  there  until  he 
came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1857.  He  was  appointed  register  of  the 
United  States  land  office,  and  held  that  position  until  1861.  He 
served  six  years  as  alderman  of  Eau  Claire,  was  supervisor  three 
years  when  Eau  Claire  was  a  village,  and  six  years  after  it  became 
a  city.  He  was  engaged  for  four  years  in  the  manufacture  of 
lumber  on  Duncan  creek,  near  Chippewa  Falls,  and  for  twelve 
years  in  foundry  and  machine  shops  in  Chippewa  Falls  and  Eau 
Claire,  besides  managing  a  farm.  In  1874  he  built  the  Galloway 
house  and  numerous  dwellings.  He  erected  the  foundry  and 
machine  shops  at  Chippewa  Falls,  which  was  later  converted  into 
gas  works.  He  stood  as  an  ancient  Odd  Fellow  and  had  taken  aU 
the  degrees  in  Masonry. 

Charles  E.  Hogeboom,  M.  D.,  came  to  Eau  Claire  and  engaged 
in  the  piactice  of  medicine  in  May,  1876.  He  graduated  from 
Rush  Medical  College,  class  of  1869,  and  began  his  practice  at 
Blackberry  Station,  Kane  county,  Illinois.  He  went  from  there 
to  St.  Charles,  and  remained  there  until  he  came  to  Eau  Claire. 
He  was  born  in  DeKalb  county,  Illinois,  April  28,  1846,  and  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools  of  that  county,  and  the  high  school 
at  Sycamore  and  by  private  instruction. 


Henry  G.  Morgan,  M.  D.,  came  to  Wisconsin  in  1869  and 
located  at  Alma,  where  he  practiced  two  years.  He  came  to  Eau 
Claire  in  1871  and  began  his  practice.  He  was  born  in  Brecks- 
ville,  Ohio,  and  got  his  medical  education  at  the  Chicago  Medical 
College,  graduating  in  the  spring  of  1868. 

Dr.  James  H.  Noble  M'as  born  in  Madison,  March  30,  1851.  He 
was  educated  at  the  University  of  Wisconsin  and  studied  medicine 
Avith  Dr.  Boweu,  of  Madison.  He  graduated  from  the  Hahne- 
mann Medical  College,  of  Chicago,  in  February,  1871,  and  came 
to  Eau  Claire,  March  30,  of  that  year. 

Dr.  Edward  H.  Parker,  who  came  to  Eau  Claire  July  12,  1879, 
Avas  born  at  Hartford,  Washington  county,  in  November,  1854, 
and  moved  to  Fond  du  Lac  when  thirteen  years  old.  Graduated 
from  Fond  du  Lac  high  school  in  1876,  read  medicine  with  Drs. 
Patchen  and  Bishop,  of  that  place,  graduated  at  Hahnemann  Col- 
lege, Chicago,  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1879,  and  engaged  in  prac- 
tice with  Dr.  DM'ight  W.  Day,  remaining  with  him  until  1881.  He 
died  in  1913. 

George  F.  Hamilton,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Chemung  county,  New 
York,  April  28,  1839.  Came  to  Wisconsin  in  the  fall  of  1852, 
resided  at  Pond  du  Lac  one  year,  moved  to  Oakfield,  Dodge 
county,  in  1853,  remaining  there  until  1856,  and  then  for  a  time 
lived  in  Hillsboro,  Vernon  county.  In  1862  went  to  Sheldon, 
Monroe  county,  remaining  there  until  1866,  then  returned  to 
Vernon  county,  residing  at  Bloomingdale  one  year  and  two  years 
in  Springville,  then  for  one  year  resided  at  Sparta.  In  1870  he 
went  to  Augusta.  He  received  his  medical  education  at  the  Ben- 
nett Eclectic  Medical  College,  Chicago,  and  commenced  practice 
in  1866.  After  coming  to  Augusta  he  ran  a  drug  store  in  connec- 
tion with  his  practice.  He  was  the  first  village  president  of 
Augusta  who  was  elected  on  the  no-license  ticket.  He  enlisted  in 
Company  I,  Thirty-seventh  Wisconsin  Volunteers,  was  discharged 
March  18,  1865,  on  account  of  wounds  received  before  Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Dr.  W.  W.  Allen  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  tlie  spring  of  1857, 
and  with  George  W.  Sanford  opened  the  first  shanty  store  in 
the  village  located  on  the  banks  of  the  Chippewa.  Dr.  Allen 
left  Eau  Claire  with  Captain  Wheeler's  company  in  the  fall  of 
1863,  and  on  the  reorganization  of  the  Second  Wisconsin  Regi- 
ment was  appointed  assistant  surgeon.  He  continued  with  the 
regiment  until  mustered  out  at  the  close  of  the  war  and  then 
settled  at  Mason  City,  Iowa,  where  he  died  and  was  buried  on 
June  20,  1878. 


Dr.  Dwight  W.  Day  came  to  Eau  Claire  from  Elkader,  Clinton 
county,  Iowa,  in  October,  1868,  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of 
his  profession.  He  was  born  in  the  town  of  Eagle,  Wyoming 
county,  New  York,  May  14,  1841,  and  graduated  from  the  Buffalo 
Medical  College  February  22,  1861.  He  was  resident  physician 
in  the  Buffalo  General  Hospital  and  Lying  In  Hospital,  and  was 
surgeon  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-fourth  New  York  Volun- 
teer Infantry.  He  went  out  as  first  assistant  .surgeon,  was  pro- 
moted to  surgeon  of  the  regiment  and  to  acting  brigade  surgeon. 
He  served  three  years  in  the  medical  department,  and  then 
returned  to  Arcade,  New  York,  where  he  practiced  until  1866, 
when  he  moved  to  Iowa.  His  father  was  a  prominent  doctor  in 
Eagle,  New  York.  Dr.  Day  was  a  brother  of  the  late  Henry 
Day  and  a  cousin  of  Dr.  R,  R.  Chase.  He  died  in  1901  while 
reading  a  paper  before  the  Medical  Society  in  Eau  Claire,  which 
sudden  demise  was  characteristic  of  the  Day  family.  Dr.  Day 
was  a  good  doctor  and  had  many  warm  friends. 

Dr.  Henry  Day  was  born  in  Eagle,  Wyoming  county.  New 
York,  September  1,  1840.  He  was  educated  in  the  Buffalo  Med- 
ical College,  graduating  in  1860.  He  commenced  practice  at 
Arcade,  remaining  there  until  he  came  to  Wisconsin.  He  was 
in  the  state  in  practice  with  his  brother  in  1876,  and  came  to  Eau 
Claire  in  1881.  Dr.  Day  was  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Seventy- 
eighth  New  York  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  acting  surgeon  of  that 
regiment  for  six  months  during  the  war.  While  his  practice  here 
never  assumed  the  proportions  that  his  brother's  did,  he  had  a 
good  general  practice  and  was  well  liked.  He  was  twice  mar- 
ried. His  first  wife  still  lives  in  her  old  New  York  home,  while 
his  second  wife  is  matron  of  the  Sparta  Home  for  Dependent 

Dr.  Clinton  Straw  Chase  was  born  May  25,  1831,  and  came 
from  Springtield,  Vermont,  to  Eau  Claire.  He  fitted  for  college 
at  Springfield,  Vermont,  graduated  from  Dartmouth  College  in 
1852,  studied  medicine  at  Castleton  and  in  New  York  City,  and 
received  his  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1855.  Practiced  two  years  at 
Springfield  and  was  in  the  drug  business  there  and  at  Detroit, 
Michigan.  He  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1859  and  went  into  the  drug 
business  with  Dr.  Skinner,  theirs  being  the  first  drug  store  in 
the  Chippewa  Valley.  He  died  at  Detroit  about  1899.  October 
29,  1869,  he  married  Harriet  Eliza  Sherwin,  of  Weathersfield,  Ver- 
mont, and  had  three  children:  Anna,  Alfred  and  Alice. 

Dr.  Ketchum  was  another  one  of  the  early  doctors  who  prac- 
ticed but  a  sliort  time  here,  when  he  moved  to  the  far  west.    He 


practiced  here  during  the  reign  of  Dr.  Chase  and  Dr.  Skinner, 
and  these  three  physicians  were  styled  in  a  sort  of  floating  joke 
as  "Chase   'em,  Ketch   'em  and  Skin  'em." 

Dr.  W.  W.  Day  was  born  in  the  state  of  New  York,  came  to  Eau 
Claire  county  in  1858  and  settled  on  a  farm  between  Eau  Claire 
and  Chippewa  Falls,  where  he  farmed  and  practiced  medicine. 
He  later  came  to  Eau  Claire  and  practiced  his  profession  until 
he  moved  to  Walla  Walla,  Washington,  in  about  1879,  where  he 

William  Young,  farmer  and  physician,  came  to  Wisconsin  in 
1839.  Located  in  Waukesha  county,  farming  some  two  years; 
then  in  Jefferson  county  for  fifteen  years,  farming  and  practicing 
medicine.  Came  to  Eau  Claire  county  in  1856,  engaged  in  farm- 
ing and  practicing  medicine  for  many  years.  Was  supervisor  of 
Otter  Creek  township  for  several  years.  He  was  born  in  Scot- 
land in  1816  and  came  to  America  in  1828. 

Peter  McKittrick,  M.  D.,  was  born  near  Lauart,  Ontario, 
•January  7,  1866,  coming  to  this  country  when  a  young  man  of 
tender  years  to  carve  out  a  future  for  himself.  By  application 
and  thrift  the  subject  of  this  sketch  procured  an  education  and 
took  up  the  profession  of  teaching.  Later  he  attended  the  Rush 
Medical  College,  from  which  he  graduated  in  February,  1889. 
Immediately  after  he  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  at 
Thorp,  Wis.,  and  with  the  exception  of  one  year  he  practiced 
there  continuously  till  February,  1908.  During  the  one  year 
intervening  the  doctor  practiced  at  Portland,  Oregon. 

Seeking  a  larger  field.  Dr.  McKittrick  came  to  Eau  Claire 
from  Thorp  and  had  since  continuously  resided  and  practiced 
here.  He  was  alone  in  the  practice  here  until  February  1,  1910, 
when  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr.  E.  L.  Mason. 

The  doctor  had  been  ailing  for  several  months,  and  after  this 
prolonged  illness  he  died  December  17,  1913.  All  recognized  in 
Dr.  McKittrick  a  man  of  strong  character  and  kindly  disposition 
— the  kind  that  makes  the  world  better  and  brighter  for  their 
having  lived.  It  can  be  truthfully  said  that  Dr.  McKittrick 's 
existence  was  void  of  enmity.  His  traits  of  character  were  such 
as  to  endear  him  and  draw  him  closer  in  the  bonds  of  friendship 
to  those  who  formed  acquaintance  and  association  with  him. 
Thus  it  is  but  natural,  even  in  anticipation  of  the  inevitable,  that 
the  summons  would  bring  tears,  grief  and  sorrow  to  family, 
friends  and  acquaintances. 

Joseph  J.  Selbach,  M.  D.  Among  the  able  physicians  of  Eau 
Claire  county  whose  life  was  devoted  to  the  benevolent  work  of 


alleviating  the  sufferings  of  humanity  none  stood  more  prominent 
than  Dr.  Selbaeh.  A  native  of  Germany,  he  was  born  August  2, 
1864,  and  came  to  America  in  1883.  His  primary  education  was 
received  in  the  common  schools  of  Germany,  which  was  supple- 
mented by  a  thorough  course  at  the  University  of  Ann  Arbor, 
from  which  he  graduated  with  honor.  His  medical  education  was 
received  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  Chicago, 
from  which  institution  he  was  graduated  in  1887.  Upon  the 
arrival  of  Dr.  Selbaeh  in  this  country  he  came  to  Wisconsin, 
locating  at  Green  Bay  and  there  made  his  home  until  1888,  when 
he  moved  to  Eau  Claire  and  commenced  the  practice  of  medi- 
cine in  this  city.  A  man  of  culture  and  attainments,  he  possessed 
excellent  personal  qualities,  which  won  for  him  the  esteem  of 
all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact.  As  a  member  of  the  Inter- 
County  Medical  Society  he  was  often  called  upon  for  papers  on 
topics  of  interest  to  his  profession,  and  his  opinions  were  much 
valued  by  his  associates.  He  was  popular  in  the  social  circles  of 
Eau  Claire,  and  one  of  his  chief  diversions  was  fine  music,  both 
vocal  and  instrumental. 

Dr.  Selbaeh  was  a  leading  member  of  the  German  Catholic 
church,  a  member  of  the  Catholic  Order  of  Foresters,  also  the 
Catholic  Knights  of  Wisconsin  and  of  the  Equitable  Fraternal 
Union.  He  married  Mary  M.  Hedergott  at  Green  Bay,  Wis.,  and 
eight  children  were  born  to  them :  Joseph  W.,  William  J.,  August 
H.  was  drowned  at  the  age  of  eight  years,  Hubert  H.,  Cecelia  M., 
Amelia  M.,  Lucile  I.  and  Marie  A.  The  two  elder  sons,  Joseph  W. 
and  William  J.,  are  bright  and  promising  young  men,  holding 
positions  in  the  Union  National  Bank,  of  Eau  Claire.  Hubert  H. 
is  employed  at  the  International  Harvester  Company  office  in  Eau 
Claire  as  bookkeeper. 

F.  R.  Skinner,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Utica,  New  York,  April  21, 
1831.  He  began  his  education  in  the  old  Utica  Academy,  was  at 
Clinton  Liberal  Institute  one  year,  Utica  Academy  five  or  six  years 
and  at  Springfield  Wesleyan  Academy  preparing  for  college.  He 
entered  Dartmouth  College  in  the  fall  of  1849  and  graduated  in 
1852.  He  then  went  to  Castleton,  Vermont,  to  study  medicine, 
and  graduated  in  1854.  He  attended  a  course  of  medical  lec- 
tures in  New  York  City,  and  after  reading  awhile  with  Professor 
.Goldsmith  and  also  Dr.  Bodd,  of  Utica,  he  took  a  general  tour  of 
the  West  and  Southwest.  He  located  at  Stevens  Point  in  the  fall 
of  1855,  was  taken  sick  in  the  spring  of  1856  and  returned  to 
New  York.  He  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  1857,  spending  a  few 
months  in  Stillwater,  Minnesota,  learning  the  banking  business. 


In  the  interim  he  built  aud  started  a  drug  store  in  Eau  Claire, 
wliirli  he  ran  till  the  spring  of  1869,  when  he  sold  out  to  Farr, 
Freneli  &  Co.     He  died  March  1,  1904. 

Dr.  Arthur  Thrane,  M.  D.,  came  to  Eau  Claire  in  November, 
1875,  and  has  since  been  engaged  in  the  practice  of  medicine  here. 
He  was  born  in  Norway,  January  26,  1844,  and  came  to  America 
in  April,  1865.  Remaining  in  New  York  one  year  he  came  to 
Chicago  and  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Paoli, 
and  graduated  from  Rush  Medical  College  in  1868,  beginning  his 
practice  in  Chicago. 

Christian  H.  U.  Midelfart,  M.  D.,  a  prominent  and  successful 
physician  of  Eau  Claire,  was  born  in  Christiania,  Norway,  August 
5,  1865,  the  son  of  Peter  A.  aud  Nicolena  (Solberg)  Midelfart. 
He  was  reared  to  manhood  in  his  native  country,  received  his 
classical  education  in  private  schools  and  his  medical  education 
was  obtained  in  the  University  of  Norway  at  Christiania,  where 
he  was  graduated  in  1892.  In  1893  he  came  to  the  United  States 
and  located  in  Eau  Claire,  where  he  has  since  succeeded  in  build- 
ing up  a  large  and  lucrative  practice,  second  to  none  in  this  sec- 
tion of  the  state,  and  is  widely  known  as  one  of  the  leading  mem- 
bers of  his  profession.  He  was  the  first  member  of  his  family  to 
emigrate  to  the  United  States.  He  was  married  in  1898  to  Mar- 
garet,  daughter   of  Rev.   Ilalvard  and   (Helberg) 

Hande,  of  Chicago,  Illinois,  who  were  formerly  of  Norway.  Her 
father  was  a  clergyman  of  the  Lutheran  church  and  after  com- 
ing to  the  United  States  preached  the  gospel  for  several  years, 
and  later  engaged  in  newspaper  work  for  the  Norden  Newspaper, 
published  in  Chicago,  and  was  considered  one  of  the  best  Nor- 
wegian penmen  in  the  Ignited  States.  Dr.  Midelfart  and  wife 
are  the  parents  of  eight  children :  Anna  L.,  Margaret  E.,  Dangny 
N.,  Peter  A.,  Christian  F.,  Ingeborg,  Elise  and  Signe.  The  doctor 
is  a  member  of  the  Eau  Claire  County  Medical  Society,  of  which 
he  served  one  term  as  president,  the  Wisconsin  State  Medical 
Society,  the  American  Medical  Association  and  the  Norwegian 
Physicians'  Society.  He  was  one  of  the  directors  of  the  Luther 
Hospital,  aud  is  at  the  head  of  the  medical  and  surgical  staff  of 
that  institution.  He  occupies  a  prominent  place  in  social  circles 
of  the  city  aud  in  politics  is  affiliated  with  the  democratic  party. 

Roy  E.  Mitchell,  M.  D.,  of  Eau  Claire,  has  attained  the  front 
rank  among  the  members  of  his  profession  in  the  city.  He  was 
born  at  Porter's  Mills,  this  county,  March  17,  1876,  a  son  of 
Squire  F.  and  Laura  (Mcintosh)  Mitchell,  natives  of  the  state 
of  New  York  and  Maine  respectively.    His  paternal  grandfather. 


Samuel  Mitchell,  whose  wife  was  Adaline  Lombard,  settled  iu 
the  town  of  Brunswick,  Eau  Claire  county,  in  1871.  He  was  a 
lumberman  and  farmer,  cleared  and  improved  a  farm  in  that  town 
and  died  there.  His  maternal  grandfather,  Benjamin  G.  Mcin- 
tosh, a  native  of  Maine,  with  his  wife,  Lydia,  were  also  pioneers 
of  the  town  of  Brunswick,  where  they  settled  in  1864,  cleared  a 
part  of  a  farm  of  200  acres  and  resided  in  the  town  until  his 
death  in  May,  1913,  aged  eighty-nine  years.  He  was  a  prominent 
man  of  affairs  and  served  as  a  member  of  the  county  board  several 
terms.  Squire  F.  Mitchell,  father  of  our  subject,  was  born  in 
Allegany  county.  New  York,  November  4,  1851,  and  attended 
the  common  schools  of  liis  native  state  until  fifteen  years  of  age. 
He  came  to  Eau  Claire  county  in  1871  and  entered  the  employ 
of  the  Daniel  Shaw  Lumber  Company,  Avhich  was  the  commence- 
ment of  his  career,  details  of  which  are  more  fully  given  in  his 
sketch  to  be  found  elsewhere  in  this  work. 

Dr.  Mitchell  was  reared  in  his  native  town,  received  his  educa- 
tion in  the  schools  of  Eau  Claire  and  graduated  from  the  medical 
department  of  tlie  University  of  Minnesota  in  the  class  of  1901. 
He  served  as  interne  and  chief  of  staff  of  the  Metropolitan  (B.  I.) 
Hospital,  New  York  City,  for  one  and  a  half  years,  and  in  the 
New  York  state  service  at  Middletown,  New  York,  nine  years. 
In  August,  1911,  he  located  at  Eau  Claire  and  has  since  built  up 
a  lucrative  practice.  He  was  married  September  1,  1908,  to 
Emily,  daughter  of  John  Dean  and  Lucy  (Talcott)  Judson,  of 
Vernon,  New  York,  and  has  two  children:  Marjorie  D.